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Yuri II Vsevolodovich Rurik of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Vladimir, was born 26 November 1189 in Suzdal, Suzdal Rayon, Vladimir Oblast, Russia to Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir (1154-1212) and Mariya Shvarnovna of Ossetia (1155-1205) and died 4 March 1238 Battle of the Sit River (1238) of battle wounds. He married Agafia Vsevolodovna (c1195-1238) .

Yuri (George) Vsevolodovich (November 26, 1188 - March 4, 1238) - Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal (1212-1216, 1218-1238), the Prince of the City (1216-1217), Prince of Suzdal (1217-1218).

The third son of the Grand Prince of Vladimir Vsevolod Yuryevich Bolshoy Gnezdo from his first marriage, with Maria Shvarnovna of Ossetia. Canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church in the face of the faithful princes. The relics of the prince are in the Dormition Cathedral of Vladimir.

Biography

Early years

Yuri (George) Vsevolodovich was born in Suzdal on November 26, 1188 [1]. He was baptized by Luka, bishop of Rostov

In 1207, Yuri took part in a campaign against the Princes of Ryazan, in the winter of 1208/1209 with Konstantin Vsevolodovich on Torzhok against the Novgorodians who had imprisoned his brother, Svyatoslav, and installed Mstislav Mstislavitch Udatnyi as ruler of Novgorod, and at the very beginning of 1209 - against the people of Ryazan, who tried to take advantage of the absence of the main forces of Suzdal and attacked the surroundings of Moscow.

In 1211 Yuri married Princess Agatha Vsevolodovna , the daughter of Vsevolod Svyatoslavich, Prince of Chernigov; The wedding was performed in Vladimir, in the Dormition Cathedral of Vladimir, by Bishop John .

Conflict with brother

Main articles: The internecine war in North-Eastern Russia (1212-1216) , Battle of Lipitsa (1216)

In 1211, Vsevolod Yuryevich, with the support of a specially convened meeting with the boyars and Bishop Ioann II, gave the rule of the Grand Principality of Vladimir to Yuri in violation of the rights of his eldest son, Konstantin.

On April 14, 1212 Vsevolod Yuryevich died, and the contraflicts between the brothers developed into a civil war. Yuri was supported by his third brother Yaroslav, while Konstantin had the support of his next brothers Vladimir and Svyatoslav. Yuri was ready to exchange the Grand Principality of Vladimir for the Principality of Rostov, but Konstantin did not agree to such a change and offered his brother the Principality of Suzdal, which he refused. First, the struggle took place on the territory of the principality, but then, when the interests of Yuri and Yaroslav crossed with the interests of Princes of Smolensk of the Rostislavich family, in particular Mstislav Udatnyi, in Novgorod, Smolensk with Novgorod invaded the Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, connected with Konstantin and defeated Yuri, Yaroslav and Murom and were put on the great reign of Constantine. Yuri got into the lot Gorodets Radilov on the Volga. Then Bishop Simon followed him. In the following year, Konstantin gave Yurithe Principality of Suzdal and, keeping the Principality of Rostov as a legacy to his offspring, he recognized his brother as his successor for the title of Grand Prince. Konstantin died on February 2, 1218, and Yuri again became Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal.

Foreign policy

Like his father, Yuri Vsevolodovich, sought successes in foreign policy, mainly avoiding military clashes. During the period 1220-1234, the Vladimir armies (including allied with the Novgorod, Ryazan , Murom and Lithuania) conducted 14 campaigns. Of these, only three had ended in battles (victories over external adversaries, 1220, 1226, 1234).

Already in 1212, Yuri dismissed the captivity of the Ryazan princes captured by his father in 1208, including Ingvar and Yuri Igorevich, who came to power in Ryazan as a result of the struggle of 1217-1219 and became Yuri's allies.

