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Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky Rurik of Kiev, Grand Prince of Kiev, Prince of Rostov, Prince of Suzdal, was born circa 1090 to Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev (1053-1125) and Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098) and died 15 May 1157 of unspecified causes. He married Anna of Cumania (c1092-c1135) 12 January 1108 JL . He married Olga NN (c1120-c1183) . Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, the Byzantine Empire.

Yuri I Vladimirovich (Russian: Юрий Владимирович), known under his soubriquet Yuri Dolgoruky (Russian: Юрий Долгорукий, literally "Yuri the Long-Armed"; also known in various accounts as Gyurgi, Dyurgi, or George I of Rus), (c1090-15 May 1157) was a Rurikid prince and founder of the city of Moscow. He reigned as Veliki Knyaz (Grand Prince of Kiev) from September 1149 to April 1151 and then again from March 1155 to May 1157. Yuri played a key role in the transition of political power from Kiev to Suzdal following the death of his elder brother Mstislav the Great in 1132.

Problems in identifying birthdate

According to Vasily Tatishchev, Yuri was born in 1090 which would make him a son of Vladimir Monomakh's first wife Gytha of Wessex, a daughter of Harold Godwinson. However, according to the "Testament of Vladimir Monomakh" Yuri's mother died on May 7, 1107, while Gytha died on March 10 and probably in 1098. Thus, Yuri Vladimirovich could have been a son of his father's second wife Yefimiya and been born between 1095/97 and 1102.

Although his birth date is uncertain, some chronicles report that Yuri's elder brother, Vyacheslav, said to him: "I am much older than you; I was already bearded when you were born." Since Vyacheslav was born in 1083, this pushes Yuri's birth to c. 1099/1100.

The question of Yuri's birthday remains open. The date can be approximated to sometime in the 1090s.

Activities in Rostov and Suzdal

In 1108, Yuri was sent by his father to govern in his name the vast Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east of Kievan Rus'. In 1121, he quarreled with the boyars of Rostov and moved the capital of his principality from that city to Suzdal. Since then, the political role of Rostov has diminished noticeably. As the area was sparsely populated, Yuri constructed many fortresses there. He established the towns of Ksnyatin in 1134, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Yuryev-Polsky in 1152, and Dmitrov in 1154. The establishment of Tver, Kostroma, and Vologda is also popularly assigned to Yuri.

In 1120, Yuri led the campaign of Russian troops against the Volga Bulgars. Polovtsians also participated in the campaign .

Struggle for Kiev

For all the interest he took in fortifying his Northern lands, Yuri still coveted the throne of Kiev. It is his active participation in the Southern affairs that earned him the epithet of Dolgorukiy, "the far-reaching".

His elder brother Mstislav Vladimirovich died in 1132, and Yaropolk Vladimirovich, was entrhoned Grand Prince of Kiev. Yaropolk gave the Principality of Pereyaslavl to Vsevolod Mstislavich. Yuri instantaneously declared war on the princes of Chernigov, the reigning Grand Prince of Kiev Yaropolk Vladimirovich, enthroned his son in Novgorod, and occupied his father's hereditary principality at Pereyaslav of the South. The Novgorodians, however, betrayed him, and Yuri avenged by seizing their key eastern fortress, Torzhok. Then Yaropolk appointed Izyaslav Mstislavich as Prince of Pereyaslavl, but Yuri opposed this move.

Then Izyaslav was expelled from Turov by Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, after which he left for Novgorod. There Izyaslav and his brother Vsevolod organized a campaign against the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal. In the Battle of the Zhdana Mountain (1135) both sides suffered significant losses, but neither part achieved a decisive success. In 1135 Pereyaslavl was given by Yaropolk to Yuri in exchange for the central part of his principality of Rostov and Suzdal. However, due to an alliance of the Mstislavichi and Olgovichi against Yaropolk led to the fact that Yuri returned to Rostov, Andrei Vladimirovich was transferred to Pereyaslavl, and Izyaslav Mstislavich ruled in Volhynia.

