Yaropolk Vladimirovich (1082, Chernihiv - February 18, 1139, Kiev) - the son of Vladimir Monomakh, Prince of Pereyaslavl, the Grand Prince of Kiev from 1132. During his reign, the united Old Russian state disintegrated.
Yaropolk was, most likely, born in Chernihiv, where his father, Vladimir Monomakh reigned at that time. In 1103 he took part in a campaign against the Polovtsians. Monomakh, who, in 1113, became Grand Prince of Kiev, in 1114 after the death of his son Svyatoslav in 1114, made Yaropolk Prince of Pereyaslavl.
As Prince of Pereyaslavl Yaropolk participated in numerous campaigns against the Polovtsians. In 1116, together with the troops of his father, he spoke against the Prince of Minsk Gleb. The chronicles say that the entire population of Drutsk was taken to the southern lands of Pereyaslavl. Yaropolk maintained a good relationship with his elderly father, whoften trusted him to command the troops in the wars with the Polovtsians, along with his older brother Mstislav. In 1125 Yaropolk repulsed the Polovtsians' attack on the Principality of Pereyaslavl in the Battle of Polkosten.
Ruler of the decaying Grand Principality of Kiev
See also: Battle of the Supoy River (1135) Yaropolk became the Grand Prince of Kiev in 1132 after the death of Mstislav's elder brother. Only the city of Kiev with the surrounding area were under his direct control. Yaropolk was a brave warrior and capable military commander, but a weak politician who failed to stop the disintegration of the state into separate principalities.
The apple of discord was the birth capital of the Monomakhovichi, the Principality of Pereyaslavl. According to the established practice, the elder in the family was usually the ruler of Pereyaslavl. After Yaropolk moved to Kiev, his younger brother Vyacheslav was supposed to take over the Principality of Pereyaslavl. But, probably, following an agreement with Mstislav the Great  after being enthroned in Kiev, Yaropolk appointed Mstislav's son Vsevolod Mstislavich as Prince of Pereyaslavl. Nor without reason, Yaropolk's younger brothers Yuri Vladimirovich and Andrei Vladimirovich saw in this step Yaropolk's intention of Yaropolk to make the Mstislavichi his heirs , and Yuri drove Vsevolod out of Pereyaslavl. Yaropolk tried to extinguish the conflict and transferred another of Mstislav's sons, Izyaslav, from Polotsk to Pereyaslavl. This step turned out an important errpr: an uprising began in Polotsk, the exiled descendants of Vseslav, the "sorcerer" returned to power, and the principality separated from Kiev. Since Izyaslav's the nomination had been disapproved by Yuri, a "legitimate" heir, |Vyacheslav Vladimirovich eventually became Prince of Pereyaslavl while Izyaslav Mstislavich moved to Turov.
However, |Vyacheslav Vladimirovich did not like Pereyaslavl, who stood in the way of all Polovtsian raids on the left bank of the Dnieper. In 1134 he returned to Turov, driving out Izyaslav. Yaropolk again tried to make a redistribution of the princialities. He offered Pereyaslavl to Yuri, but on the condition that he give Rostov to Izyaslav. However, Yuri retained a large part of the Principality of Rostov's territory. Offended Izyaslav went to Novgorod to his brother Vsevolod and concluded an alliance with Princes of Chernigov who, after the refusal of Oleg and Davyd Svyatoslavich to seek the throne of [[Kiev[[ were out of the circle of applicants for supreme power in Russia and were looking for any opportunity to change the current state of affairs. The war began.
At the end of 1134 Yaropolk managed to reach an agreement with Izyaslav, giving him the principality of Volhynia.The Prince of Volhynia Andrei Vladimirovich was transferred to reign Pereyaslavl. However, the war with the Chernigovites and their Polovtsian allies did not stop: they invaded the Dnieper valley and devastated the region of Kiev. The indecisiveness of the Grand Prince and his strained relations with all his relatives aggravated the situation. The following year Yaropolk was defeated on the Battle of the Supoy River (1135). Vsevolod Olgovich, the supreme commander of the army, agreed to give him the principalities of Kursk and Poskomie, which 8 years before had been used by Vsevolod to pay off with Mstislav the Great for not interfering in the dispute for principality of Chernigov between Vsevolod and his uncle Yaroslav Svyatoslavich . The Novgorodians took advantage of the weakening of the authority of the Grand Prince of Kiev: in 1136 they drove out the Yaropolk's nephew of Yaropolk, Vsevolod Mstislavich, who had been transferred from Kiev and proclaimed the so called Novgorod Republic.
