Yaroslav II (Russian: Яросла́в II Все́володович), Christian name Fyodor (Theodor - Феодо́р) (February 8, 1191 – September 30, 1246) Prince of Pereyaslavl (1200–1206), Prince of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky (1212— 1238), Grand Prince of Kiev (1236-1238, 1243-1246), Grand Prince of Vladimir (1238-1246), Prince of Novgorod (1215, 1221-1223, 1226-1229, 1231-1236). He was the Grand Prince of Vladimir who helped to restore his country and capital after the Mongol invasion of Russia.
Prince of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky
In 1200, he was sent by his father to rule the town of Pereyaslavl near the Kypchak steppes. Six years later, he was summoned by galichian boyars to rule their city but could not effectively claim the throne. Thereupon he was sent to take Ryazan, but the stubborn opposition of the inhabitants led to the city being burnt. In 1209, Vsevolod sent Yaroslav to oppose Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold in Novgorod. After several battles, the two princes made peace, whereby Yaroslav married Mstislav's daughter Rostislava Mstislavna.
Upon his deathbed, Vsevolod Yuryevich bequeathed Yaroslav the Principality of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky. In the conflict between his elder brothers Konstantin and Yuri, Yaroslav supported the latter. In 1215, he accepted the offer of the Novgorodians to become their prince but, desiring revenge for their former treachery, captured Torzhok and blocked its supplies of grain to Novgorod. Several months later, he was defeated by his father-in-law in the Battle of Lipitsa and had to retreat to Pereyaslavl-Zalessky]; a helmet that he lost during the battle would be retrieved by archaeologists in 1808.
Prince of Novgorod and Kiev
In 1222, Yaroslav, finally enthroned in Novgorod, overran all of Estonia and besieged its capital Kolyvan. Four years later, he devastated Finland and baptised Karelia. His next ambition was to subjugate the Principality of Pskov, but the Novgorodians refused to make war against their neighbour. Yaroslav departed in anger and seized the Novgorodian enclave of Volokolamsk. In 1234, he returned to Veliky Novgorod and several years later defeated its chief enemies—Lithuanians and Teutonic Knights. In 1236, he followed Daniil of Halych's advice and moved from Novgorod to Kiev, leaving his son Aleksandr Nevsky as his representative in the north.
Prince of Vladimir
In 1238, when the Mongols first invaded Kievan Rus' and his elder brother Yuri was killed in battle, Yaroslav left Kiev for Vladimir, where he was crowned grand prince. Yaroslav attempted to restore the cities of the Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal after the Mongol ravages and fires. In 1243, he was summoned by Batu Khan to his capital Sarai. After a lengthy conference, he returned to Vladimir with honours. Two years later, he was again summoned to the east, this time by Güyük Khan in Karakorum. There he was poisoned by the Great khan's mother Toregene and died a week after he had been allowed to return home.
Marriages and children
Yaroslav married his first wife NN Yuryevna of Cumania in 1205. She was a daughter of Yuri Konchakovich, Khan of the Cumans. Her people belonged to the Kipchaks, a confederation of pastoralists and warriors of Turkic origin.
In 1214, Yaroslav married his second wife Rostislava Mstislavna. She was a daughter of Mstislav Mstislavich of Novgorod and Maria of Cumania, another Cuman princess. Her maternal grandfather was Kotyan Khan. They were divorced in 1216.
In 1218, Yaroslav married his third wife Feodosya Igoryevna of Ryazan. She was a daughter of Igor Glebovich and Agrafena Rostislavna. Her father was the second son of Gleb Rostislavich, Prince of Ryazan and Yevfrosiniya Rostislavna. They had at least twelve children:
- Fyodor Yaroslavich (Winter, 1219 - 5 June 1233). Betrothed to Euphrosyne of Suzdal, daughter of Mikhail Vsevolodovich. Fyodor died the day before his marriage date.
- Aleksandr Nevsky (30 May 1220 - 14 November 1263).
- Andrei II of Vladimir (c. 1222–1264).
- Konstantin Yaroslavich of Galich-Dmitrov (c1225-1255).
- Mikhail Yaroslavich Khorobrit (1226-1248), Prince of Moscow. Took control of Vladimir and proclaimed himself its Prince in 1248. Killed while facing a Lithuanian invasion.
- Daniil Yaroslavich (1227-1256).
- Yaroslav Yaroslavich of Tver (1229- 9 September 1271).
- Konstantin Yaroslavich of Galich-Dmitrov (1231-1255).
- Mariya Yaroslavna (1240-1240).
- Vasili Yaroslavich of Kostroma (1241-1276) (1241–1276).
- Afanasi Yaroslavich (1239-1239)
- Yevdokiya Yaroslavna (1243-1243).