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Vsevolod Yuryevich the Big Nest Rurik of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev, was born 1154 to Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev (c1090-1157) and Olga NN (c1120-c1183) and died 12 April 1212 of unspecified causes. He married Mariya Shvarnovna of Ossetia (c1155-c1205) 1170 JL . He married Lyubov Vasilkovna (c1192-c1240) 1209 JL . Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, the Byzantine Empire. Vsevolod III Yuryevich, or Vsevolod the Big Nest (Russian: Все́волод III Ю́рьевич Большо́е Гнездо́) (1154–1212), was the Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal during whose long reign (1177–1212) the city reached the zenith of its glory.
Russia-Vladimir-Cathedral of Demetrius-4

Vsevolod's Christian name was Dmitri, so he dedicated his palace church to St. Demetrius, his patron saint.

The All-Volod Yurievich Bolshoe Nest (baptized Dmitri, 1154 - April 15, 1212 ) - the Grand Duke of Vladimir since 1176 . The son of Yuri Dolgoruky, the younger brother of Andrei of Bogolyubovo [1] . With him, the Grand Principality of Vladimir reached its highest power. Got the nickname "Big Nest" because he had a large offspring - 12 children, including eight sons. During five weeks (from February to March 24, 1173 ) ha reigned as Grand Prince of Kiev. In Russian historiography he is sometimes called Vsevolod III .

The reign of Vsevolod is the period of the highest rise of the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. The reasons for Vsevolod's successes are reliance on new cities (Vladimir, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Dmitrov, Gorodets, Kostroma, Tver), where the boyars before him were relatively weak, as well as reliance on the nobility .

In the Laurentian Chronicle, beginning in 1186, Vsevolod is referred to as the “Grand Prince”, which affected the influence of the Pereyaslav Chronicle (Pereyaslavl-Zalessky), while earlier events were described based on the Vladimir Chronicle [2].

Biography

In 1162, together with his mother and brothers Mstislav and Vasilko, was expelled by Andrei of Bogolyubovo, and went to Constantinople to the emperor Manuel I Komnenos. [3] At the age of fifteen, he returned to Russia and, having made peace with Andrei of Bogolyubovo, in 1169, together with other Allied princes, took part in the march on Kiev. In 1173, on order of his elder brother, Mikhail Yuryevich, he ruled Kiev with Yaropolk Rostislavich and was soon captured by the Smolensk Rostislavichi who had captured the city. Redeemed from captivity by Mikhail. [4]

Power struggle in Vladimir

Main article: The internecine war in North-Eastern Russia (1174–1177)

After the Andrei's murder (1174), together with his elder brother Mikhail, and after the latter's death (1176), independently, he fought for power in the Vladimir-Suzdal principality with his nephews, [[Mstislav Yuryevich of Novgorod (c1117-1166)[Mstislav]] and Yaropolk Rostislavich. Enjoyed the support of Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich Chernigov. June 1176 27 the year inflicted a decisive defeat Mstislav, and in early 1177 broke his ally, Gleb of Ryazan, imprisoning him and the Rostislavich. Gleb Rostislavich of Ryazan (c1127-1177) soon died in the Vladimir prison, and Rostislavich were blinded and released. Mstislav soon died, and Yaropolk was then taken prisoner by Vsevolod (1181) and expelled at the request of Vsevolod by his political opponents (1196).

Strengthening the foreign policy position of the principality

See also: Northern campaign of Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich

Roman Glebovich became the prince of Ryazan, married Svyatoslav's daughter, but already in 1180 Vsevolod broke an alliance with Svyatoslav, refusing to concentrate Roman power in Ryazan. Svyatoslav undertook a punitive campaign against Vsevolod, which ended in vain standing on the Wlen River. Moreover, Svyatoslav's son was expelled from Novgorod , and over the next 3 decades representatives of Vsevolod reigned there. In particular, releasing the eldest son of Konstantin to the Novgorod reign (1205), Vsevolod made a speech:

" to my son, Constantine, God put the elders in your brother for the second time, and Novgorod, the Great Eldership as a prince in all Ruska earth "

Vsevolod the Big Nest continued the fight with the Volga Bulgaria and the Mordovians (campaigns 1183 and 1185 [5] ), including with Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich's help , from whose side a unique appeal to Vsevolod ( brother and son ) was recorded . In 1185 [5]Vsevolod conducted a new invasion of the Ryazan principality .

