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Zion's Camp
Active 1834
Allegiance Mormon Militia
Type Infantry
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Hyrum Smith (1800-1844)
Lyman Wight (1796-1858)

This Judith Mehr rendition depicts struggles endured by members of Zion's Camp, an expeditionary force to help Church members in Jackson County redeem their brethren.

LDS Pioneer home in 1831 (1881 engraving, artist unknown)

Zion's Camp was an expedition of over 250 Latter Day Saints, led by their prophet leader, Joseph Smith (1805-1844), and marched from Kirtland, Ohio to Clay County, Missouri during May and June 1834 in an unsuccessful attempt to regain land from which the church members had been expelled by non-Mormon settlers. In Latter Day Saint belief, this land had been destined to become a city of Zion, the center of the Millennial kingdom; and Smith dictated a command from God ordering him to lead his church like a modern Moses to redeem Zion "by power, and with a stretched-out arm."

Overview[]

One of the most interesting episodes in the early history of LDS Church was the march of Zions Camp. The members of the Church living in Zion, Missouri were being persecuted, and the Prophet Joseph made it a matter of prayer and received a revelation on February 24, 1834. The members of the church living in Missouri had suffered great deprivations there in the prior year, losing both real and personal property and livestock. The Lord instructed the Prophet to assemble at least one hundred young and middle-aged men and to go to the land of Zion, or Missouri. (See D&C 103:19–34.)

The church spent about 3 months gathering together a group of men sufficient to make the trek. Joseph's group would start out from Ohio. His brother, Hyrum Smith (1800-1844), was organizing another group in Pontiac, Michigan. Zion’s Camp, a group of approximately one hundred and fifty men, gathered at Kirtland, Ohio, in the spring of 1834 and marched to Jackson County, Missouri. By the time they reached Missouri, the camp had increased to approximately two hundred men.

The purpose of the trek was to join the Saints in Missouri and buy lands in Jackson County and surrounding counties and retrieve those lands taken by the mobs who had dispossessed the Missouri Saints of considerable of their property. Upon reaching Missouri, and after extensive negotiations with Governor Dunklin failed to produce results, it was felt advisable to disband Zion’s Camp and await some future opportunity for the redemption of Zion.

The “journey of Zion’s Camp” was regarded by many as an unprofitable and unsuccessful episode. A brother in Kirtland who did not go with the camp, meeting Brigham Young (1801-1877) upon his return, said to him, “Well, what did you gain on this useless journey to Missouri with Joseph Smith?” “All we went for,” replied Brigham Young. “I would not exchange the experience I gained in that expedition for all the wealth of Geauga County,” the county in which Kirtland was then located. (B. H. Roberts, “Brigham Young, A Character Sketch,” Improvement Era, vol. 6 [June 1903], p. 567.)

The journey covered more than one thousand miles and there were dissensions within and hostile demonstrations from without. There were hardships and disappointments, but these experiences had real value because from this group many became the leaders in the exodus of 12,000 people from Missouri to Nauvoo, Illinois, and then later many became leaders in the great western exodus from Nauvoo to the Salt Lake Valley.

In February 1835 those brethren who had accompanied the Prophet Joseph to Missouri as members of Zion’s Camp were called together, and from their numbers the Quorum of the Twelve and the Seventies were chosen, including 9 of the 12 Apostles and all 70 inaugural members of the First Quorum of the Seventy as well as all prophets of the Church for the next 60 years.

Joseph Smith explained that the trials and tribulations endured by the members of Zion’s Camp were not in vain, and it was the will of God “that those who went to Zion, with a determination to lay down their lives, if necessary, should be ordained to the ministry, and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time.” (Documentary History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 182.)

Zion Settlement[]

Zion Settlement was a small, short-lived village of early members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located near Independence, Missouri in Jackson County, Missouri. The church believes that this spot will be the central spot for building of the kingdom of God ("Zion" or "New Jerusalem") in the latter-days per revelation given to the prophet, Joseph Smith (1805-1844). The settlement collapsed in 1833 when angry anti-Mormon mobs drove the settlers out of the county.

Unit History[]

ZionsCampMap1.png

Timeline[]

Some days, the Camp would march as much as 40 miles.

