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Warsaw remained the capital of the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]] until 1795, when it was annexed by the [[Kingdom of Prussia]] to become the capital of the province of [[South Prussia]]. Liberated by [[Napoleon I|Napoleon]]'s army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created [[Duchy of Warsaw]].<ref name="history" /> Following the [[Congress of Vienna]] of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of the [[Congress Poland]], a [[constitutional monarchy]] under a [[personal union]] with [[Russian Empire|Imperial Russia]].<ref name="history" /> The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.
 
Warsaw remained the capital of the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]] until 1795, when it was annexed by the [[Kingdom of Prussia]] to become the capital of the province of [[South Prussia]]. Liberated by [[Napoleon I|Napoleon]]'s army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created [[Duchy of Warsaw]].<ref name="history" /> Following the [[Congress of Vienna]] of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of the [[Congress Poland]], a [[constitutional monarchy]] under a [[personal union]] with [[Russian Empire|Imperial Russia]].<ref name="history" /> The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.
   
[[File:German airship bombing Warsaw.jpg|thumb|left|German [[airship]] [[List of Schütte-Lanz airships#SL2|Schütte Lanz SL2]] [[Aerial bombing of cities|bombing]] Warsaw in 1914]]
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[[File:German airship bombing Warsaw.JPG|thumb|left|German [[airship]] [[List of Schütte-Lanz airships#SL2|Schütte Lanz SL2]] [[Aerial bombing of cities|bombing]] Warsaw in 1914]]
   
 
Following the repeated violations of the [[Constitution of the Republic of Poland|Polish constitution]] by the Russians, the 1830 [[November Uprising]] broke out. However, the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy.<ref name="history" /> On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw crowd protesting against the Russian rule over Poland was fired upon by the Russian troops.<ref>{{fr}} Zbigniew Naliwajek. [http://www.cairn.info/article.php?ID_REVUE=RLC&ID_NUMPUBLIE=RLC_307&ID_ARTICLE=RLC_307_0325 Romain Rolland et la littérature polonaise]. Revue de littérature comparée 3/2003 (n°307), p. 325-338.</ref><ref name="obrien">{{en icon}} {{cite book |author= Augustin P. O'Brien |coauthors= |title=Petersburg and Warsaw: Scenes Witnessed During a Residence in Poland and Russia in 1863–64 |year=1864 |editor= |pages= |chapter= | chapterurl = |publisher= R. Bentley |location= |isbn= |url= http://books.google.com/?id=WlYBAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Petersburg+and+Warsaw:+scenes+witnessed#PPR1,M1|accessdate=28 January 2009}}</ref> Five people were killed. The Underground [[Polish National Government (January Uprising)|Polish National Government]] resided in Warsaw during [[January Uprising]] in 1863–64.<ref name="obrien" />
 
Following the repeated violations of the [[Constitution of the Republic of Poland|Polish constitution]] by the Russians, the 1830 [[November Uprising]] broke out. However, the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy.<ref name="history" /> On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw crowd protesting against the Russian rule over Poland was fired upon by the Russian troops.<ref>{{fr}} Zbigniew Naliwajek. [http://www.cairn.info/article.php?ID_REVUE=RLC&ID_NUMPUBLIE=RLC_307&ID_ARTICLE=RLC_307_0325 Romain Rolland et la littérature polonaise]. Revue de littérature comparée 3/2003 (n°307), p. 325-338.</ref><ref name="obrien">{{en icon}} {{cite book |author= Augustin P. O'Brien |coauthors= |title=Petersburg and Warsaw: Scenes Witnessed During a Residence in Poland and Russia in 1863–64 |year=1864 |editor= |pages= |chapter= | chapterurl = |publisher= R. Bentley |location= |isbn= |url= http://books.google.com/?id=WlYBAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Petersburg+and+Warsaw:+scenes+witnessed#PPR1,M1|accessdate=28 January 2009}}</ref> Five people were killed. The Underground [[Polish National Government (January Uprising)|Polish National Government]] resided in Warsaw during [[January Uprising]] in 1863–64.<ref name="obrien" />

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