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|official_name = Capital City of Warsaw<br /> ''Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa'' |native_name = ''Warszawa''
 
|official_name = Capital City of Warsaw<br /> ''Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa'' |native_name = ''Warszawa''
 
|motto = ''Semper invicta''{{spaces|2}}<small>([[Latin]] "Always undefeated")</small>
 
|motto = ''Semper invicta''{{spaces|2}}<small>([[Latin]] "Always undefeated")</small>
|image_skyline = Collage of views of Warsaw.png
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|image_skyline = Collage of views of Warsaw.PNG
 
|image_caption = '''Top:''' [[Financial centre]], '''Middle left:''' [[Royal Castle, Warsaw|Royal Castle]], '''Middle right:''' [[Old Town Market Place, Warsaw|Old Town Market Place]], '''Bottom left:''' [[Presidential Palace, Warsaw|Presidential Palace]], '''Bottom right:''' [[Wilanów Palace]].
 
|image_caption = '''Top:''' [[Financial centre]], '''Middle left:''' [[Royal Castle, Warsaw|Royal Castle]], '''Middle right:''' [[Old Town Market Place, Warsaw|Old Town Market Place]], '''Bottom left:''' [[Presidential Palace, Warsaw|Presidential Palace]], '''Bottom right:''' [[Wilanów Palace]].
 
|imagesize = 250px
 
|imagesize = 250px
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===Early history===
 
===Early history===
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[[File:Kosciol NMP Warszawa Nowe Miasto.jpg|thumb|1411 [[St. Mary's Church, Warsaw|St. Mary's Church]] in [[Warsaw New Town]]]]
 
[[File:Kosciol NMP Warszawa Nowe Miasto.jpg|thumb|1411 [[St. Mary's Church, Warsaw|St. Mary's Church]] in [[Warsaw New Town]]]]
   
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===16th to 18th century===
 
===16th to 18th century===
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In 1529 Warsaw for the first time became the seat of the [[Sejm of the Republic of Poland|General Sejm]], permanent from 1569.<ref name="history" /> In 1573 the city gave its name to the [[Warsaw Confederation]], formally establishing [[freedom of religion|religious freedom]] in the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]]. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of [[Kraków]] and [[Vilnius]], Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth, and of the Polish Crown, in 1596, when King [[Sigismund III Vasa]] moved the court from [[Kraków]] to Warsaw.<ref name="history" />
 
In 1529 Warsaw for the first time became the seat of the [[Sejm of the Republic of Poland|General Sejm]], permanent from 1569.<ref name="history" /> In 1573 the city gave its name to the [[Warsaw Confederation]], formally establishing [[freedom of religion|religious freedom]] in the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]]. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of [[Kraków]] and [[Vilnius]], Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth, and of the Polish Crown, in 1596, when King [[Sigismund III Vasa]] moved the court from [[Kraków]] to Warsaw.<ref name="history" />
   
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===19th and 20th centuries===
 
===19th and 20th centuries===
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Warsaw remained the capital of the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]] until 1795, when it was annexed by the [[Kingdom of Prussia]] to become the capital of the province of [[South Prussia]]. Liberated by [[Napoleon I|Napoleon]]'s army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created [[Duchy of Warsaw]].<ref name="history" /> Following the [[Congress of Vienna]] of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of the [[Congress Poland]], a [[constitutional monarchy]] under a [[personal union]] with [[Russian Empire|Imperial Russia]].<ref name="history" /> The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.
 
Warsaw remained the capital of the [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]] until 1795, when it was annexed by the [[Kingdom of Prussia]] to become the capital of the province of [[South Prussia]]. Liberated by [[Napoleon I|Napoleon]]'s army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created [[Duchy of Warsaw]].<ref name="history" /> Following the [[Congress of Vienna]] of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of the [[Congress Poland]], a [[constitutional monarchy]] under a [[personal union]] with [[Russian Empire|Imperial Russia]].<ref name="history" /> The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.
   