In 1217, the Volga Bulgarian reached Ustyug, but retaliatory measures were taken only after the Konstantin's death and the coming of Yuri to power, in 1220. Yuri sent a large army under the leadership of his brother Svyatoslav ; The army reached the city of Oshel on the Volga and, after the Battle of Oshel burned it. At the same time, the troops of Rostov and Ustyug along the Kama River reached the land of the Bulgarians and ravaged many cities and villages. At the mouth of the Kama, both armies joined and returned home. Bulgarians in the same winter sent envoys to ask for peace, but Yuri refused them.

In 1221 he himself wanted to go against the Bulgarians and came out to Gorodets . On the way he was greeted by the second group of Bulgarian envoys with the same request and again received a refusal. In Gorodets he met the third group of Bulgarian envoys with rich gifts, and this time Yuri agreed to peace. To strengthen the important place for Rus' during the confluence of the Oka on the Volga, Yuri at this time founded here on the Dyatlovy Mountains, the city of "Nov Grad" (Nizhny Novgorod). Then he built a wooden church in the new city in the name of the Archangel Michael (later the Archangel Cathedral), and in 1225 laid the stone church of the Savior .

The founding of Nizhny Novgorod entailed fighting the Mordvins, using differences between its princes. In 1226, Yuri sent his brothers Svyatoslav and Ivan against them, and in September 1228 his nephew Vasili Konstantinovich of Rostov; in January 1229 he himself went to the Mordvins. After this, the Mordvins attacked Nizhny Novgorod, and in 1232 it was pacified by n of Yuri Vsevolodich'a son with the princes of Ryazan and Murom. Opponents of the spread of Vladimir influence on the Mordovin lands were defeated, but several years later, during the Mongol invasion , part of the Mordvian tribes came out on the side of the Mongols.

Yuri organized campaigns to help his former adversaries in the Battle of Lipitsa: the Smolensk Rostislavichi, defeated by the Mongols in the battle of the Kalka River, in 1223 in the South Russian lands led by his nephew Vasilko Konstantinovich, who, however, did not have to fight: after reaching Chernigov, he learned of the defeat Russians and returned to Vladimir; and in 1225 - against the Lithuanians, ruining the Smolensk and Novgorod lands, which ended in the Yaroslav's in the Battle of Usvyaty.

In 1222-1223 Yuri twice sent troops, respectively, led by the brothers Svyatoslav under Wenden and Yaroslav - under Revel to the aid of the Estonians who rebelled against the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. In the first campaign, the allies of the Russians were Lithuanians. According to the "Chronicle" by Henry of Latvia, in the year 1224 the third campaign was launched, but the Russian troops reached only Pskov . Russian chronicles refer roughly to the same time the conflict between Yuri Vsevolodovich and the nobility of Veliky Novgorod. Vsevolod Yuryevich was evacuated by his supporters from Novgorod to Torzhok, where in 1224 the father came to him with his army. Yuri demanded the issuance of Novgorod boyars, with which he was dissatisfied, and threatened to come to Novgorod to water his horses with the Volkhov River in case of disobedience, but then retired without bloodshed, satisfied with a large sum of money and giving Novgorod to the princes of his brother-in-law, Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich from the Chernigov Olgovichi.

File:Wedding of sons of Yuri II of Vladimir - Mstislav with Maria and Vladimir with Christina.jpgz

Wedding of Yuri's twp sons (16th century miniature)

In 1226, Yuri sent troops to help Mikhail in his struggle against Oleg Kursky in the Principality of Chernigov; the campaign ended successfully, but after approval in Chernigov, Mikhail entered the fight with Yaroslav Vsevolodovich for reign of Novgorod. In 1228, Yaroslav, once again expelled from [[Novgorod[[, suspected the participation of his elder brother in his exile and inclined his nephews Konstantinovich, Vasilko, Prince of Rostov, and Vsevolod, Prince of Yaroslavl, to his side . When Yuri learned about this, he summoned all of his relatives to the Council of Suzdal (1229) in September 1229. At the council, he managed to settle all the misunderstandings

