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Yuri Dmitrievich of Moscow (Russian: Юрий Дмитриевич князь звенигородский и галицкий), Prince of Zvenigorod (Moscow), Prince of Halych, Grand Prince of Moscow, was born 26 November 1374 in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia to Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy (1350-1389) and Yevdokiya Dmitriyevna (1352-1407) and died 6 June 1434 Moscow, Russia of unspecified causes. He married Anastasia Yuryevna of Smolensk (c1383-1422) 1400 JL .

Yuri Dmitrievich (aka Yuri Zvenigorodsky and Yuri Galitsky ; November 26, 1374 , Pereyaslavl-Zalessky - June 5, 1434 , Moscow ) - [[Prince of Zvenigorod[[ and Galician (from 1389 ), the third son of Dmitry Donskoy [1] , Grand Prince of Moscow in 1433 and 1434 .


Prince of Zvenigorod (Moscow)

Born on November 26, 1374 in Pereyaslavl-Zalessky and was baptized by Sergius of Radonezh . In 1389, Zvenigorod , Galich , Ruzu and Vyatka received spiritual inheritance (testament) from his father Dmitry Donskoy. He was also appointed heir in the event of the death of his elder brother Basil I , which later, after the death of Basil, gave him a reason to claim the throne bypassing Basil II [2] [3] . Under the testament of Dmitry Donskoy, Zvenigorod received a lot, where he rebuilt the town of Zvenigorod and two stone cathedrals: the Assumption Cathedralin Zvenigorod town and Rozhdestvensky cathedral in the Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery founded by Savva Storozhevsky close to him , and also built the stone Trinity cathedral in the Trinity monastery (now the Trinity-Sergius Lavra ). The first two cathedrals were consecrated by the prince's personal confessor, Savva Storozhevsky, all three were painted with the participation of those invited by Prince Andrei Rublev and Daniil Cherny . He began to mint his own coin, with the name of the long-dead Uzbek Khan (possibly, following the pattern of the coins of Ivan Kalita). Yuri was very popular as a successful commander and an experienced diplomat, as well as a patron of art and literature. He was married to Anastasia, daughter of the Grand Duke of Smolensk Yuri Svyatoslavich .

In 1399 [4] (according to other chronicles, in 1395 [5] ) [6] made a successful march on the Middle Volga region (under his command were the troops of his brother Vasily) - the first campaign in which the Russians destroyed rather extensive Tatar lands , defeating 14 cities (including Bulgar , Zhukotin and Kazan ), bringing huge booty to Russia. This is mentioned by the Tatar epos “Idige” [7] , known in the late 16th century edition, where “Prince-Urus” is endowed with features of Tokhtamysh, Tamerlane and Ivan the Terrible [8] .

In 1414 he made a new campaign, taking Nizhny Novgorod and securing its accession to Moscow. Having captured Nizhny Novgorod, the prince "did not make evil no harm" to its inhabitants, for which he received recognition and respect from the townspeople. In 1417 he participated in the march on Novgorod .

The struggle for the throne

Grand Princes of Moscow (12761598)
Даниил Александрович
Юрий Даниилович
Иван I Калита
Симеон Гордый
Иван II Красный
Дмитрий Донской
Василий I
Василий II Тёмный
Иван III
Василий III, жена Елена Глинская
Иван IV Грозный
Фёдор I Иоаннович
Юрий Звенигородский
Василий Косой
Дмитрий Шемяка


The first stage of the struggle

After the death of Basil I on February 27, 1425, Yuri became one of the contenders for the grand duke's throne. Yuri, who went to Moscow at the invitation of Metropolitan Photius to take the oath to the new Prince Vasili II, changed his decision, turning back around Galich . Having thus shown disobedience to the Moscow authorities, Yury joined the struggle for the Moscow throne, presenting his rights to great reign in accordance with the testament of Dmitry Donskoy. Such a decision was dictated not only by Yuri Dmitrievich’s personal ambitions, but also by desires to satisfy the claims of his two elder sons - Vasily Kosoy and Dmitri Shemyaka, each of whom wanted new acquisitions for himself. Yuri Dmitrievich had great prestige in the lands of North-Eastern Russia, and his personal possessions ( Zvenigorod, Vyatka, Galich, Ruza) were in the stage of economic growth. All this objectively contributed to the further success of the prince in the struggle for the great reign. The prince chose distant Galich as a strategic center in which his forces were concentrated.. To prepare for the upcoming struggle, the prince concluded a truce with Vasily II until Petrov day (June 29). During the truce, Yuri, like his rival, was intensely preparing for a future war. In the spring, the prince convened a meeting of the inhabitants with his entire patrimony, which approved the prince’s desire to fight Vasily II