  • 24 Feb: Revelation (D&C 103 given to Joseph Smith
  • 09 May: Departure of main body from Kirtland, Ohio.
  • 15 May: Springfield, Ohio - Joseph "senses death" near Wyandott indian settlements.
  • 17 May: Crossed stateline into Indiana and pick the "National Road", the superhighway of their time, which they follow the rest of the way west.
  • 21 May: Indianapolis - Camp passes thru unmolested despite significant threats
  • 25 May: Camp enters Illinois and after crossing the Embarrass River encounters some rattlesnakes
  • 03 Jun: Passed by "Zelph's Mound", burial site of a great Nephite warrior. This area will provide shelter to the saints escaping Missouri persecutions in late 1839.
  • 05 Jun: Crossing of the Mississippi River into Missouri
  • 06 Jun: Salt River Camp reached by the Ohio group
  • 08 Jun: The Michigan group joins the Ohio group at Salt River Camp. Also joined by members of the Allred Family living here. The group now numbers 205 men, 11 women, 7 children and 25 baggage wagons.
  • 19 Jun: Camp reaches Excelsior Springs, adjacent to the Fishing River. The Saints are rescued from defeat by a large mob numbering over 330 by sudden violent thunderstorm. [1]
  • 22 Jun: Fishing River Revelation received (D&C 105]) Instructs the Saints not to pursue the redemption of Zion at this time. After the Missouri governor withdrew his promise to support the Saints, Joseph Smith received this revelation.
  • 23 Jun: Move forward to Liberty, Missouri and camps in the field of Brother Burkett next to Rush Creek.
  • 24 Jun: Severe plague of cholera afflicts the camp, 13 men die. It is announced that Zion's Camp will be disbanded without a fight.
  • 03 Jul: Joseph Smith organizes a stake presidency and high council to oversee the church in Clay County, Missouri.


Background[]

The Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith (1805-1844), had previously received a revelation (D&C 57:1-3) in 1831 that designated Jackson County, Missouri as the future Zion or central gathering place of the newly organized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). A great many of his followers moved to help settle this area but friction with the old settlers arose and they violently forced the Mormons from their lands and destroyed much of their homes and crops.

Camp Recruitment[]

The Prophet, received several revelations on the subject of helping the church in Missouri. The first, D&C 101 (16 Dec 1833), instructed the saints to petition the Missouri Governor for redress to punish criminals and to restore their property. After the Saints failed to get help from the state government , Joseph received another revelation D&C 103 (24 Feb 1834) directing him to raise a group of men from their Ohio colony to help rescue and protect their Missouri brethren.

It is my will that my servant Parley P. Pratt and my servant Lyman Wight should not return to the land of their brethren, until they have obtained companies to go up unto the land of Zion, by tens, or by twenties, or by fifties, or by an hundred, until they have obtained to the number of five hundred of the strength of my house. Behold this is my will; ask and ye shall receive; but men do not always do my will. Therefore, if you cannot obtain five hundred, seek diligently that peradventure you may obtain three hundred. And if ye cannot obtain three hundred, seek diligently that peradventure ye may obtain one hundred. But verily I say unto you, a commandment I give unto you, that ye shall not go up unto the land of Zion until you have obtained a hundred of the strength of my house, to go up with you unto the land of Zion. D&C 103:30-34

Several early leaders were instructed to help organize and recruit volunteers for this camp pursuant to the revelation in D&C 103.

Let my servant Parley P. Pratt journey with my servant Joseph Smith, Jun. Let my servant Lyman Wight journey with my servant Sidney Rigdon. Let my servant Hyrum Smith journey with my servant Frederick G. Williams. Let my servant Orson Hyde journey with my servant Orson Pratt, whithersoever my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., shall counsel them, in obtaining the fulfilment of these commandments which I have given unto you, and leave the residue in my hands. Even so. Amen. D&C 103:37-40


Camp Organization[]

On 01 May 1834, the volunteers began to assemble at the appointed starting place, New Portage, Ohio, a small town located about 50 miles southwest of the church headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio. By May 7th about 150 men were assembled, they were joined by their prophet-leader, other key leaders appointed and they began the journey to Western Missouri. Additional men would later join them bringing their numbers to about 220.

A second contingent was organized at Pontiac, Michigan where several of the brethren were relatives by blood or marriage to Lucy Mack (1775-1856), the mother of the Prophet Joseph. Her brother Stephen Mack (1766-1826) was a founder of the town here and many if his family were converted by Lucy to the Church.

They were organized into small companies of about 12 men each. Within each company the men picked their own captain and all others were assigned duties: two cooks, two firemen, two tentmakers, two watermen, two wagoners, one runner, one commissary.

March to Missouri[]

The distance marched was about 770 miles (New Portage OH to Fishing Creek, MO).

Salt River Encampment[]

On 07 Jun 1834, the band arrived in Salt River at James Allred (1784-1876)’s home and stayed several days to rest and replenish. The next day the camp was joined by a group recruited from Mormon branches in Michigan by his brother Hyrum Smith (1800-1844) and Lyman Wight. Combined, they involved two hundred and five men. James Allred and nine of his relatives were called by the Prophet to be members of Zion’s Camp.