In 1230 Yuri married his eldest son Vsevolod to Marina Vladimirovna (1215-1238), daughter of Vladimir Ryurikovich of Kiev and, with the diplomatic support of the latter and Metropolitan Kirill[[, transferred Novgorod to Mikhail and his son Rostislav . But having lost Novgorod finally in favor of Yaroslav (1231), Mikhail immediately joined the fight for Kiev against Vladimir Ryurikovich and Daniil Romanovich Volynsky, who had crossed over to him . In 1232, Yuri went to the Chernigov land against Mikhail Vsevolodovich in the direction of Serensk, and stood there for a while. Mikhail evaded the direct struggle. In 1229, Yaroslav planned a march against the Order because of disagreements with the Novgorodians and the Pskovites, but after the Pope declared Gregory IX of the Crusade (1232), Yaroslav defeated the knights in the Battle of the Omovzha River (1234). After 1231 for a hundred years Novgorod princes were only the descendants of Vsevolod the Big Nest.

List of military campaigns of the Vladimir armies in the period 1218-1238

  • 1219 - Ingvar Igorevich . Gleb Vladimirovich and the Polovtsians ;
  • 1220 - Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich . Volga Bulgaria, Oshel ;
  • 1221 - Yuri Vsevolodovich. Volga Bulgaria, Gorodets ;
  • 1222 - Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich. Order of the Sword Bearers , Wenden ;
  • 1223 - Vasilko Konstantinovich . The Mongolian Empire , Chernigov ;
  • 1223 - Yaroslav Vsevolodovich . Order of the Sword Bearers, Revel;
  • 1224 - Yuri Vsevolodovich. The Novgorod land , Torzhok ;
  • 1225 - Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania , the Battle of Usvyaty (1225) ;
  • 1226 - Yuri Vsevolodovich. Chernigov principality , Kursk ;
  • 1226 - Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich. Mordva ;
  • 1228 - Vasilko Konstantinovich. Mordva;
  • 1229 - Yuri Vsevolodovich. Mordva;
  • 1231 - Yuri Vsevolodovich, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. Principality of Chernigov. Serensk, Mosalsk ;
  • 1232 - Vsevolod Yuryevich . Mordva;
  • 1234 - Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. Order of the Sword Bearers, Battle of the Omovzha River (1234) ;
  • 1237 - Vsevolod Yuryevich. The Mongol Empire, the Battle of Kolomna (1238) ;
  • 1238 - Yuri Vsevolodovich. The Mongol Empire, the Battle of the Sit River (1238) .

Invasion of the Mongols

See also: The Mongol invasion of Russia

In 1236 at the beginning of the Mongol campaign against Europe, the Volga Bulgaria was ravaged. According to Vasily Tatishchev , the refugees were adopted by Yuri and settled in the Volga towns. At the end of 1237 Batu Khan appeared within the Principality of Ryazan. The Princes of Ryazan turned to Yuri for help, but he did not support them, stating that every ruler shoulg fight for himself. Batu Khan's envoys appeared in Ryazan and Vladimir with the demand for tribute, they were erefused in Ryazan, they received gifts in Vladimir, but at the same time Yuri sent troops led by his eldest son Vsevolod to help Roman Ingvarevich, who left Ryazan.

After destroying Ryazan on December 16, Batu Khan moved to Kolomna. Vsevolod was defeated and fled to Vladimir (Vedomir Voevoda Yeremey Glebovich and younger son Genghis Khan Kulkan were killed). Batu Khan after this victory burned Moscow, took Vladimir Yuryevich, (Yuri's second son) prisoner and moved to Vladimir.