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===World War II===
 
===World War II===
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[[File:Destroyed Warsaw, capital of Poland, January 1945.jpg|thumb|left|''Sea of rubble''<ref name="last_glimpse">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=M.M. |url=http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/11932/ |title=Warsaw: A Last Glimpse |work=www.warsawvoice.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date=2 August 2006 |accessdate=29 July 2008}}</ref> – over eight out of every ten buildings in Warsaw [[Aftermath of the Warsaw Uprising|were destroyed]] by the end of [[World War II]]. In left centre can be seen ruins of [[Old Town Market Place, Warsaw|Old Town Market Square]].]]
 
[[File:Destroyed Warsaw, capital of Poland, January 1945.jpg|thumb|left|''Sea of rubble''<ref name="last_glimpse">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=M.M. |url=http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/11932/ |title=Warsaw: A Last Glimpse |work=www.warsawvoice.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date=2 August 2006 |accessdate=29 July 2008}}</ref> – over eight out of every ten buildings in Warsaw [[Aftermath of the Warsaw Uprising|were destroyed]] by the end of [[World War II]]. In left centre can be seen ruins of [[Old Town Market Place, Warsaw|Old Town Market Square]].]]
   
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===Modern times===
 
===Modern times===
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[[File:Msza św na Pl Zwycięstwa.jpg|thumb|[[Pope John Paul II|John Paul II's]] Mass in [[Piłsudski Square|Victory Square]], 1979]]
 
[[File:Msza św na Pl Zwycięstwa.jpg|thumb|[[Pope John Paul II|John Paul II's]] Mass in [[Piłsudski Square|Victory Square]], 1979]]
   
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===Location and topography===
 
===Location and topography===
 
[[File:Varsaw SPOT 1066.jpg|thumb|left|Warsaw seen from [[SPOT (satellites)|SPOT satellite]]]]
 
[[File:Varsaw SPOT 1066.jpg|thumb|left|Warsaw seen from [[SPOT (satellites)|SPOT satellite]]]]
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Warsaw lies in east-central Poland about {{convert|300|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the [[Carpathian Mountains]] and about {{convert|260|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the [[Baltic Sea]], {{convert|523|km|mi|abbr=on}} east of Berlin, Germany.<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://geography.howstuffworks.com/europe/geography-of-warsaw.htm |title=Geography of Warsaw |work=geography.howstuffworks.com |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=27 February 2009}}</ref> The city straddles the [[Vistula|Vistula River]]. It is located in the heartland of the [[Masovian Plain]], and its average [[elevation]] is {{convert|100|m|ft|-1}} above [[sea level]]. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of {{convert|115.7|m|ft|1}} (“Redutowa” bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side – {{convert|122.1|m|ft|1}} (“Groszówka” estate, district of Wesoła, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height {{convert|75.6|m|ft|1}} (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city – e.g. Warsaw Uprising Hill ({{convert|121|m|ft|1}}), Szczęśliwice hill ({{convert|138|m|ft|1}} – the highest point of Warsaw in general).
 
Warsaw lies in east-central Poland about {{convert|300|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the [[Carpathian Mountains]] and about {{convert|260|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the [[Baltic Sea]], {{convert|523|km|mi|abbr=on}} east of Berlin, Germany.<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://geography.howstuffworks.com/europe/geography-of-warsaw.htm |title=Geography of Warsaw |work=geography.howstuffworks.com |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=27 February 2009}}</ref> The city straddles the [[Vistula|Vistula River]]. It is located in the heartland of the [[Masovian Plain]], and its average [[elevation]] is {{convert|100|m|ft|-1}} above [[sea level]]. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of {{convert|115.7|m|ft|1}} (“Redutowa” bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side – {{convert|122.1|m|ft|1}} (“Groszówka” estate, district of Wesoła, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height {{convert|75.6|m|ft|1}} (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city – e.g. Warsaw Uprising Hill ({{convert|121|m|ft|1}}), Szczęśliwice hill ({{convert|138|m|ft|1}} – the highest point of Warsaw in general).
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===Cityscape===
 