Just prior to their arrival at Salt River (03 Jun 1834), Heber C Kimball recorded an interesting prophecy from Joseph, that promised a plaque on the camp because of the friction and unbrotherly spirit manifested by a number of its members.

While at Salt River, Parley Pratt and Orson Hyde were dispatched to take another petition to Gov. Dunklin.

Fishing River Battle[]

On 19 Jun 1834, Zions Camp passed peacefully through Richmond, Missouri despite many threats to disrupt the march there. Two days later (21 Jun 1834) they reached their final destination at Fishing River.

Sometime after their arrival the group was disbanded, some stayed in Missouri and many returned to their homes.

Clay County Cholera Epidemic[]

Zions Camp Monument at Mound Grove Cemetery in Independence MO.

Forced to close their Missouri store and move all the goods out of the area, the Gilberts and Rollin's moved across the Missouri River to a location near Excelsior Springs in Clay County, Missouri. It was there (late June 1834) that Algernon Sidney Gilbert (1789-1834) and his family met Zion's Camp and welcomed them onto his property as they made their way westward in order to assist the beleaguered Saints. When the cholera epidemic hit the camp, Algernon was felled by the dreaded disease. His nephew, James Henry Rollins (1816-1899) was one of those who assisted in the burial of the victims.

From the autobiography of Mary Elizabeth Rollins (1818-1913):

Many of the brethren stopped with us, including the Prophet Joseph, his brothers, Hyrum and William; and Jesse Smith, their cousin, also Luke and Lyman E. Johnson. When the cholera broke out among the camp, Uncle Gilbert, (who was preparing to go on a mission) was among the first to die, then Jesse Smith. There were five who died at Uncle's, and nine at a neighbor's by the name of Burgett, this was in the month of June. The dead were rolled in blankets and consigned to the grave, as the people were so frightened they would do nothing for us, and our brethren were bowed down with sorrow for the loss of their friends, and almost despaired of seeing an end of the plague. But the Lord saw fit to heal the most of those who had come up in the camp, and there were not many deaths after the Prophet Joseph had administered to them. Uncle died on the 29th of June, 1834; shortly after, the camp left for their homes in Kirtland.

About 68 people at the camp were stricken with cholera. Fifteen died and were buried beside Rush Creek southeast of Liberty, Missouri in Clay county. The remains of three of these victims were discovered in 1958 and were reburied here (Mound Grove Cemetery) in 1976.

Casualties from the Cholera[]

Zions Camp Monument at Mound Grove Cemetery - Independence MO.

There were 14 marchers lost (plus store owner, Uncle Gilbert) per Mary Rollins Journal:

  1. John Sims Carter (1797-1834) - first casualty, died 25 June 1834.
  2. Alfred Fisk (1806-1834) - died 29 June 1834 in the arms of his father, Hezekiah.
  3. Algernon Sidney Gilbert (1789-1834) - died 29 June 1834. Joint owner in Whitney & Gilbert store in early Kirtland, Ohio and had gone in 1831 to open a store in Independence, Missouri where he served as bishop's agent for the church. Not part of the camp put awaiting camp's arrival in Missouri.
  4. Seth Hitchcock (1802-1834) - died 25 June, become sick just minutes after John Sims died.
  5. Seth Warren Ingalls (1798-1834) -
  6. Edward Ives - nothing known on background
  7. Noah Johnson (1804-1834) -
  8. Jesse Lawson (1798-1834) - died 29 June
  9. Robert McCord (1811-1834) - married, age 23, only one month before his death.
  10. Phebe Murdock (1828-1834) - six year old daughter of the widowed pioneer John Murdock (1792-1871). He had sent her and her two older siblings to Missouri in 1832 to live with Bishop Partridge for their support. Their family reunion here was both brief and tragic.
  11. Elizabeth Patten (1797-1834) (AKA: Betsy Parrish) - wife of Warren Parrish and sister of David Patten (below), died 27 June.
  12. Erastus Harper Rudd (1787-1834) - died 26 June, left behind a widow with 13 children. She would marry fellow camper, Joseph Hancock (1800-1893), who would be a prominent pioneer to help settle Utah.
  13. Jessie Johnson Smith (1808-1834) - Cousin to the Joseph and Hyrum
  14. Eliel Strong (1800-1834) - died 26 June
  15. Eber Wilcox - nothing known on background

Stories from the March[]

George Albert Smith (1817-1875) related how the group wanted to keep secret the nature and intention of their big group. Residents along the way were quite concerned about such a large group marching past their homes. This is how they responded to inquiries from strangers:

"My boy, where are you from?" "From the east." "Ware are you going?" "To the west." "What for?" "To see where we can get land cheapest and the best." "Who leads the camp?" "Sometimes one, sometimes another." "What name?" "Captain Wallace, Major Bruce, Orson Hyde, James Allred, etc."