Having received news of these events, Yuri summoned to the council of princes and boyars and after long deliberation went to collect the Volga for the Volga. The relatives which remained in Vladimir, there included the wife Agafia Vsevolodovna, sons Vsevolod and Mstislav, daughter of Theodore, Vsevolod's wife, Marina, Mstislav's wife Mariya and wife of Vladimir Khristin , grandchildren and voevoda Pyotr Oselyukovich. The siege of the city of Vladimir began on February 2 or 3, 1238, the city fell on February 7 (according to Rashid ad-Din [2], the siege and storm lasted 8 days). The Mongol-Tatars broke into the city and lit it. The whole family of Yuri was lost ( Vladimir martyrs ), of all his descendants only daughter Dobrava survived, who, since 1226, was married to Vasilko Romanovich, Prince Volynsky. On March 4 of the same year, in the Battle of the Sit River, the troops of the Grand Prince were defeated by the secondary forces of the Mongols, led by Burundai, who separated from the main forces on a more northern route. Yuri himself was among the dead.

The decapitated body of the prince was identified by princely clothes among the bodies of killed soldiers by the bishop of Rostov Kirill, returning from Beloozero. He took the body to Rostov and buried in a stone coffin in the church of Our Lady. Subsequently, Yuri's head was also found and attached to the body.

In 1239, the remains were solemnly transferred by Yaroslav Vsevolodovich to Vladimir and laid in the Dormition Cathedral of Vladimir. In the book of the royal royal genealogy, it is described that the head of Grand Duke Yuri Vsevolodovich at the burial stuck to his body, and his right hand was lifted upward: "His holy head is taco cumulative to his honest body, as though there is not a trail of clipping for a win, but all the compositions are intact and inseparable ... Yet even the hand of his gum pricked up again, he was seen by the widows, as if he were alive, showing the feat of his commission . " On February 13 and 15, 1919, an autopsy of his relics took place. According to the Orthodox Encyclopedia, an eyewitness of the revelation of the relics reported that the head of Grand Prince Yuri had previously been cut off, but merged with the body in such a way that the cervical vertebrae were displaced and merged incorrectly [3]..

Assessment of the personality

Historians and novelists in the established tradition, laid down by noble historiography, saw in Yuri Vsevolodovich the direct culprit of the terrible ruin of Russia. This view was criticized in the well-known study of V.V. Kargalov " Ancient Rus' in Soviet fiction ". The author writes: " The reader involuntarily gets the impression that if on the eve of the Mongol-Tatar invasion on the grand prince's throne sat not Yuri Vsevolodovich but some other more energetic and far-sighted prince ... the outcome of the war could be different ... The tragedy of the country was in another: the most brave and energetic princes and voevods (and there were many of them in Russia!), by virtue of feudal fragmentation, could not unite the forces of the people to repel the conquerors". However, even such a point of view, which can also be called traditional, raises serious objections in historiography. It is emphasized that the Mongols in the first half of the 13th century conquered many countries at various stages of development, and the notion that Rus' could successfully resist the invasion, if it were a single one, is false.

Hot and convincing on the basis of numerous chronicles and other documents, Prince Yuri was rehabilitated by the prominent Soviet writer and publicist Vladimir Chivililkhin in his novel-essay " Memory ", awarded the State Prize of the USSR. But the fate of the great Vladimir Prince Yuri II Vsevolodovich and his time are still waiting to be revealed by historians and novelists.

Canonization

According to the chronicler,

Yuri was adorned with good morals: he tried to obey God's commandments; always had in his heart the fear of God, remembering the commandment of the Lord about love, not only to neighbors, but also to enemies, was merciful above measure; not sparing his estate, distributed it to the needy, built churches and decorated them with icons priceless and books; honored priests and monks.

In 1221 he laid in Suzdal a new stone cathedral instead of dilapidated, and in 1233 he painted it and paved with marble. In Nizhny Novgorod, he founded the Annunciation Monastery

In 1645 the imperishable relics of the prince were found, and on January 5, 1645, Patriarch Joseph began the process of canonization of Yuri Vsevolodovich by the Orthodox Church . At the same time, the relics were placed in silver cancers. Yuri Vsevolodovich was ranked as Saint Blessed Prince George Vsevolodovich . His memory - 4 (17 o.s.) February , according to the assumption of Mikhail Tolstoy , "in memory of his transfer from Rostov to Vladimir."

