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Vsevolod I Yaroslavich of Kiev
Всеволод Ярославич
, Prince of Pereyaslavl, Prince of Chernigov, Grand Prince of Kiev, was born 1030 to Yaroslav I Vladimirovich of Kiev (c978-1054) and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden (1001-1050) and died 13 April 1093 in Vyshgorod, Vyshhorod Rayon, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine of unspecified causes. He married Anastasia Monomachos (c1035-1067) . He married Anna Polovetskaya (c1050-1111) . Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Sweden.
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Vsevolod I Yaroslavich
Prince of all Rus'

Reign 1078–1093
Predecessor Izyaslav I
Successor Svyatopolk Izyaslavich)
Prince of Pereyaslav
Reign 1054–1073
Prince of Chernigov
Reign 1073–1078
Spouse Anastasia Monomachos (c1035–1067)
Anna Polovetskaya (c1050-1111)
Issue
with Anastasia: Vladimir, Ionna
with Anna: Eupraxia, Rostislav, Catherine, Maria
Full name
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
Dynasty Rurik dynasty
Father Yaroslav the Wise
Mother Ingegerd Olofsdotter (a daughter of Olof Skötkonung)

Vsevolod I Yaroslavich (Russian: Всеволод I Ярославович, Ukrainian: Всеволод I Ярославич, Old Norse: Vissivald), (1030 – 13 April 1093) ruled as Grand Prince of Kiev from 1078 until his death.

Early life

He was the fifth[1] and favourite son of Yaroslav I the Wise by Ingegerd Olofsdotter. He was born around 1030.[2] On his seal from his last years, he was named "Andrei Vsevolodu" in Greek, implying that his baptismal name was Andrew.[3]

To back up an an armistice signed with the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos in 1046, his father married Vsevolod to a Byzantine princess, who according to tradition, was named Anastasia or Maria. That the couple's son Vladimir Monomakh bore the family name of the Byzantine emperor, suggests she was a member of his close family, but no contemporary evidence attests to a specific relationship and accounts of the Emperor give him no such daughter.[4]

Upon his father's death in 1054, he received in appanage the towns of Pereyaslav,[5] Rostov, Suzdal, and the township of Beloozero which would remain in possession of his descendants until the end of Middle Ages. Together with his elder brothers Izyaslav and Svyatoslav he formed a sort of princely triumvirate which jointly waged war on the steppe nomads, Polovtsians, and compiled the first East Slavic law code. In 1055 Vsevolod launched an expedition against the Torks who had in the previous years expelled the Pechenegs from the Pontic steppes.[6] He also made peace with the Polovtsians who appeared for the first time in Europe in the same year.[6] The Polovtsians invaded his principality in 1061 and routed Vsevolod in a battle.[6] Vsevolod persuaded his brother, Izyaslav, and their distant cousin, Vseslav to join him and they together attacked the Torks in 1060.[6]

In 1067 Vsevolod's Greek wife died and he soon married a Kypchak princess, Anna. She bore him another son, who drowned after the Battle of the Stugna River, and daughters, one becoming a nun and another, Eupraxia of Kiev, marrying emperor Heinrich IV of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Polovtsians again invaded Kievan Rus' in 1068.[7] The three brothers united their forces against them, but the Polovtsians routed them in the Battle of the Alta River.[7] After their defeat, Vsevolod withdrew to Pereyaslavl.[8] However, its citizens rose up in open rebellion, dethroned Izyaslav, and liberated and proclaimed Vseslav their grand prince.[9] Vsevolod and Svyatoslav made no attempt to expel the usurper from Kiev.[10]

Vsevolod supported Svyatoslav against Izyaslav.[11] They forced their brother to flee from Kiev in 1073.[11] Feodosy, the saintly hegumen or head of the Monastery of the Caves in Kiev remained loyal to Izyaslav, and refused to had a lunch with Svyatoslav and Vsevolod.[2]

Izyaslav granted Svyatoslav's former principality to Vsevolod, but Sviatoslav's sons considered the Principality of Chernigov as their own patrimony or otchina.[11] Oleg Svyiatoslavich made an alliance with the Polovtsians and invaded Chernigov.[12] Izyaslav came to Vsevolod's rescue and they forced Oleg to retreat, but Izyaslav was killed in the battle.[12][13]

Bilibin justice

Kievan court in the times of Vsevolod I

Reign

After Izyaslav's death, Vsevolod, as their father's only surviving son, took the Kievan throne, thus uniting the three core principalities – Kiev, Chernigov and Pereyaslavl – in Kievan Rus'.[14] He appointed his eldest son, Vladimir Monomach to administer Chernigov.[15][13]

The Russian Primary Chronicle writes that the "people no longer had access to the Prince's justice, judges became corrupt and venal",[16] Vsevolod followed his young councilors' advice instead of that of his old retainers in his last years.[17]

Vsevolod spoke five foreign languages, according to Vladimir Monomach's Autobiography.[18] Historian George Vernadsky, these probably included Greek and Cuman, because of the nationality of his two wives, and he likely spoke Latin, Norse and Ossetian.[19] he lost most of his battles, his eldest son, Vladimir Monomakh, a grand and famous warrior, did most of the fighting for his father. The last years of his reign were clouded by grave illness, and Vladimir Monomakh presided over the government.