The people not unfrequently, however, began to suspect that they were Mormons and many times this band was threatened and harassed. Even spies were sent to sneak into camp. Threats to block their passage thru Illinois and Indiana came to naught.

Parley Pratt , the Chief recruitment officer of the camp tells the story of how an angel protected him as he was returning to the group from a long recruitment trip.

He stopped along the road at about noon, being very tired from all of his travels: "...I sank down, overpowered with a deep sleep, and might have lain in a state of oblivion till the shades of night had gathered about me, so completely was I exhausted for the want of sleep and rest; but I had only slept a few moments till the horse had grazed sufficiently, when a voice, more loud and shrill than I had ever before heard, fell upon my ear, and thrilled through every part of my system, it said: 'Parley, it is time to be up and on your journey.' "In the twinkling of an eye I was perfectly aroused, I sprang to my feet so suddenly that I could not at first recollect where I was, or what was before me to perform. I afterwards related the circumstance to Brother Joseph Smith, and he bore testimony that it was the angel of the Lord who went before the camp, who found me overpowered with sleep, and thus awoke me."

After crossing the Illinois River, the camp passed several of the large Indian mounds in that area. At one of these mounds they found the bones of an Indian with a arrowhead between his ribs. Here the prophet Joseph had a vision wherein he named this man Zelph and called him a righteous white Lamanite warrior who was slain here.


Notable Leaders[]


Members of the Camp[]

Zionscamp04.jpg

A[]

  1. Aldrich, Hazen (1797-1873) (0-?) - first LDS missionary to Lower Canada (1836), ordained first president of the Severty in 1835, After the death of Joseph Smith, Aldrich went on to lead a breakaway sect known as the Brewsterites.
  2. Allen, Joseph S (1806-1889) (0-?) - married daughter of Isaac Morley (1786-1865) and assiste d him with LDS settlements in Sanpete County, Utah.
  3. Allred, Isaac (1813-1 859) - son of James, 1847 leader of Little Pigeon refugee camp, with several sons in the Mormon Battalion and 1856 Handcart rescue.
  4. Allred, James (1784-1876) (0-6) - homeowner of Allred Settlement at Salt River, MO
  5. Allred, Martin C (1806-1840) - son of James
  6. Andrus, Milo (1814-1893) (1-6) - led three pioneer wagon trains to Utah, a Bishop in Nauvoo, a Stake President in St. Louis, and later Quorum of the Seventy.
  7. Angell, Solomon (1806-1881) (0-6) - 1st quorum of seventy. Brother of Truman O Angell, later chief architect of the LDS Church.
  8. Allen A. Avery - no info?

B[]

  1. Babbitt, Almon W (1812-1856) (0-6) - inaugural member of 1st Qourum of Seventy, president of Kirtland Ohio Stake (LDS) 1841-1843, represented church in many governmental affairs, first treasurer/secretary for Utah Territory, killed by Cheyenne indians in Nebraska.
  2. Badlam, Alexander (1809-1894) (0-6) - inaugural member of the 1st Quorum of Seventy, Member Council of Fifty and early branch president in Boston MA.
  3. Samuel Baker - oldest volunteer in camp, age 79.
  4. Nathan Bennett Baldwin (1812-1891) (0-6)- First Quorum of the Seventy and later traveled west to Utah. Made detail account of the experiences of Zions Camp.
  5. Elam Barber - no info ???
  6. Israel Barlow (1806-1883) (0-6) - 1st quorum of seventy, missionary to England, help settle Nauvoo, IL and Bountiful UT.
  7. Lorenzo Dow Barnes (1812-1842) (0-6) - 1st missionary of church to die in service in a foreign land, 1st quorum of seventy, fulfilled two missions for church.
  8. Edson Barney (1806-1905) (0-6) - 1st quorum of seventy, missionary to Las Vegas, Utah pioneer. Brother of Royal.
  9. Royal Barney (1808-1890) (0-6) - 1st quorum of seventy, Utah pioneer.
  10. Henry Benner (1800-1880) - 1st quorum of seventy, brother died at Haun's Mill.
  11. Samuel Bent (1778-1846) - Later appointed to Far West High Council, Nauvoo High Council, "President" of Garden Grove.
  12. Hiram Blackman (1804-1895) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, went to Nauvoo, stayed in Indiana.
  13. Lorenzo Dow Booth (1807-1847) - 1st Quorum of Seventy
  14. George W. Brooks (1808-1887) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, eventually moved to Texas.
  15. Albert Brown (1807-1902) - Veteran of Mormon Battalion and a Utah Patriarh.
  16. Harry Brown (1808-1852) - recruited future prophet Wilford Woodruff into the camp. Original member of 1st Quorum of Seventy. Only G.A. to die in the 1852 steamboat Saluda tragedy. His daughter Sarah Brown (1834-1909) later married Wilford as a plural wife.
  17. Samuel Brown (1801-1882) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, only General Authority of the Church to be killed by indians.
  18. John Brownell
  19. Peter Buchanan (1798-aft1866) - 1st Quorum of Seventy,
  20. Alden Burdick (1803-1845) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, died in Nauvoo, later his family joined the trek west to Utah.
  21. Harrison Burgess (1814-1883) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, joined trek to Utah.
  22. David Byur