===Cityscape===
 
====Overview====
 
====Overview====
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Warsaw's mixture of [[architectural style]]s reflects the turbulent [[History of Warsaw|history of the city]] and country. During WWII, Warsaw was razed to the ground by [[Bombing of Warsaw in World War II|bombing raids]] and [[Planned destruction of Warsaw|planned destruction]].<ref name="uprising" /> After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled [[People's Republic of Poland|PRL]]. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. [[Leopold Kronenberg]] Palace).<ref>{{pl icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=malachowskiego_4&r3=0 |title=Pałac Leopolda Kronenberga |work=www.warszawa1939.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=29 July 2008}}</ref> Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of [[Eastern Bloc|Eastern bloc]] countries.
 
Warsaw's mixture of [[architectural style]]s reflects the turbulent [[History of Warsaw|history of the city]] and country. During WWII, Warsaw was razed to the ground by [[Bombing of Warsaw in World War II|bombing raids]] and [[Planned destruction of Warsaw|planned destruction]].<ref name="uprising" /> After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled [[People's Republic of Poland|PRL]]. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. [[Leopold Kronenberg]] Palace).<ref>{{pl icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=malachowskiego_4&r3=0 |title=Pałac Leopolda Kronenberga |work=www.warszawa1939.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=29 July 2008}}</ref> Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of [[Eastern Bloc|Eastern bloc]] countries.
   
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====Architecture====
 
====Architecture====
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{{Main|Architecture of Warsaw}}
 
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Warsaw's [[palace]]s, [[church (building)|church]]es and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and [[List of time periods|historical period]]. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the [[gothic architecture|gothic]], [[renaissance]], [[baroque]] and [[neoclassical architecture|neoclassical]] periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.
 
Warsaw's [[palace]]s, [[church (building)|church]]es and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and [[List of time periods|historical period]]. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the [[gothic architecture|gothic]], [[renaissance]], [[baroque]] and [[neoclassical architecture|neoclassical]] periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.
   
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Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. One of the best examples of this architecture are [[Krasiński Palace]] (1677–1683), [[Wilanów Palace]] (1677–1696) and [[St. Kazimierz Church]] (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of [[rococo]] architecture are [[Czapski Palace]] (1712–1721), [[Palace of the Four Winds]] (1730s) and [[Visitationist Church]] (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the [[Łazienki Palace|Palace on the Water]] (rebuilt 1775–1795), [[Królikarnia]] (1782–1786), [[Carmelite Church, Warsaw|Carmelite Church]] (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical [[Holy Trinity Church, Warsaw|Holy Trinity Church]] (1777–1782). The [[economic growth]] during the first years of [[Congress Poland]] caused a rapid rise architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture, the most notable are the [[Great Theatre, Warsaw|Great Theater]] (1825–1833) and buildings located at [[Plac Bankowy, Warsaw|Bank Square]] (1825–1828).
 
Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. One of the best examples of this architecture are [[Krasiński Palace]] (1677–1683), [[Wilanów Palace]] (1677–1696) and [[St. Kazimierz Church]] (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of [[rococo]] architecture are [[Czapski Palace]] (1712–1721), [[Palace of the Four Winds]] (1730s) and [[Visitationist Church]] (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the [[Łazienki Palace|Palace on the Water]] (rebuilt 1775–1795), [[Królikarnia]] (1782–1786), [[Carmelite Church, Warsaw|Carmelite Church]] (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical [[Holy Trinity Church, Warsaw|Holy Trinity Church]] (1777–1782). The [[economic growth]] during the first years of [[Congress Poland]] caused a rapid rise architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture, the most notable are the [[Great Theatre, Warsaw|Great Theater]] (1825–1833) and buildings located at [[Plac Bankowy, Warsaw|Bank Square]] (1825–1828).
   