Combining forces with their uncles Andrei, Peter and Konstantin Dmitrievich, Vasily II , without waiting for the end of the truce, spoke to Kostroma , which was to become a stronghold for the attack on Galich . Learning about the approach of the enemy, Yuri, according to one of the versions, fled to Nizhny Novgorod. Unwilling to secure the prince in this large Volga city, his brother Andrei Dmitrievich with a 25-thousand army was sent against him. Andrei, however, turned back, not reaching the location of the forces of Yuri. At the same time, Metropolitan Photius unsuccessfully tried to reconcile Yuri with the Grand Duke. Upon the arrival of Photius in Galich, Yury organized a demonstration of the unity of the entire population of the Galician principality with his prince. However, the demonstration did not produce the desired effect, and Photius continued to insist on making peace. Yuri agreed to a truce to gather forces and negotiate in the Horde. After the failure of the first attempt at negotiations, Yuri managed to conclude a peace agreement with Photius and sent two of his boyars to the Grand Duke. According to the agreement concluded by the boyars in Moscow, Yuri was obliged "not to seek the princess great with himself."

The new aggravation of the struggle was associated with the death of Prince Dmitriyevich of Dmitrovsky. Yuri Dmitrievich, like his opponent, laid claim to Dmitrov, but the lot of the deceased prince was annexed to Moscow. Nevertheless, the parties soon came to an agreement, and Yuri on March 11, 1428 signed with Vasily II the final , in which he recognized his nephew "elder brother".

Resumption of struggle

In the winter of 1430, Yuri Dmitrievich broke off peaceful relations with Vasily II. Prince Konstantin Dmitrievich with large forces was expelled against Yuri, but Yuri again fled to Nizhny Novgorod, where he placed his forces. Having occupied positions on the Sura River, Yuri waited for the enemy to approach, but Konstantin, approaching the river, failed to cross to the opposite bank, and then turned to Moscow. After the departure of the enemy, Yuri returned to Nizhny Novgorod, and then moved to Galich. With the death of Vitovt , an ally of Vasily II and Metropolitan Photius Yury, new perspectives opened up in the war.

In the autumn of 1431, together with Basil II, he traveled with gifts to the Horde to receive a label from the Horde Khan. Not wanting to suffer dishonor from the farms of Minbulat, located to Vasily, Yuri, together with the Horde nobleman Teginoy, went to Crimea , where he spent the whole winter with him. In the spring, Yuri, along with Teginoy, returned from the Crimea. Disputes between Yuri and Vasily with the active participation of Khan Ulu-Mohammed resumed. In the end, thanks to the efforts of the boyar Vsevolozhsk, Vasily got the label. However, under pressure Tegini Khan gave Yuri a label for reigning in Dmitrov. However, in concluding the treaty in 1433, Yuri Dmitrievich recognized the exclusive right of the grand dukes in relations with the Horde.

However, Vasily did not give Yuri Dmitrov , who sentenced him to give him a khan. In the principality sat the governors of Basil II. Yuri did not want to give up Dmitrov without a fight and only looked for a reason to start the war. At the same time, the boyar Ivan Dmitrievich Vsevolozhsky fled to him , dissatisfied with the fact that the grand duke in the fall of 1432 got engaged to the sister of the Serpukhov prince Vasily Yaroslavich Maria (Vsevolozhsky himself planned to marry the grand prince with one of his daughters). On February 8, 1433, at the wedding of Vasily II, his mother Sophia Vitovtovna publicly disrupted Yuri's son, Vasily Kosoy.precious belt, according to her, allegedly previously destined to Dmitry Donskoy and replaced. The angry Yureviches fled to their father in Galich. This insult was the reason for the new speech of Yuri, who with the troops of the Galicians made a speech to Moscow. On April 25, 1433, in the decisive battle on the Klyazma River, Yury Dmitrievich defeated Vasily and occupied Moscow. The Grand Duke fled to Tver, and then to Kostroma.