In 1189 he took under the patronage of the Princes of Halych Vladimir Yaroslavich, his nephew.

In 1194, Svetoslav Vsevolodovich met with his brothers in Rogov and went on a campaign against the Ryazan princes because of a border dispute, simultaneously asking permission of Vsevolod Yuryevich, but he refused, and the troops had to be deployed from Karachev.

Politics in the south after Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich's death

See also: The civil war in Russia (1196)

After the death of Svyatoslav at the Kiev principality ( 1194 ), Ryurik Rostislavich gave to his son-in-law Roman a rather large volost in the Kiev region in Porosye, which included five cities: Torchesk, Trepol, Korsun, Boguslav and Kanev . Vsevolod the Big Nest, for the recognition of which as the eldest in the Monomakh family, Ryurik went, claimed for himself [[Roman[['s parish, giving Ryuryk Rostislav to his son Torchesk. So Vsevolod destroyed the union of the southern Monomakhs [6], so as not to lose influence on the southern affairs. Ol'govichi had a successful campaign against Davyd of Smolensk in 1195 . In 1196, Chernigov prepared for the defense of their capital from Ryurik of Kiev, made caches along the path of the supposed offensive of Smolensk and Vladimir troops and put their main forces behind the cages. Ryurik was forced to use part of his southern forces (Mstislav Romanovich and Rostislav Ryurikovich) and the Galician allies (Vladimir Yaroslavich) to distract Roman Volynsky. It did not come to battles, but the Olgovichi gave up their claims to Kiev during the life of Ryurik and Smolensk during the life of Davyd. Moreover, Vsevolod made peace with the Olgoviches, despite the fact that they rejected the terms of breaking the alliance with Roman Volynsky, which caused Ryurik’s indignation and the complete withdrawal of Vsevolod’s possessions in Kyiv region. One of the conditions of the world was the issuance of Yaropolk Rostislavich Vsevolod, probably previously released again.

Saint Demetrios de Thessalonique

Ordered by Dimitriy Vsevolod icon depicting saint named for him . It is not excluded portrait similarity with the customer.

In April-June 1198, Vsevolod conducted a campaign against the Don Polovtsy, defeating their wintering grounds , that is, penetrated the southern part of the areas they occupied. And instead of the usual spring migration to the north, they had to flee further south, to the sea , in order to avoid a collision with Vsevolod.

The balance of forces in the south has changed dramatically with the coming to power in Galicia (1199) and Kiev (1201) Roman Galitsky . The Lavrentiev Chronicle, close to Vsevolod, reports that Vsevolod and Roman were imprisoned on the Kiev principality of Ingvar Yaroslavich , Roman's cousin (similarly (by Vsevolod’s will), she explains the construction of Rurik Rostislavich in Kiev in 1194). Rurik Rostislavich united his efforts with the Olgovichi and Polovtsy, but achieved only the defeat of Kiev (02.01.1203) - the second in the history of strife. Rurik was captured by Roman and tonsured as a monk, but the need to take into account the interests of Vsevolod made Roman recognize the Kiev prince of Rostislav Rurikovich .

After Roman's death (1205), at the invitation of the Hungarian king, the son of Vsevolod Yaroslav attempted to occupy Galich, which was also claimed by the Seversk Olgovichi. A new quarrel began, Vsevolod lost the southern principality of Pereyaslavl, and Ryurik lost Kiev. In response, Vsevolod in 1207 , announcing a march on Chernigov, instead crushed Chernigov allies in the Ryazan principality, captured 6 princes, put his son [[Yaroslav] in charge, and after the uprising of Ryazan in 1208, he burned Ryazan. But Ryurik, who returned to Kiev's reign, did not return Pereyaslavl to Vsevolod, and in 1209 the interests of Vsevolod were directly confronted in Novgorod with the interests of Smolensk Rostislavich (there Mstislav Mstislavich Udatny). Then the Ol'govichi people offered the world to Vsevolod Yuryevich: Vsevolod Chermnyy sat in Kiev, Rurik Rostislavich [7] - in Chernihiv, Pereyaslavl returned under the control of Vsevolod (1210). To commemorate the world, Yury Vsevolodovich Vladimir of Vladimir married the Chernigov princess Agafya Vsevolodovna (1211).