In 1795, on the initiative of the Nizhny Novgorod vice-governor Prince Vasily Dolgorukov, a descendant of Yuri Vsevolodovich, in Nizhny Novgorod began to celebrate the birth date of the city's founder.

Family

Wife from 1211 Agafia Vsevolodovna (c1195-1238), daughter of Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Cherny , Prince of Chernigov, Grand Prince of Kiev.

Sons

  • Vsevolod Yuryevich of Novgorod (c1212-1238) Prince of Novgorod (1221-1222, 1223-1224). He is married since 1230 to Marina Vladimirovna (1215-1238), daughter of Vladimir Ryurikovich. Killed at Batu Khan's headquarters during negotiations before the capture of Vladimir by the Mongols .
  • Mstislav Yuryevich (1218-1238), married since 1236 on Mariya (1220-1238) (the origin is unknown). Killed during the capture of Vladimir by the Mongols.
  • Vladimir Yuryevich (c1225-1238)), Prince of Moscow , married since 1236 on Christine ( 1219 - 1238 ) (the origin is unknown, presumably - from the genus Monomachichi). Killed during the siege of Vladimir by the Mongols.

Daughters

  • Dobrava Yuryevna of Vladimir (1215-1265) In 1226 she married the prince of Volyn Vasilko Romanovich, thanks to this - was the only survivor of the ruin of the Tatar-Mongols Vladimir (1238) descendant of Yuri Vsevolodovich.

Theodore ( 1229 - 1238 )

See also

The campaigns of Russian princes against the Order of the Swordmen

Notes

  1. ^ Бережков Н. Г. Хронология русского летописания
  2. ^ Рашид-Ад-Дин. Сборник летописей
  3. ^ Template:Православная энциклопедия

Bibliography

  • Кузнецов А. А. Владимирский князь Георгий Всеволодович в истории Руси первой трети XIII века. Особенности преломления источников в историографии. — Нижний Новгород: Изд-во ННГУ, 2006. 540 с.
  • Кузнецов А. А. Князь великий Георгий — основатель Нижнего Новгорода. — Нижний Новгород: ДЕКОМ, 2017. — 232 с.
  • А.М. Меморский; С предисловием д. и. н. А. А. Кузнецова; Отв. ред. А. Д. Бубнов; ННО «Нижегородская Историко-этнологическая лаборатория», ed (2010). Основатель Нижнего Новгорода Великий князь Георгий (Юрий) II Всеволодович: (Исторический очерк) / Репринтное воспроизведение издания 1889 года. Nizhny Novgorod: НИЭЛ. pp. XII, 68. 
  • И. Я. Фроянов. (2012). Древняя Русь IX-XIII веков. Народные движения. Княжеская и вечевая власть. Русский издательский центр. p. 378—384. ISBN 978-5-4249-0005-1. 




Children



Offspring of Yuri II Vsevolodich of Vladimir and Agafia Vsevolodovna (c1195-1238)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vsevolod Yuryevich of Novgorod (c1212-1238) 1212 7 February 1238 Marina Vladimirovna (1215-1238)
Dobrava Yuryevna of Vladimir (1215-1265)
Mstislav Yuryevich (1218-1238)
Vladimir Yuryevich (c1225-1238)
Feodora Yuryevna of Vladimir (1229-1238)










Siblings



Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

Afil

Yuri Vsevolodovich
Born: 1189 Died: 4 Mar 1238
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Vsevolod Yuryevich
Grand Prince of Vladimir
1212–1214
Succeeded by
Konstantin Vsevolodovich
Preceded by
Konstantin Vsevolodovich
Grand Prince of Vladimir
1218–1238
Succeeded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
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