== The first reign in Moscow ==-

The Assumption Cathedral on Gorodok is the main church of the capital of Yuri Dmitrievich, Zvenigorod, built around 1399 In accordance with the contract concluded by Yury Dmitrievich and Vasily Vasilyevich, the new grand prince seized the treasury and the “luggage” not only of Vasily II, but also of his mother and the boyars of the grand prince. Yuri Dmitrievich established a good relationship with the " guests " (merchants) and the "woolen cloths" (merchants who traded with the West), who later lent him 600 rubles (in those times it was a large sum). Having reconciled with his nephew, Yury Dmitrievich gave Kolomna to him . However, after that the Moscow boyars and service people began to run to Kolomna; they were joined by both sons Yuri, Dmitry Shemyaka and Vasily Kosoyquarreling with father. Yuri, realizing that “his grace was not firmly attached to the great reign,” preferred to reconcile with his nephew, returning the grand throne to him. Following this, Vasily Vasilyevich and Yury signed a new treaty, according to which Yuri recognized the eldership of Vasily II and refused to help his eldest sons. Yuri refused to claim Dmitrov, and in return received Bezhetsky Top .

Continuing the fight

However, after that, Vasily Vasilyevich pursued his former opponents. Moscow troops led by voevoda Yuri Patrikeevichwere sent to Kostroma, where then there were Yuryevichs. On September 28, 1433, the sons of Yuri defeated Moscow troops in a battle on the River Kusi and captured Yuri Patrikeevich. Yuryevich after this sent the news of the victory to his father, inviting him to the throne of Moscow. However, Yuri, faithful to his obligations, refused this offer. Yurievich were forced to return to Kostroma. Learning that the Galicians supported Yuryevich in the unsuccessful battle for Kusi, Vasily II, wanting to punish Yuri, moved with the troops to Galich. Yuri fled to Beloozero. Basil II burned down the town, but he failed to capture the fortress defended by Yuryevich and turned to Moscow. In 1434, Yuri, with his sons and large forces, who were joined by the Viatka inhabitants, marched against Basil II.

Second reign in Moscow

On March 20, 1434, Yury defeated the troops of Vasily II, who fled to Novgorod , in a decisive battle on the Mogze River . Yuri, after a week-long siege, again occupied Moscow. Grand Duchess Sophia Vitovtovna and Marya Yaroslavna were expelled from Moscow. The treasury of the Grand Duke went to Yuri Dmitrievich. Vasily Vasilyevich, who was on the run, never met with support and planned to go to the Horde. Yuri Dmitrievich achieved widespread acceptance. He concluded contracts with the Prince of Ryazan [[Ivan Fedorovich[[, Ivan and Mikhail Andreevich. Thanks to the activities of Yuri Dmitrievich, the system of relations between the Grand Duke and his allies and relatives was changed. By increasing the distance between themselves and other princes (for example, the Grand Duke of Ryazan was now called not the youngest brother, but merely a “brother” - nephew ), Yuri made an important step towards the establishment of autocracy .

Another event of [[ri Dmitrievich was the conduct of monetary reform. From that time on, the rider, George the Victorious (the patron saint of Yuri), striking a serpent was depicted on the coins issued by him . This testified to the desire of Yuri to establish a single government and fight against the Horde [9] .


Death of prince

In 1432–1433 Yuri Dmitrievich made a spiritual charter in which Zvenigorod, Vasili Kosoy got it, Zvenigorod, Dmitry Shemyaka - Ruza , Dmitry Red (Little) - Uglich principality, Galich and Vyshgorod . Grand Duke Yuri Dmitrievich died on June 5, 1434 . The prince was buried in the Archangel Cathedral in Moscow.

Family

Married in 1400 to Anastasia Yuryevna, daughter of Smolensk Prince Yury Svyatoslavich and unknown daughter of the Grand Duke of Ryazan Oleg Ivanovich . She died July 11, 1422 in Zvenigorod and was buried in Moscow in the monastery of St. Ascension [10] . Four sons from marriage with Anastasia Yurievna [11] :

Ivan Yuryevi uch - died in monk under the name of Ignatius in 1432 city of [12]



Children



Offspring of Yuri Dmitrievich and Anastasia Yuryevna of Smolensk (c1383-1422)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Ivan Yuryevich (c1403-c1463)
Vasili Yuryevich Kosoy (c1405-1448) 1405 Zvenigorod, Moscow Oblast, Russia 1448 Moscow, Russia Anastasiya Andreyevna of Radonezh (c1405-c1455)
Dmitri Yuryevich Shemyaka of Moscow (c1408-1453) 1408 17 July 1453 Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia Sophia Dmitriyevna of Zaozero (c1420-c1460)
Dmitri Yuryevich Krasnyi (c1412-1440) 1412 22 September 1440










Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

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