Last years

In 1211, the question of succession to the throne arose: the eldest son of Vsevolod Konstantin Vsevolodovich (married to the prince of Smolensk ) demanded that both the elder cities, Vladimir and Rostov, give Yuri Suzdal. Then Vsevolod " convened all his boyars from towns and volosts and Bishop John, and hegumen, and priests, and merchants, and nobles, and all the people, " and this council confirmed Vsevolod's decision to deprive Konstantin of the rights to a great reign in favor of Yuri: sat in Vladimir, and Konstantin in Rostov. This was the cause of the war between them after the Vsevolod's death.

The remains of Vsevolod are kept in the Andreevsky side-chapel of the Dormition Cathedral of Vladimir.

Results of Vsevolod's reign

The main outcomes of Vsevolod's reign was the massacre of the boyars of Rostov to resist the prince's power, the expansion of the territory of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, decoration Vladimir Dmitrievsky and Christmas cathedrals, kremlom- detintsem . The chronicler speaks of his piety and poverty of love and adds that the prince judged the true and unfeigned by the court.

After the death of Vsevolod in Northeast Russia, appanage princedoms were formed: Suzdal , Pereyaslavl (with Tver , Dmitrov ), Rostov (with Beloozer, Ustyug, Yaroslavl, Uglich, Yuryev, Starodub.

After the death of Vsevolod, the influence of the Vladimir princes on South Russian affairs ceased [8]

Family

Vsevolod was the tenth or eleventh son of Yuri Dolgoruky, who founded the town Dmitrov to commemorate the site of Vsevolod's birth. Historian Nikolai Karamzin (1766 - 1826) initiated the speculation identifying Vsevolod's mother Helene as a Greek princess, because after her husband's death she took Vsevolod with her to Constantinople.

Vsevolod spent his youth at the chivalric court of the Komnenos. On his return from the Byzantine Empire to Rus' in 1170, Vsevolod supposedly visited Tbilisi, as a local chronicle records that on that year the Georgian king entertained his nephew from Constantinople and married him to his relative, an Ossetian princess.

Reign

In 1173, Vsevolod was briefly installed on the Kievan throne and taken prisoner by two Smolensk princes who captured the town. Ransomed a year later, he took his brother Mikhalko's side in his struggle against the powerful boyars of Rostov and Suzdal. Upon Mikhalko's death, Vsevolod succeeded him in Vladimir. He promptly subjugated the boyars and systematically raided the Volga peoples, notably the Volga Bulgarians. He installed his puppets on the throne of Novgorod and married his daughters to princes of Chernigov and Kiev.
Saint Demetrios de Thessalonique

Vsevolod's icon shows his patron saint, St. Demetrius, drawing a sword from a scabbard

Vsevolod showed little mercy to those who disobeyed his word. In 1180 and 1187, he punished the princes of Ryazan by ousting them from their lands. In 1207, he burnt to the ground both Ryazan and Belgorod. His military fame spread quickly. The Tale of Igor's Campaign, thought to be written during Vsevolod's reign, addresses him thus:

Great prince Vsevolod! Don't you think of flying here from afar to safeguard the paternal golden throne of Kiev? For you can with your oars scatter in drops the Volga, and with your helmets scoop dry the Don.

But Kievan matters concerned Vsevolod little in the latter part of his reign. He concentrated on making his own capital, Vladimir. His Ossetian wife, Maria Shvarnovna, who devoted herself to the works of piety and founded several convents, was glorified by the Russian church as a saint. By her Vsevolod had fourteen children, thus earning for himself the sobriquet Big Nest. Four of them—Konstantin, Yuri, Yaroslav and |Svyatoslav—succeeded him as Grand Princes of Vladimir. He died on April 12, 1212 and was buried at the Dormition Cathedral of Vladimir.