Children

Vsevolod and his first wife, a relative of Constantine IX Monomachos, had children:

Vsevolod and his second wife Anna Polovetskaya had children:


Ancestry

See also

References

  1. ^ Martin 1993, p. 32.
  2. ^ a b Raffensperger 2012, p. 99.
  3. ^ Raffensperger 2012, pp. 36, 99.
  4. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander (1989). "Rus'-Byzantine Princely Marriages in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. 12/13: 414–429.
  5. ^ Vernadsky 1948, p. 83.
  6. ^ a b c d Martin 1993, p. 54.
  7. ^ a b Martin 1993, p. 55.
  8. ^ Vernadsky 1948, p. 86.
  9. ^ Martin 1993, pp. 31, 55.
  10. ^ Martin 1993, p. 31.
  11. ^ a b c Martin 1993, p. 33.
  12. ^ a b Martin 1993, p. 57.
  13. ^ a b Vernadsky 1948, p. 87.
  14. ^ Martin 1993, pp. 33, 35.
  15. ^ Martin 1993, pp. 35, 41.
  16. ^ Russian Primary Chronicle (year 6601), p. 174.
  17. ^ Vernadsky 1948, pp. 87, 183.
  18. ^ Vernadsky 1948, p. 291.
  19. ^ Vernadsky 1948, p. 292.
  20. ^ Vernadsky 1948, p. 351.
  21. ^ Vernadsky 1948, pp. 154, 351.
  22. ^ Vernadsky 1948, p. 340.

Sources

  • Dimnik, Martin (1994). The Dynasty of Chernigov, 1054–1146. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 0-88844-116-9. 
  • Franklin, Simon; Shepard, Jonathan (1996). The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Longman. ISBN 0-582-49091X. 
  • Kazhdan, Alexander (1989). "Rus'-Byzantine Princely Marriages in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries". Harvard Ukrainian Studies 12/13: 414–429. 
  • Martin, Janet (1993). Medieval Russia, 980–1584. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67636-6. 
  • Raffensperger, Christian (2012). Reimagining Europe: Kievan Rus' in the Medieval World. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06384-6. 
  • The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text (Translated and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor) (1953). Medieval Academy of America. ISBN 978-0-915651-32-0.
  • Vernadsky, George (1948). A History of Russia, Volume II: Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01647-6. 


External links

Vsevolod I of Kiev
Rurikovich
Born: 1030 Died: 1093
Regnal titles
Preceded by
?
Prince of Pereyaslavl
1054–1073
Succeeded by
Vladimir Vsevolodich
Preceded by
Svyatoslav Yaroslavich
Prince of Chernigov
1073–1076
Succeeded by
Vladimir Monomakh
Preceded by
Boris Vyacheslavich
Prince of Chernigov
1073–1078
Succeeded by
Oleg Svyatoslavich
Preceded by
Svyatoslav Yaroslavich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1076–1093
Succeeded by
Svyatopolk Izyaslavich



Children


Offspring of Vsevolod I Yaroslavich of Kiev
Всеволод Ярославич and Anastasia Monomachos (c1035-1067)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev (1053-1125) 1053 19 May 1125 Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098)
Yefimiya (c1078-1107)
Unknown Cuman

Anna Vsevolodovna of Kiev (c1055-1112) 1055 3 November 1112 Kiev, Ukraine

Offspring of Vsevolod I Yaroslavich of Kiev
Всеволод Ярославич and Anna Polovetskaya (c1050-1111)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Rostislav Vsevolodich of Kiev (1070-1093) 1070 20 May 1093
Eupraxia of Kiev (1071-1109) 1071 20 July 1109 Heinrich IV of the Holy Roman Empire (1050-1106)

Yekaterina Vsevolodovna of Kiev (c1073-1108) 1073 1108
Mariya Vsevolodovna of Kiev (c1075-1089) 1075 1089

Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

Contributors

  Afil

Siblings


Offspring of Yaroslav I Vladimirovich of Kiev
(Ярослав Владимирович Мудрый, великий князь киевский) and Nomen nescio
Name Birth Death Joined with
Ilya Yaroslavich of Novgorod (1018-c1034) 1018 1034

Offspring of Yaroslav I Vladimirovich of Kiev
(Ярослав Владимирович Мудрый, великий князь киевский) and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden (1001-1050)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vladimir Yaroslavich of Novgorod (1020-1052) 1020 Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Novgorod Urban Okrug, Novgorod Oblast, Russia 4 October 1052 Veliky Novgorod, Veliky Novgorod Urban Okrug, Novgorod Oblast, Russia Nomen nescio

Anastasya Yaroslavna of Kiev (1023-c1074) 1023 1074 Andrew I of Hungary (c1014-1060)

Izyaslav I Yaroslavich of Kiev (1024-1078) 1024 3 October 1078 Gertrude of Poland (c1025-1108)

Anna Yaroslavna of Kiev (c1028-1075) 1024 1075 Henry I of France (1008-1060)
Raoul IV de Vexin (?-1074)

Daughter
Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich of Kiev (1027-1076) 1027 27 December 1076 Kiev Cecilia of Dithmarschen (c1030-c1070)
Oda von Babenberg (c1040-c1087)

Vsevolod I Yaroslavich of Kiev (1030-1093) 1030 13 April 1093 Vyshgorod, Vyshhorod Rayon, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine Anastasia Monomachos (c1035-1067)
Anna Polovetskaya (c1050-1111)

Vyacheslav Yaroslavich of Smolensk (1036-1057) 1036 Kiev, Ukraine 1057 Oda of Stade (c1036-c1075)

Yelizaveta Yaroslavna of Kiev (1025-1067) 1025 1067 Harald III Hardrada (c1046-1066)

Igor Yaroslavich of Volhynia (1036-1060) 1036 Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia 1060 Smolensk, Smolensk Oblast, Russia Kunigunde of Orlamünde

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