The last time the descendants of Monomakh united in 1138, when Vsevolod Olgovich again began the war with Yaropolk. This time the troops of Kiev, Pereyaslavl, Rostov, Polotsk, Smolensk, regiments from Halych and 30 thousand people gathered under the banner of the Grand Prince of Kiev. He also received the support of a Hungarian army, sent him the King of Hungary, Bela II the Blind. The siege of Chernigov forced Vsevolod to make peace (1139). Shortly before his death, Yaropolk, in turn, assisted Bella II against his internal enemies. Yaropolk died on 18 February 1139, having transferred the throne to his brother |Vyacheslav. He was buried in the church of St. Andrew Yancin monastery.
Results of Yaropolk's reign
Unlike his father and elder brother, Yaropolk did not possess either diplomatic skills or authority to keep the state from disintegrating into individual principalities. Bold in his youth, in his old age, the prince became too cautious in making decisions and could not seize the initiative in struggle which began in the 1130s between the two forces (the younger Vladimirovichi on the one hand, Olgovichi and Mstislavicih on the other).
By the time of Yaropolk's death, the principalities of Polotsk, Novgorod and Chernigov were already outside his control. Nominal loyalty to Kiev was maintained only by the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal.
Vladimir Svyatoslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev
Yaroslav Vladimirovich, Grand Duke of Kiev
Rogneda Rogvolodovna, Princess of Kiev
Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Grand Duke of Kiev
Olaf, King of Sweden
Ingegerda, Princess of Sweden
Estrid, Queen of Sweden
Vladimir Vsevolodovich, the Grand Duke of Kiev
Constantine IX, Emperor of Byzantium
Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Harold II, King of England
Gita Torkeldottir, Countess of Wessex
Gita Wessex, Princess of England
Edith the Swan Neck
- ^ The year of birth is indicated in «Истории Российской…» by В. Н. Татищева but is not indicated in chronicles.
- ^ a b c Пресняков А. Е. Княжое право в Древней Руси. Лекции по русской истории. Киевская Русь — М.: Наука, 1993. ISBN 5-02-009526-5
- ^ Извлеченіе изъ древнихъ Русскихъ лѣтописей / Отделъ І. Извѣстія лѣтописные // Сборникъ матеріаловъ для исторической топографіи Кіева и его окрестностей.— Кіевъ: типографія Е. Я. Федорова, 1874.— С. 16
- Хмыров М. Д.: Алфавитно-справочный перечень государей русских, p.195
- ВТ-ЭСБЕ - Ярополк II Владимирович
- Ипатьевская летопись
- Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
- К.Рыжов [http://interpretive.ru/dictionary/454/word/%DF%D0%CE%CF%CE%CB%CA+II+%C2%CB%C0%C4%C8%CC%C8%D0%CE%C2%C8%D7/ Все монархи мира
|Offspring of Yaropolk II Vladimirovich of Kiev and Yelena of Ossetia (c1130-c1170)|
|Vasilko Yaropolkovich (c1125-1182)||1125||1182|| Salyusha Piast (c1150-c1180)|
|Offspring of Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev|
(Владимир Всеволодович Мономах, великий князь киевский) and Yefimiya (c1078-1107)
|Agafiya Vladimirovna of Kiev (c1097-1144)||1097||1144|| Vsevolodko Davydovich of Goroden (c1080-1142)|
|Andrei Vladimirovich of Volhynia (1102-1141)||11 August 1102||22 January 1141|| Granddaughter of Tugorkhan (c1100-c1145)|
Yaropolk II Vladimirovich
RurikovichBorn: 1082 Died: 18February 1154
| Prince of Pereyaslav|
| Succeeded by|
Mstislav I Vladimirovich
| Grand Prince of Kiev|
| Succeeded by|
Vyacheslav I Vladimirovich