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Voronezh (English)
Воронеж (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Главное здание управления ЮВЖД
View of Voronezh
Missing map
Coat of arms of Voronezh
Flag of Voronezh
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day Third Saturday of September[2]
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Voronezh Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Voronezh Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Voronezh Oblast,[1] Voronezh Urban Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2005)
Urban okrug Voronezh Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Voronezh Urban Okrug[3]
Mayor Vadim Kstenin
Representative body City Duma
Statistics
Area 601 km2 (232 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 889,680 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 15th
Population (January 1, 2016 est.) 1,032,895 inhabitants[6]
Density 1,480 /km2 (3,800 /sq mi)[7]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
Founded 1585[9] or much earlier[10]
City status since 1585[11]
Postal code(s) 394000–394095[12]
Dialing code(s) +7 473[13]
Official website

Voronezh (Russian: Воро́неж, IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, and the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-DonNovorossiysk). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895;[6] up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census;[5] it is the fourteenth most populous city in the country.

HistoryEdit

Foundation and nameEdit

Vrn-central

Center of Voronezh at night

Voronezh originates as a settlement of the Kievan Rus in about the 12th century, first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex (dated 1177). The Voronezh River is likely named for the settlement, then in the Principality of Chernigov.[14] The toponym is usually derived from a Slavic personal name Voroneg, apparently a derivation from voron "raven", [15] The comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009.[16]

Folk etymology displays the name of the city from a raven and a hedgehog (Воронеж = Ворон(Raven) + Еж(hedgehog)); allegedly the Slavs called it a river in honor of their tribes, named in turn in honor of the animals concerned. Science does not seriously consider this version.

Voronezh was presumably still in existence when Chernigov was absorbed into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century;[17] Voronezh itself was not part of the territory of the Grand Duchy, the middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, during the 15th century formed part of the marshes separating the Grand Duchies of Lithuania and Muscovy from the Golden Horde. In the 16th century, the area was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde (a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.[9]

17th to 20th centuriesEdit

Памятник Петру 1

A monument to Peter the Great

Гото Предестинация у Адмиралтейской площади

Voronezh. Ship Museum Goto Predestinatsia


In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645.[18] Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.

Voronezhold

View of Voronezh in the 18th century

Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.

In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871.

During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. In July 24 frontline was stabilised along Voronezh river. This was the opening move of Case Blue.

Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied west part of Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.

1950s–2000sEdit

By 1950, Voronezh had been rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. It was also the location of a prestigious Suvorov Military School, a boarding school for young boys who were considered to be prospective military officers, many of whom had been orphaned by war.[19]

In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others. In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October 1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there.

In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the Associated Press that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they published",[20] and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also fantasizing".[21][22]

2010sEdit

From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.[23]

On December 17, 2012, Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia with a population of over one million people.[24]

Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Мэрия.Воронеж

The Mayor's office of Voronezh

Districts of voronezh

Administrative districts of Voronezh

Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[3]

City divisionsEdit

The city is divided into six administrative districts:

DemographicsEdit

Demographic Evolution
1615 1777 1840 1897 1923 1939 1959 1973 1989 1997
7,000 13,000 43,800 80,599 95,000 326,932 447,164 713,000 886,844 905,000
2010[5] 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016[6]
889,680 979,884 991,269 1,003,638 1,014,610 1,023,570 1,032,895

Note: 1926–1970 and 2016 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are census urban population only.

EconomyEdit

The leading sectors of the urban economy in the 20th century were mechanical engineering, metalworking, the electronics industry and the food industry.

In the city are such companies as:

RIAN archive 566221 Tu-144 passenger airliner

Tupolev Tu-144

  • Voronezhselmash (agricultural engineering)
  • Sozvezdie[25] (headquarter, JSC Concern “Sozvezdie”, in 1958 the world's first created mobile telephony and wireless telephone Altai
  • Verofarm (pharmaceutics, owner Abbott Laboratories),
  • Voronezh Mechanical Plant[26] (production of missile and aircraft engines, oil and gas equipment)
  • Mining Machinery Holding - RUDGORMASH[27] (production of drilling, mineral processing and mining equipment)
  • VNiiPM Research Institute of Semiconductor Engineering[28] (equipment for plasma-chemical processes, technical-chemical equipment for liquid operations, water treatment equipment)
  • KBKhA Chemical Automatics Design Bureau with notable products:.[29]
  • Pirelli Voronezh.[30]

On the territory of the city district government Maslovka Voronezh region with the support of the Investment Fund of Russia is implementing a project to create an industrial park, "Maslowski", to accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including transformer factory of Siemens. September 7, 2011 in Voronezh opened Global network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the fifth in the world and first in Russia.