C[]

  1. William Farrington Cahoon (1813-1893) - Followed saints to Utah, Inaugural member of 1st Quorum of Seventy
  2. John Carpenter
  3. John Sims Carter (1797-1834) -former Baptist preacher and just barely appointed to the first high council in Kirtland with his brother. He put aside a mission call to assist Zions Camp. He was the first to die of the cholera epidemic that swept the camp
  4. Daniel Cathcart
  5. Alonzo Champlin
  6. Jacob Chapman -little known, Member of 1st Quorum of Seventy, and part of 2nd group to march to Missouri in 1838, disappears after that persecution.
  7. William Cherry
  8. John Madison Chidester (1809-1893) - traveled with wife and two little children (see below). Endured all the trials of the trek to Utah. Served as Mayor in Palmyra, Utah and as Presiding Elder in Spanish Fork, Utah.
  9. Alden Childs - 1843 reported doing by Times & Seasons doing missionary work in Jefferson County, but had left the church by 1864.
  10. Nathaniel Childs - No info?
  11. Stephen Childs - No info?
  12. Albert Clements (1801-1883) - traveled with wife (below) in Orson Hyde's Company. Later settled in Utah.
  13. Thomas Colborn
  14. Alanson Colby
  15. Zera Smith Cole (1805-1886) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, completed trek west to Utah.
  16. Zebedee Coltrin (1804-1887) - President of Seventy - 1st Council of Seventy, completed trek to Utah.
  17. Lebbeus T. Coons (1811-1872) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, Bishop in Mills County, Iowa, completed trek to Utah.
  18. Horace Cowan
  19. Lyman Curtis (1812-1898) - married Charlotte Alvord, one of the women in the camp (see below), just 30 days after the camp arrived in Clay County, Missouri. This couple followed the trek west to Utah. Lyman and his sister originated in Michigan.
  20. Mecham Curtis - background unknown (Mecham is the maiden name for Lyman and Sophronia's mother, but no other genealogical link has been found.)

D[]

  1. Solomon Wilbur Denton (1816-1864) - Joined camp from Pontiac MI. Later bodyguard to Joseph and married Joseph's cousin. But then excommunicated in 1839 for alleged plot to kill him. Moved back to Pontiac MI and later served in the US Civil War where he died from disease. (Michigan relative of Lucy Mack Smith.)
  2. Peter Doff
  3. David Dort (1793-1841) - Served on Kirtland and Nauvoo High Council. (Michigan relative of Lucy Mack Smith.)
  4. John Duncan
  5. James Dunn
  6. Philemon Duzette (1782-1834) - never made it back home from Zions Camp and is assumed to have died somewhere during the return journey.

E[]

  1. Philip Ettleman (1791-1854) - migrated to Utah.
  2. Bradford W. Elliot
  3. David Elliott (1799-1855) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, camp blacksmith.
  4. David Evans (1804-1883) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, Bishop of Nauvoo 11th Ward, Mayor and Bishop of Levi, Utah.

F[]

  1. John McKee Fausett (1804-1874) (70) - followed saints to Utah.
  2. Asa Field
  3. Edmund Fisher (1808-) (70) - became a presiding authority in the breakaway church of Alpheus Cutler (1783-1864).
  4. Alfred Fisk (1806-1834) (aka: Albert Fisk) - son of Hezekiah, he died of cholera on the march.
  5. Hezekiah Fisk (1775-1839) - died in 1839 Nauvoo.
  6. Elijah Fordham (1798-1879) - founder of first branch of LDS Church in NYC, missionary, most famous for his miraculous healing in 1839 at the hands of the Prophet in Montrose IA.
  7. George Fordham (1799-1835) - brother of Elijah (?), but died soon afterwards?
  8. Frederick Forney (1813-1880) -served in Mormon Battalion also.
  9. James Foster
  10. Solon Foster (1811-1896) - traveled west with Saints and helped to settle St. George, Utah.