Marriage and children

Vsevolod married first Maria Shvarnovna, whose origins are disputed. She has been variously identified as Ossetian, Alan and Moravian. They had at least fourteen children:

Maria died in 1205 or 1206. Vsevolod married Lyubov Vasilkovna in 1209. She was a daughter of Vasilko Bryachislavich, Prince of Vitebsk. They had no known children.



Children


Offspring of Vsevolod Yuryevich of Vladimir
Всеволод III Юрьевич Большое Гнездо and Mariya Shvarnovna of Ossetia (c1155-c1205)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Sbyslava (Pelaghea) Vsevolodovna (1178-c1180)
Vseslava Vsevolodovna (c1180-c1230)
Verchoslava Vsevolodovna (c1182-c1249) 1182 1249 Rostislav II of Kiev (1172-1218)

Konstantin Vsevolodovich of Rostov (1186-1218) 18 May 1186 Rostov, Rostov Rayon, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia 2 February 1238 Mariya Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1187-1220)

Boris Vsevolodovich (c1187-1188)
Gleb Vsevolodovich (c1188-1189)
Yuri II Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (1189-1238) 26 November 1189 Suzdal, Suzdal Rayon, Vladimir Oblast, Russia 4 March 1238 Agafia Vsevolodovna (c1195-1238)

Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (1191-1246) 8 February 1191 30 September 1249 Karakorum NN Yuryevna of Cumania (c1192-c1212)
Rostislava Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1202-1244)
Feodosya Igoryevna of Ryazan (1194-1244)

Vladimir Vsevolodovich of Starodub (1192-1227) 26 October 1192 6 January 1227 Starodub-on-the-Klyazma, Kovrov Rayon, Vladimir Oblast, Russia NN Glebovna of Chernigov (c1195-c1230)

Alyona Vsevolodovna (c1194-1203)
Svyatoslav III Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (1196-1252) 27 March 1196 3 February 1252 Yevdokiya Davydovna of Murom (c1205-c1240)

Ivan Vsevolodovich of Starodub (1197-1247) 28 August 1197 1247 Nomen nescio

Anna Vsevolodovna (c1200-c1250)

Siblings


Offspring of Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev
(Юрий Владимирович Долгорукий, великий князь киевский) and Anna of Cumania (c1092-c1135)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Rostislav Yuryevich of Pereyaslavl (c1108-1151) 1108 1151
Ivan Yuryevich of Kursk (c1109-1147) 1109 24 February 1147 Koltesk, Kashira Rayon, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Olga Yuryevna of Kiev (c1110-1189) 1110 14 July 1189 Yaroslav Vladimirovich Osmomysl (c1135-1187)

Andrei I Yuryevich of Bogolyubovo (c1111-1174) 1111 28 June 1174 Ulita Stepanovna Kuchka

Mariya Yuryevna (c1112-1166) 1112 1166
Svyatoslav Yuryevich (c1113-1174) 1113 1174
Yaroslav Yuryevich (c1114-1166) 1114 1166
Gleb Yuryevich of Kiev (c1115-1171) 1115 20 January 1171 NN
Daughter of Izyaslav Davydovich (c1137-c1185)

Boris Yuryevich of Belgorod (c1116-1159) 1116 2 May 1159 Suzdal, Suzdal Rayon, Vladimir Oblast, Russia Mariya of Belgorod (c1120-c1175)

Mstislav Yuryevich of Novgorod (c1117-1166) 1117 1166 NN Petrovna of Novgorood (c1122-c1270)

Vasilko Yuryevich of Suzdal (c1118-c1162) 1118 1162

Offspring of Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev
(Юрий Владимирович Долгорукий, великий князь киевский) and Olga NN (c1120-c1183)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Yelena Yuryevna (c1140-1165) 1140 1165 Oleg Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Seversky (c1137-1180)

Mikhalko Yuryevich of Vladimir (c1150-1176) 1150 20 June 1176
Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir (1154-1212) 1154 12 April 1212 Mariya Shvarnovna of Ossetia (c1155-c1205)
Lyubov Vasilkovna (c1192-c1240)

 


Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

Contributors

  Afil

Vsevolod Yuryevich
Born: 1154 Died: 1212
Preceded by
?
Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal
1149
Succeeded by
Vyacheslav Vladimirovich
Preceded by
?
Grand Prince of Kiev
1155
Succeeded by
?
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