[[File:Socreal decoration in Warsaw.jpg|thumb|upright|left|[[Relief|Bas-relief]] of an iron forger at MDM neighbourhood, one of prime examples of [[Socialist realism in Poland|socialist realism]] in Polish architecture.]]
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[[File:Socreal decoration in Warsaw.JPG|thumb|upright|left|[[Relief|Bas-relief]] of an iron forger at MDM neighbourhood, one of prime examples of [[Socialist realism in Poland|socialist realism]] in Polish architecture.]]
   
 
Exceptional examples of the [[bourgeoisie|bourgeois]] architecture of the later periods were not restored by the [[communism|communist]] authorities after the war (like mentioned Kronenberg Palace and [[Insurance|Insurance Company]] Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like [[Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra|Warsaw Philharmony]] edifice originally inspired by [[Palais Garnier]] in Paris). Despite that the [[Warsaw University of Technology]] building (1899–1902)<ref>{{pl icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=politechnika&r3=0 |title=Politechnika Warszawska |work=www.warszawa1939.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=27 February 2009}}</ref> is the most interesting of the late 19th century architecture. Lot of the 19th century buildings is restored in Praga (Vistula’s right bank), though they are in a pretty bad condition. Warsaw’s [[Local government|municipal government]] authorities have decided to rebuild the [[Saxon Palace]] and the [[Brühl Palace, Warsaw|Brühl Palace]], the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw.<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.e-warsaw.pl/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=551&kat=3 |title=As good as new |work=www.e-warsaw.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=30 January 2009}}</ref>
 
Exceptional examples of the [[bourgeoisie|bourgeois]] architecture of the later periods were not restored by the [[communism|communist]] authorities after the war (like mentioned Kronenberg Palace and [[Insurance|Insurance Company]] Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like [[Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra|Warsaw Philharmony]] edifice originally inspired by [[Palais Garnier]] in Paris). Despite that the [[Warsaw University of Technology]] building (1899–1902)<ref>{{pl icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=politechnika&r3=0 |title=Politechnika Warszawska |work=www.warszawa1939.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=27 February 2009}}</ref> is the most interesting of the late 19th century architecture. Lot of the 19th century buildings is restored in Praga (Vistula’s right bank), though they are in a pretty bad condition. Warsaw’s [[Local government|municipal government]] authorities have decided to rebuild the [[Saxon Palace]] and the [[Brühl Palace, Warsaw|Brühl Palace]], the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw.<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.e-warsaw.pl/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=551&kat=3 |title=As good as new |work=www.e-warsaw.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=30 January 2009}}</ref>
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====Flora and Fauna====
 
====Flora and Fauna====
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Greenspace covers 40% of the surface area of Warsaw,<ref name="warsaw_tour">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author = Warsaw Tourist Office |url = http://www.warsawtour.pl/en/warsaw-for-everyone/parks-gardens-2075.html |title = Parks & Gardens |work = www.warsawtour.pl |publisher = |pages = |page = |date = |accessdate = 23 February 2009}} "Warsaw is a green city. Almost 1/4 of its area is {{sic|hide=y|comprised| of}} fields, parks, green squares and lush gardens, making Warsaw a European metropolis that truly offers its visitors a breath of fresh air."</ref> including a broad range of greenstructures, from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, trees and avenues to large historic parks, [[conservation (ethic)|nature conservation]] areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.
 
Greenspace covers 40% of the surface area of Warsaw,<ref name="warsaw_tour">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author = Warsaw Tourist Office |url = http://www.warsawtour.pl/en/warsaw-for-everyone/parks-gardens-2075.html |title = Parks & Gardens |work = www.warsawtour.pl |publisher = |pages = |page = |date = |accessdate = 23 February 2009}} "Warsaw is a green city. Almost 1/4 of its area is {{sic|hide=y|comprised| of}} fields, parks, green squares and lush gardens, making Warsaw a European metropolis that truly offers its visitors a breath of fresh air."</ref> including a broad range of greenstructures, from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, trees and avenues to large historic parks, [[conservation (ethic)|nature conservation]] areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.
   