After Yaropolk's death and the expulsion of Vyacheslav Vladimirovich from Kiev by Vsevolod Olgovich in 1139, Yuri's activity was reduced to an unsuccessful attempt to raise the Novgorodians in a campaign to the south.

During the period of his first reign in Kiev(1149-1151) he left his son Vasilko in Suzdal; During the last Kiev reign (1155-1157) he kept the Rostov-Suzdal land for himself personally, planning to leave it after his death to his younger sons Mikhail and Vsevolod, and to establish the senior ones in the south. But soon his oldest son Andrei at that time returned from Vyshgorod to the north-east, and after the Yuri's death transferred the capital of the principality to Vladimir-on-Klyazma.

In 1147, Yuri Dolgoruki had a meeting with Svyatoslav Olgovich in a place called Moscow. In 1156, Yuri fortified Moscow with wooden walls and a moat[1]. Although the settlement probably existed earlier, Dolgoruki is often called "The Founder of Moscow".

In 1147, Dolgorukiy resumed his struggle for Kiev and in 1149[1] he captured it, but in 1151 he was driven from the capital of Rus by his nephew Izyaslav Mstislavich. In 1155, Yuri regained Kiev once again. After presumably being poisoned at the feast of a Kievan nobleman, Yuri unexpectedly died in 1157[1] which sparked anti-Suzdalian uprising in Kiev. Yuri Dolgoruki was interred at the Church of the Saviour at Berestove, Kiev, but his tomb is empty.

Marriages and children

The Primary Chronicle records the first marriage of Yuri on 12 January 1108. His first wife was a daughter of Aepa Ocenevich[2], Khan of the Cumans. Her paternal grandfather was Osen. Her people belonged to the Cumans, a confederation of pastoralists and warriors of Turkic origin.

Second wife : nothing is known about her, except that she died in 1183. Since the children from this marriage were taken away by their mother during her flight to Byzantium in 1161. N.M. Karamzin suggested a guess about the Greek origin of Dolgoruky’s second wife and that she belonged to the royal house of the Comneni . There are no documents to back up this connection [3] . Judging by the chronicles, Mstislav and Vasilko were accepted favorably in Byzantium and received land ownership. In some sources, this princess is called "Olga." Karamzin and later researchers contradicted the assertion that her name was "Elena", [4]

Yuri had at least fifteen children. The identities of the mothers are not known for certain

Memorials

RR5217-0018R 850-летие основания Москвы

The Moscow monument of Yuri Dolgorukiy as shown on a 1997 Russian coin

Muscovites have cherished Yuri's memory as the legendary founder of their city. His patron saint, Saint George appears on the coat of arms of Moscow slaying a dragon. In 1954, a monument to him designed by sculptor Sergei Orlov was erected on Moscow's Tverskaya Street, the city's principal avenue, in front of the Moscow municipality.

Dolgoruki's image was stamped on the Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow", introduced in 1947.

The nuclear submarine Yuri Dolgoruki is named after him.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Yury Dolgoruky – Russiapedia History and mythology Prominent Russians". http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/history-and-mythology/yury-dolgoruky/. 
  2. ^ The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text. Cambridge, MA: The Mediaeval Academy of America. 1953. pp. 204. http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/dokumente/a/a011458.pdf. 
  3. ^ IURII Vladimirovich
  4. ^ Литвина А. Ф., Успенский Ф. Б. - Выбор имени у русских князей в X-XVI вв.}




Children


Offspring of Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev
(Юрий Владимирович Долгорукий, великий князь киевский) and Anna of Cumania (c1092-c1135)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Rostislav Yuryevich of Pereyaslavl (c1108-1151) 1108 1151
Ivan Yuryevich of Kursk (c1109-1147) 1109 24 February 1147 Koltesk, Kashira Rayon, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Olga Yuryevna of Kiev (c1110-1189) 1110 14 July 1189 Yaroslav Vladimirovich Osmomysl (c1135-1187)

Andrei I Yuryevich of Bogolyubovo (c1111-1174) 1111 28 June 1174 Ulita Stepanovna Kuchka