G[]

  • Jacob Gates (1811-1892) - traveled with his wife Mary (below). Later one of seven presidents of the Seventy and joined trek west to Utah.
  • Benjamin Gifford - 14 YO Son of Levi?
  • Levi Gifford (1789-1860) - (70) Early convert, followed church west to Sanpete County, Utah.
  • Sherman Gilbert
  • Tru Glidden (70) - but later left the church.
  • Dean C. Gould - Not a member of the church, but was baptized by Lyman Wight during the trek as reported in the Times and Seasons. Later left the church.
  • Jedediah M. Grant (Age 18) - later LDS Missionary, President of Quorum of Seventy and LDS Apostle/Counselor to Pres. Young (1854-56). Father of Heber Jeddy Grant (1856-1945), 7th President of the LDS Church.
  • Addison Greene (1819-1892) (age 15) - Nephew of Brigham Young (1801-1877). Abducted by mobs in 1838 Missouri. He left the church sometime in 1840's.
  • Michael Griffith (70)
  • Everett Griswold
  • Elisha Groves

H[]

  • Joseph Hancock (1800-1893), brother of Levi, both called to the Quorum of Seventy in 1835. Joseph married the widow of Erastus Harper Rudd (1787-1834) who of the cholera died in this march. Joseph was a major pioneer of Utah settlements.
  • Levi Ward Hancock (1803-1882) - Later was the only LDS General Authority (president of the Seventy) who joined The Mormon Battalion and was thus the primary spiritual leader of that group.
  • Joseph Harmon (70) (aka: Jesse Harmon)
  • Henry Herriman (70)
  • Martin Harris (1783-1875) - one of the Three Witnesses. Subsequently appointed to Kirtland High Council.
  • Joseph Hartshorn
  • Thomas Hayes
  • Nelson Higgins (70)
  • Seth Hitchcock (1802-1834) - (from Warsaw, New York) Only just 30 minutes after J. Carter died from the cholera, Seth became violently ill and died quickly.
  • Amos Hogers
  • Chandler Holbrook (1807-1889) - younger brother of Joseph, also marched with his wife and a baby girl.
  • Joseph Holbrook (1806-1885) traveled with wife and two baby girls. Later settled with a large family in Bountiful, Utah where he became in 1852 chief justice of Davis County, Utah. Made detail account of the experiences of Zions Camp.
  • Milton Holmes
  • Osmon Houghton - traveled with his wife (see below)
  • Marshal Hubbard
  • Solomon Humphrey
  • Joseph Huntsman (70)
  • John Hustin
  • Elias Hutchins (70)
  • Heman T. Hyde (70)
  • Hyde, Orson (1805-1878) - Future LDS Apostle noted for his famous trip in 1841 across Europe to Jerusalem.

I[]

J[]

  • William Jessop
  • Luke Johnson (1807-1861) - called to Original Quorum of 12 Apostles, several missionary trips 1833-1836.
  • Lyman Johnson (1811-1859) - called to Original Quorum of 12 Apostles, several missionary trips 1833-1836, excommunicated in 1838, brother of Luke.
  • Noah Johnson (1804-1834) - died from camp cholera epidemic at Rush Creek.
  • Seth Johnson
  • Isaac Jones
  • Levi Jones

K[]

L[]

  • Dennis Lake
  • Jesse Lawson (1798-1834) - died from the camp cholera epidemic at Rush Creek
  • L.S. Lewis
  • Josiah Littlefield
  • Lyman O. Littlefield
  • Waldo Littlefield
  • Amasa M. Lyman (70)

M[]

  • Moses Martin (70)
  • Edward W. Marvin
  • Reuben McBride
  • Robert McCord (1811-1834) - living at the Salt River church branch with the family of James Allred (1784-1876), he got married during the march, but then died one month later in the cholera epidemic that swept the camp.
  • Eleazer Miller
  • John Miller
  • Justin Morse
  • John Murdock (1792-1871) - gave adopted twins to Joseph, later bishop in Nauvoo and Salt Lake City.

N[]

  • Freeman Nickerson
  • Levi S. Nickerson
  • Uriah C. Nickerson
  • Joseph Nicholas
  • Joseph B. Noble (70)
  • Uriah North

O[]

  • Roger Orton (70)

P[]

R[]

  • Charles C. Rich (Future apostle)
  • Leonard Rich
  • Darwin Richardson (70)
  • Burr Riggs (70)
  • Harpin Riggs (70)
  • Nathaniel Riggs
  • Milcher Riley
  • Alanson Ripley
  • Lewis Robbins (70)
  • Erastus Harper Rudd (1787-1834) - died june 27 of the cholera, leaving behind a widow with 13 children.