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==Demographics==
 
==Demographics==
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{{Historical populations
 
{{Historical populations
 
|type =
 
|type =
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==Municipal government==
 
==Municipal government==
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The municipal government existed in Warsaw until World War II and was restored in 1990 (during the communist times, the National City Council – ''Miejska Rada Narodowa'' – governed in Warsaw). Since 1990, the system of city administration has been changed several times – also as the result of the reform which restored ''[[powiat]]''s, cancelled in 1975. Finally, according the ''Warsaw Act'', the city is divided into 18 districts and forms one ''city [[powiat]]'' with a unified municipal government.<ref name="admin">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://e-warsaw.pl/2/index.php?id=568 |title=Administration |work=e-warsaw.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=31 January 2009}}</ref>
 
The municipal government existed in Warsaw until World War II and was restored in 1990 (during the communist times, the National City Council – ''Miejska Rada Narodowa'' – governed in Warsaw). Since 1990, the system of city administration has been changed several times – also as the result of the reform which restored ''[[powiat]]''s, cancelled in 1975. Finally, according the ''Warsaw Act'', the city is divided into 18 districts and forms one ''city [[powiat]]'' with a unified municipal government.<ref name="admin">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://e-warsaw.pl/2/index.php?id=568 |title=Administration |work=e-warsaw.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=31 January 2009}}</ref>
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==Politics==
 
==Politics==
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[[File:Sejm RP.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Sejm of the Republic of Poland|Sejm]] building.]]
 
[[File:Sejm RP.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Sejm of the Republic of Poland|Sejm]] building.]]
   
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==Transportation==
 
==Transportation==
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{{Main|Transportation in Warsaw}}
 
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Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased [[foreign direct investment|foreign investment]] and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new [[road]]s, [[Overpass|flyovers]], [[bridge]]s, etc.<ref name="warsawvoice.pl">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=Michal Jeziorski |url=http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/14144|title=Improving Infrastructure |work=www.warsawvoice.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date=7 March 2007 |accessdate=28 May 2009}}</ref>
 
Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased [[foreign direct investment|foreign investment]] and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new [[road]]s, [[Overpass|flyovers]], [[bridge]]s, etc.<ref name="warsawvoice.pl">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=Michal Jeziorski |url=http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/14144|title=Improving Infrastructure |work=www.warsawvoice.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date=7 March 2007 |accessdate=28 May 2009}}</ref>
   
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==Infrastructure==
 
==Infrastructure==
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{{Main|Infrastructure in Warsaw}}
 
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[[File:Widok1 cob.jpg|thumb|Visualization of the [[National Temple of Divine Providence]] (under construction).]]
 
[[File:Widok1 cob.jpg|thumb|Visualization of the [[National Temple of Divine Providence]] (under construction).]]
 
Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased [[foreign direct investment|foreign investment]] and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new [[health care|healthcare]] facilities, [[sanitation]], etc.<ref name="warsawvoice.pl"/>
 
Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased [[foreign direct investment|foreign investment]] and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new [[health care|healthcare]] facilities, [[sanitation]], etc.<ref name="warsawvoice.pl"/>
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==Leisure activities==
 
==Leisure activities==
 
===Events===
 
===Events===
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[[File:Tress-Jazz-in-Tygmont-AB.jpg|thumb|right|[[Jazz]] concert in Tygmont Club.]]
 
[[File:Tress-Jazz-in-Tygmont-AB.jpg|thumb|right|[[Jazz]] concert in Tygmont Club.]]
 
Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the [[Vistula]] on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called [[Wianki]] (Polish for ''Wreaths'') have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.<ref name="sobotka">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=Staś Kmieć|url=http://www.polamjournal.com/Library/Holidays/Sobotka/sobotka.html |title=Midsummer’s Eve |work=www.polamjournal.com |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=2 February 2009}}</ref><ref name="wreath">{{pl icon}} {{cite web |author=Staś Kmieć |url=http://www.aktivist.pl/wydarzenie/eventId,393787,wianki-2008-wydarzenie.html |title=Wianki 2008 |work=www.aktivist.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=2 February 2009}}</ref> The festival traces its roots to a peaceful [[paganism|pagan]] ritual where maidens would float their [[wreath]]s of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom.<ref name="sobotka" /> By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today.<ref name="sobotka" /> The city council organize concerts and other events.<ref name="wreath" /> Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, looking for the [[fern flower]], there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.<ref name="wreath" />
 
Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the [[Vistula]] on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called [[Wianki]] (Polish for ''Wreaths'') have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.<ref name="sobotka">{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=Staś Kmieć|url=http://www.polamjournal.com/Library/Holidays/Sobotka/sobotka.html |title=Midsummer’s Eve |work=www.polamjournal.com |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=2 February 2009}}</ref><ref name="wreath">{{pl icon}} {{cite web |author=Staś Kmieć |url=http://www.aktivist.pl/wydarzenie/eventId,393787,wianki-2008-wydarzenie.html |title=Wianki 2008 |work=www.aktivist.pl |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=2 February 2009}}</ref> The festival traces its roots to a peaceful [[paganism|pagan]] ritual where maidens would float their [[wreath]]s of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom.<ref name="sobotka" /> By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today.<ref name="sobotka" /> The city council organize concerts and other events.<ref name="wreath" /> Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, looking for the [[fern flower]], there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.<ref name="wreath" />
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===Sports===
 
===Sports===
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{{Main|Sport in Warsaw}}
 
On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, [[Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz]], obtained from the mayor of [[Stuttgart]] [[Wolfgang Schuster]] a challenge award – a [[commemorative plaque]] awarded to Warsaw as the European capital of Sport in 2008.<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.aces-europa.eu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=i8gr5Zb1M8I%3D&tabid=55&mid=379 |title=European Capitals of Sport |work=www.aces-europa.eu |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=30 January 2009}}</ref>
 
On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, [[Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz]], obtained from the mayor of [[Stuttgart]] [[Wolfgang Schuster]] a challenge award – a [[commemorative plaque]] awarded to Warsaw as the European capital of Sport in 2008.<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author= |url=http://www.aces-europa.eu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=i8gr5Zb1M8I%3D&tabid=55&mid=379 |title=European Capitals of Sport |work=www.aces-europa.eu |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=30 January 2009}}</ref>
   
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===Theatre===
 
===Theatre===
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Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the [[National Theatre, Warsaw|National Theatre]] (founded in 1765) and the [[Great Theatre, Warsaw|Grand Theatre]] (established 1778).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia |title=Teatr Wielki-Polish National Opera |accessdate=11 February 2008 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080208223208/http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 8 February 2008}}</ref>
 
Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the [[National Theatre, Warsaw|National Theatre]] (founded in 1765) and the [[Great Theatre, Warsaw|Grand Theatre]] (established 1778).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia |title=Teatr Wielki-Polish National Opera |accessdate=11 February 2008 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080208223208/http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 8 February 2008}}</ref>
   
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===Music===
 
===Music===
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Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the [[Great Theatre, Warsaw|Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera]], the [[Chamber opera|Chamber Opera]], the [[Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra|National Philharmonic Hall]] and the [[National Theatre, Warsaw|National Theatre]], as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the [[Congress Hall (Warsaw)|Congress Hall]] in the [[Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw|Palace of Culture and Science]], Warsaw hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the [[International Frédéric Chopin Piano Competition|International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition]], the International Contemporary Music Festival [[Warsaw Autumn]], the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw Summer Jazz Days, the International [[Stanisław Moniuszko]] Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.<ref name="salter">{{en icon}} {{cite book |author= |coauthors=Mark Salter, Jonathan Bousfield |title=Poland |year=2002 |editor= |pages= |chapter= | chapterurl = |publisher=Rough Guides |location= |isbn=18-58288-49-5 |url= http://books.google.com/?id=YgQ0B1CNYfQC&pg=PA70&dq=guide+warsaw#PPA128,M1 |accessdate=}}</ref>
 
Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the [[Great Theatre, Warsaw|Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera]], the [[Chamber opera|Chamber Opera]], the [[Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra|National Philharmonic Hall]] and the [[National Theatre, Warsaw|National Theatre]], as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the [[Congress Hall (Warsaw)|Congress Hall]] in the [[Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw|Palace of Culture and Science]], Warsaw hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the [[International Frédéric Chopin Piano Competition|International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition]], the International Contemporary Music Festival [[Warsaw Autumn]], the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw Summer Jazz Days, the International [[Stanisław Moniuszko]] Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.<ref name="salter">{{en icon}} {{cite book |author= |coauthors=Mark Salter, Jonathan Bousfield |title=Poland |year=2002 |editor= |pages= |chapter= | chapterurl = |publisher=Rough Guides |location= |isbn=18-58288-49-5 |url= http://books.google.com/?id=YgQ0B1CNYfQC&pg=PA70&dq=guide+warsaw#PPA128,M1 |accessdate=}}</ref>
   
 
===Museums and art galleries===
 
===Museums and art galleries===
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{| style="float:right;"
 
{| style="float:right;"
 
| {{hidden
 
| {{hidden
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===Media and film===
 
===Media and film===
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[[File:Moderne wolkenkrabber Warschau 0875.png|thumb|Main [[Telewizja Polska|TVP]] headquarters at Woronicza street.]]
 
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{{See also|List of films featuring Warsaw}}
 
[[File:Moderne wolkenkrabber Warschau 0875.PNG|thumb|Main [[Telewizja Polska|TVP]] headquarters at Woronicza street.]]
   
 
Warsaw is the [[mass media|media]] centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of [[Telewizja Polska|TVP]] and other numerous local and national TV and [[radio broadcasting|radio station]]s, such as [[TVN (Poland)|TVN]], [[Polsat]], [[TV4 (Poland)|TV4]], [[TV Puls]], [[Canal+ Poland]], [[Cyfra+]] and [[MTV Poland]].<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=Chris Dziadul |url=http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2007/10/05/a-decade-of-progress/ |title=A decade of progress |work=www.broadbandtvnews.com |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=14 February 2009}}</ref>
 
Warsaw is the [[mass media|media]] centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of [[Telewizja Polska|TVP]] and other numerous local and national TV and [[radio broadcasting|radio station]]s, such as [[TVN (Poland)|TVN]], [[Polsat]], [[TV4 (Poland)|TV4]], [[TV Puls]], [[Canal+ Poland]], [[Cyfra+]] and [[MTV Poland]].<ref>{{en icon}} {{cite web |author=Chris Dziadul |url=http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2007/10/05/a-decade-of-progress/ |title=A decade of progress |work=www.broadbandtvnews.com |publisher= |pages= |page= |date= |accessdate=14 February 2009}}</ref>
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==Education==
 
==Education==
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{{Main|Education in Warsaw}}
 
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[[File:6 Warszawa 159.jpg|thumb|Rococo [[Czapski Palace]] houses the Academy of Fine Arts.]]
 
[[File:6 Warszawa 159.jpg|thumb|Rococo [[Czapski Palace]] houses the Academy of Fine Arts.]]
   
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==Economy==
 
==Economy==
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In 2008, Warsaw was ranked the world's 35th most expensive city to live in.<ref name=glob>{{cite news |url=http://economist.com/markets/indicators/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8860366 |title=Economist Intelligence Unit report |accessdate=15 June 2007 | work=The Economist |date=15 March 2007}}</ref> It was classified as an [[Global city|Alpha-]] world city (also known as a "major world city") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from [[Loughborough University]], placing it on a par with cities such as [[Amsterdam]] or Rome.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html |title=The World According to GaWC 2008 |accessdate=6 September 2009}}</ref> The city also ranked 8th out of 65 cities on [[MasterCard|Mastercard]]'s Emerging Markets Index (2008).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/newsroom/pr_new_mastercard_research_ranks_65_Cities_in_emerging_markets.html |title=New MasterCard Research Ranks 65 Cities in Emerging Markets Poised to Drive Long-Term Global Economic Growth &#124; MasterCard |publisher=Mastercard.com |date=22 October 2008 |accessdate=7 July 2009}}</ref>
 