Mariya Yuryevna (c1112-1166) 1112 1166
Svyatoslav Yuryevich (c1113-1174) 1113 1174
Yaroslav Yuryevich (c1114-1166) 1114 1166
Gleb Yuryevich of Kiev (c1115-1171) 1115 20 January 1171 NN
Daughter of Izyaslav Davydovich (c1137-c1185)

Boris Yuryevich of Belgorod (c1116-1159) 1116 2 May 1159 Suzdal, Suzdal Rayon, Vladimir Oblast, Russia Mariya of Belgorod (c1120-c1175)

Mstislav Yuryevich of Novgorod (c1117-1166) 1117 1166 NN Petrovna of Novgorood (c1122-c1270)

Vasilko Yuryevich of Suzdal (c1118-c1162) 1118 1162

Offspring of Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev
(Юрий Владимирович Долгорукий, великий князь киевский) and Olga NN (c1120-c1183)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Yelena Yuryevna (c1140-1165) 1140 1165 Oleg Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Seversky (c1137-1180)

Mikhalko Yuryevich of Vladimir (c1150-1176) 1150 20 June 1176
Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir (1154-1212) 1154 12 April 1212 Mariya Shvarnovna of Ossetia (c1155-c1205)
Lyubov Vasilkovna (c1192-c1240)

Siblings


Offspring of Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev
(Владимир Всеволодович Мономах, великий князь киевский) and Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mstislav I Vladimirovich of Kiev (1076-1132) 1 June 1076 Turau, Zhytkavichy Rayon, Homiel Voblasts, Belarus 15 April 1132 Kiev, Ukraine Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden (c1080-1122)
Lyubava Dmitriyevna (c1104-c1170)

Izyaslav Vladimirovich of Kursk (c1077-1096) 6 December 1096 Murom
Svyatoslav Vladimirovich of Smolensk (c1080-1114) 1080 6 March 1114
Yaropolk II Vladimirovich of Kiev (1082-1139) 1082 Chernihiv, Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine 18 February 1139 Kiev, Ukraine Yelena of Ossetia (c1130-c1170)

Vyacheslav I Vladimirovich of Kiev (1083-1154) 1083 2 February 1154
Maritsa Vladimirovna (c1085-1146) 1085 20 January 1146 Pseudo-Leo Diogenes II (c1070-1116)

Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev (c1090-1157) 1090 15 May 1157 Anna of Cumania (c1092-c1135)
Olga NN (c1120-c1183)

Roman Vladimirovich of Volhynia (c1091-1119) 1091 6 January 1119 Daughter of Volodar Rostislavich (c1100-c1150)

Yefimiya Vladimirovna of Kiev (c1095-1139) 1095 Kiev, Ukraine 4 April 1139 Kiev, Ukraine Coloman of Hungary (c1070-1116)

Sofiya Vladimirovna (c1078-c1140) 1078 1140 Svyatoslav Vseslavich of Vitebsk (c1065-c1130)

Offspring of Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev
(Владимир Всеволодович Мономах, великий князь киевский) and Yefimiya (c1078-1107)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Agafiya Vladimirovna of Kiev (c1097-1144) 1097 1144 Vsevolodko Davydovich of Goroden (c1080-1142)

Andrei Vladimirovich of Volhynia (1102-1141) 11 August 1102 22 January 1141 Granddaughter of Tugorkhan (c1100-c1145)

 


Residences

Yuri Dolgoruky
Born: 1099 Died: 15 May 1157
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Creation of the Principality
Prince of Rostov and Suzdal
1113–1149
Succeeded by
Vasilko Yuryevich
Preceded by
Vasilko Yuryevich
Prince of Rostov and Suzdal
1151–1157
Succeeded by
Andrei Yuryevich
Preceded by
Izyaslav II Mstislavich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1149–1151
Succeeded by
Izyaslav II Mstislavich
Preceded by
Rostislav Mstislavich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1155–1157
Succeeded by
Izyaslav III Davydovich



Footnotes (including sources)

‡ General




Contributors

  Afil

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