S[]

  • William Henry Sagers
  • Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury (1809-1853) - husband of Joseph's younger sister, Katherine Smith (1813-1900), he was ordained to the 1st Quorum of the Seventy in 1835 and excommunicated in 1836 for unchristianlike behavior.
  • Henry Sherman
  • Lyman Royal Sherman (1804-1839) - Subject of D&C 108 given in 1835. Died during mob persecution in Far West, Missouri, unawares that he had been called to the Quorum of Twelve Apostles.
  • Henry Shibley (70)
  • Cyrus Smalling (70)
  • Avery Smith
  • George Albert Smith (1817-1875) - age 16, youngest man in camp, slept in tent with his uncle, Joseph Smith, and heard much of his council and instruction. Five year later he was ordained an apostle and later served as a counselor to Brigham Young. He recorded many camp experiences.
  • Hyrum Smith (1800-1844) - brother of Prophet Joseph, camp leader
  • Jessie Johnson Smith (1808-1834) - Cousin to Joseph and Hyrum / died from cholera epidemic in Clay County.
  • Joseph Smith (1805-1844) - The Mormon Prophet-Leader
  • Lyman Smith (70)
  • Sylvester Smith
  • William B Smith (1811-1893) - Brother of the Prophet, 1835 called as one of the original 12 apostles, 1845 called as 3rd patriarch of the church. Excommunicated in 1845 and follows RLDS Church.
  • Zechariah B. Smith (70)
  • Willard Trowbridge Snow (1811-1853) - first quorum of seventy. Died from malaria contracted after a mob attack in Denmark while serving as president of the LDS Scandinavian Mission. First LDS missionary to die overseas. Marched here with sister and brother.
  • Zerubbabel Levi Snow (1809-1888) (Commissary General of Zions Camp) - 1st quorum of seventy, followed church west to Utah. Attorney General of Utah Territory 1869-1888.
  • Harvey Stanley (70)
  • Hyrum Stratton (70)
  • Daniel Stephens (70)
  • Eliel Strong (1800-1834) - died from the cholera plaque in Missouri.

T[]

  • John Joshua Tanner
  • Nathan Tanner
  • Ezra Thayer (1791-1862) - served several missions for the church, but eventually moved to Michigan after the death of Joseph.
  • James L. Thompson
  • Samuel Thompson
  • William. P. Tippetts
  • Tinney Thomas
  • Nelson Tribbs

V[]

  • Joel Vaughn

W[]

  • Salmon Warner (70)
  • William Weden
  • Elias Wells
  • Alexander Whiteside (70)
  • Andrew Hiram Whitlock (1805-1865) - Allred Relative - joined camp at Salt River Branch.
  • Lyman Wight (1796-1858) - military commander of Zions Camp
  • Eber Wilcox (?-1834) - died from cholera plaque in Missouri, nothing known of background
  • Sylvester B. Wilkinson
  • Frederick G. Williams
  • Alonzo Winchester
  • Benjamin Winchester
  • Lupton Winchester
  • Stephen Winchester (70) - Company Captain.
  • Alvin Winegar
  • Samuel Winegar
  • Hiram Winters (1805-1889) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, completed trek to Utah.
  • Henry Wissmiller
  • Wilford Woodruff (1807-1898) - 1st Quorum of Seventy, famous Mormon missionary, LDS Apostle and 4th President of the LDS Church

Y[]

  • Brigham Young (1801-1877) - Later a LDS Apostle and successor to Joseph Smith as 2nd President of the LDS Church
  • Joseph Young (1797-1881) - older brother to Brigham, afterwards called by Joseph Smith as one of the Seven Presidents of the First Quorum of Seventy.

Women and Children[]