In 2008, Warsaw was ranked the world's 35th most expensive city to live in.<ref name=glob>{{cite news |url=http://economist.com/markets/indicators/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8860366 |title=Economist Intelligence Unit report |accessdate=15 June 2007 | work=The Economist |date=15 March 2007}}</ref> It was classified as an [[Global city|Alpha-]] world city (also known as a "major world city") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from [[Loughborough University]], placing it on a par with cities such as [[Amsterdam]] or Rome.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html |title=The World According to GaWC 2008 |accessdate=6 September 2009}}</ref> The city also ranked 8th out of 65 cities on [[MasterCard|Mastercard]]'s Emerging Markets Index (2008).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/newsroom/pr_new_mastercard_research_ranks_65_Cities_in_emerging_markets.html |title=New MasterCard Research Ranks 65 Cities in Emerging Markets Poised to Drive Long-Term Global Economic Growth &#124; MasterCard |publisher=Mastercard.com |date=22 October 2008 |accessdate=7 July 2009}}</ref>
   
 
===Business and commerce===
 
===Business and commerce===
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[[File:Warsaw7ob.jpg|thumb|right|Warsaw city centre]]
 
[[File:Warsaw7ob.jpg|thumb|right|Warsaw city centre]]
   
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===Warsaw Stock Exchange===
 
===Warsaw Stock Exchange===
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{{Main|Warsaw Stock Exchange}}
   
 
[[File:169 2 a.jpg|thumb|right|[[Stock exchange|Exchange]] Building, home of the exchange from 1876 until [[World War II]].]]
 
[[File:169 2 a.jpg|thumb|right|[[Stock exchange|Exchange]] Building, home of the exchange from 1876 until [[World War II]].]]
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===Industry===
 
===Industry===
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During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. As a result, numerous large factories were built in and around the city. The largest were the ''Huta Warszawa'' Steel Works, the car factory [[Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych|FSO]] and the tractor factory “Ursus”.
 
During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. As a result, numerous large factories were built in and around the city. The largest were the ''Huta Warszawa'' Steel Works, the car factory [[Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych|FSO]] and the tractor factory “Ursus”.
   
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==Tourist attractions==
 
==Tourist attractions==
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{{Main|Tourist attractions in Warsaw}}
===Sights===
 
   
 
===Sights===
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{{Infobox World Heritage Site
 
{{Infobox World Heritage Site
 
|WHS = Historic Centre of Warsaw
 
|WHS = Historic Centre of Warsaw
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===Warsaw Mermaid===
 
===Warsaw Mermaid===
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[[File:Warsaw Sirene 1659.png|thumb|upright|The 1659 [[Coat of arms of Warsaw|coat of arms of Old Warsaw]] on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books.]]
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[[File:Warsaw Sirene 1659.PNG|thumb|upright|The 1659 [[Coat of arms of Warsaw|coat of arms of Old Warsaw]] on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books.]]
 
{{Main|Coat of arms of Warsaw}}
 
{{Main|Coat of arms of Warsaw}}
   
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==External links==
 
==External links==
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{{Sister project links}}
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*{{Wikitravel}}
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* [http://www.e-warsaw.pl/index.php Official web page of Warsaw] includes 360° panoramas of the [http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/unesco.htm UNESCO listed] region
 
* [http://www.e-warsaw.pl/index.php Official web page of Warsaw] includes 360° panoramas of the [http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/unesco.htm UNESCO listed] region
 
* [http://um.warszawa.pl/mapa/ Interactive city map in Polish]
 
* [http://um.warszawa.pl/mapa/ Interactive city map in Polish]

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