  1. Charlotte Iris Alvord (1815-1879)- married Lyman Curtis, (see above), just 30 days after the camp arrived in Clay County, Missouri.
  2. Mary Chidester (1809-1879) - wife of John M Chidester (above) with two children:
    1. John Peck Chidester (1831-1897) - two year old boy
    2. Eunice Emily Chidester (1833-1905) - infant of less than 12 months old.
  3. Ada Clements - wife of Albert Clements (above).
  4. Sophronia Curtis (1810-1850) - sister of Lyman Curtis, she died at Winter Quarters while preparing to trek west to Utah. (Some records erroneously list her as wife of Mecham Curtis, no relation.)
  5. Diantha Drake (1815-1889) - unattached single sister (age 18).
  6. Mary Minerva Snow (1813-1891) - (Mary Snow Gates) - young bride of Jacob Gates (1811-1892), later one of the seven presidents of the seventy. Sister to the Snow brothers above.
  7. Eunice Dunning (1810-1890) - wife of Chandler Holbrook (1807-1889) and sister-in-law to Nancy.
    1. Diana Eliza Holbrook (1833-1906) - (daughter of Chandler Holbrook)
  8. Nancy Lampson (1804-1842) - wife of Joseph Holbrook (1806-1885)
    1. Sarah Lucretia Holbrook (1832-1869) (daughter of Joseph Holbrook)
    2. Charlotte Holbrook (1833-1866) (daughter of Joseph Holbrook)
  9. Mrs. Houghton
  10. Elizabeth Patten (1797-1834) (AKA: Betsy Parrish) - wife of Warren Parrish / sister of David Patten, she died of the cholera epidemic.
  11. Sarah Pulsipher (daughter of Zera Pulsipher (1789-1832))
  12. Mrs Ripley
  13. Almira Winegar (daughter of Samuel Winegar)

Reflections[]

Commentary on Zions Camp:

Future Leaders of the Church[]

Many of the participants of Zions Camp were called to positions of leadership in the church the following year.

1869 Zions Camp Reunion[]

Many members of the original group attended a reunion in Salt Lake City on 09 Oct 1869.

References[]

Further Reading[]

  • Zions Camp at Fishing River - LDS Church Historic Sites
  • Wikipedia List of Participants
  • Missouri Persecutions - B.H. Roberts - Source notes for LDS History of the Church
  • The Eternal Perspective of Zions Camp by James L Bradley - (Pulb 2004).
  • Zion's Camp 1834: Prelude to the Civil War by James L Bradley - (Pulb 1990).
  • History of Joseph Smith by his Mother by Lucy Mack Smith - Formatted for easy reading on the Kindle and other ereading devices, with internal links to scriptures cited and footnotes.
  • Saints Ch 18- Camp of Israel - History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
  • Insights into Zion's Camp -
  • D&C 101 (16 Dec 1833) - First revelation about redemption of Zion. Revelation given to Joseph Smith the Prophet, at Kirtland, Ohio, December 16 and 17, 1833. At this time the Saints who had gathered in Missouri were suffering great persecution. Mobs had driven them from their homes in Jackson County; and some of the Saints had tried to establish themselves in Van Buren, Lafayette, and Ray Counties, but persecution followed them. The main body of the Saints was at that time in Clay County, Missouri. Threats of death against individuals of the Church were many. The Saints in Jackson County had lost household furniture, clothing, livestock, and other personal property; and many of their crops had been destroyed.
  • D&C 103 (24 Feb 1834) - Revelation with instructions to organize Zion's Camp. This revelation was received after the arrival in Kirtland, Ohio, of Parley P. Pratt and Lyman Wight, who had come from Missouri to counsel with the Prophet as to the relief and restoration of the Saints to their lands in Jackson County. (1–4, Why the Lord permitted the Saints in Jackson County to be persecuted; 5–10, The Saints will prevail if they keep the commandments; 11–20, The redemption of Zion will come by power, and the Lord will go before His people; 21–28, The Saints are to gather in Zion, and those who lay down their lives will find them again; 29–40, Various brethren are called to organize Zion’s Camp and go to Zion; they are promised victory if they are faithful.)
  • D&C 105 (22 June 1834) - Revelation given through Joseph Smith the Prophet, on Fishing River, Missouri, June 22, 1834. Under the leadership of the Prophet, Saints from Ohio and other areas marched to Missouri in an expedition later known as Zion’s Camp. Their purpose was to escort the expelled Missouri Saints back to their lands in Jackson County. Missourians who had previously persecuted the Saints feared retaliation from Zion’s Camp and preemptively attacked some Saints living in Clay County, Missouri. After the Missouri governor withdrew his promise to support the Saints, Joseph Smith received this revelation. (1–5, Zion will be built up by conformity to celestial law; 6–13, The redemption of Zion is deferred for a little season; 14–19, The Lord will fight the battles of Zion; 20–26, The Saints are to be wise and not boast of mighty works as they gather; 27–30, Lands in Jackson and adjoining counties should be purchased; 31–34, The elders are to receive an endowment in the house of the Lord in Kirtland; 35–37, Saints who are both called and chosen will be sanctified; 38–41, The Saints are to lift an ensign of peace to the world.)
  • Zion's Camp: Expedition to Missouri 1834 - by Roger Launius (Publ 1984).
  • Zion's Camp 1834: Prelude to the Civil War by James L Bradley (Publ 1990).
  • The Acceptable Offering of Zion's Camp

Videography[]

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