BuildingEdit

In 2014, 926,000 square meters of housing was delivered.[31]

Clusters of VoronezhEdit

In clusters of tax incentives and different preferences, the full support of the authorities. A cluster of Oil and Gas Equipment, Radio-electronic cluster, Furniture cluster, IT cluster, Cluster aircraft, Cluster Electromechanics, Transport and logistics cluster, Cluster building materials and technologies.[32]

TransportationEdit

AirEdit

The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh aircraft production association) where the Tupolev Tu-144 (known in the West as the "Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still stored. Voronezh also hosts the Voronezh Malshevo air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.

RailEdit

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow.[33] Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov. The main train station is called Voronezh-1 Railway Station. Train Station Voronezh, Russia


BusEdit

There are three Bus Stations in Voronezh that connect the city with a large number of destinations including Moscow, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan and many more.

ClimateEdit

Voronezh experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with long, cold winters and short, warm summers.[34]

Climate data for Voronezh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
11.0
(51.8)
18.4
(65.1)
29.2
(84.6)
35.7
(96.3)
38.9
(102.0)
40.1
(104.2)
40.5
(104.9)
32.1
(89.8)
26.5
(79.7)
18.1
(64.6)
12.4
(54.3)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−3
(26.6)
2.9
(37.2)
13.9
(57.0)
21.1
(70.0)
24.5
(76.1)
26.6
(79.9)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66.0)
10.9
(51.6)
2.3
(36.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
11.5
(52.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1
(30.2)
8.3
(46.9)
14.8
(58.6)
18.5
(65.3)
20.5
(68.9)
19.2
(66.6)
13.3
(55.9)
6.9
(44.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−5
(23.0)
6.9
(44.4)
Average low °C (°F) −8.8
(16.2)
−9.3
(15.3)
−4.2
(24.4)
3.6
(38.5)
9.3
(48.7)
13.2
(55.8)
15.2
(59.4)
13.7
(56.7)
8.7
(47.7)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.6
(18.3)
2.9
(37.2)
Record low °C (°F) −36.5
(−33.7)
−36.2
(−33.2)
−32
(−25.6)
−16.8
(1.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
−1.6
(29.1)
5.0
(41.0)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.2
(22.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−33.4
(−28.1)
−36.5
(−33.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
37
(1.46)
33
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
46
(1.81)
74
(2.91)
62
(2.44)
52
(2.05)
61
(2.4)
50
(1.97)
46
(1.81)
44
(1.73)
584
(22.99)
Avg. rainy days 8 6 8 12 13 15 13 10 13 14 13 9 134
Avg. snowy days 21 20 14 3 0.2 0 0 0 0.1 3 12 20 93
humidity 84 82 77 66 61 67 68 67 73 79 85 85 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 86 125 184 268 284 286 254 185 111 45 38 1,928
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,[35]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[36]

Education and cultureEdit

A parkway in Koltsovsky Garden Square, Voronezh, Russia

Snow at night in a Voronezh park

The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:

  • Voronezh State University
  • Voronezh State Technical University
  • Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
  • Voronezh State Pedagogical University
  • Voronezh State Agricultural University
  • Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
  • Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
  • Voronezh State Academy of Arts
  • Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov
  • Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training
  • Voronezh Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry
  • Voronezh Military Aviation Engineering University
  • Voronezh Institute of High Technologies
  • Voronezh Air Force Academy named after Prof. Zhukovsky and Gagarin
  • Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (Voronezh branch)
  • Russian State University of Justice[37]
  • Admiral Makarov State University of Sea and River Fleet (Voronezh branch)
  • International Institute of Computer Technologies
  • Voronezh Institute of Economics and Law

and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.

TheatersEdit

FestivalsEdit

Platonov International Arts Festival[42]

SportsEdit

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Fakel Voronezh Football 1947 Russian Football National League 2nd Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion
Energy Voronezh Football 1989 Women's Premier League 1st Rudgormash Stadium
Buran Voronezh Ice Hockey 1977 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yubileyny Sports Palace
VC Voronezh Volleyball 2006 Women's Higher Volleyball League A 2nd Kristall Sports Complex

ReligionEdit

Annunciation Cathedral in Voronezh1

Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Voronezh

Orthodox Christianity is the prevalent religion in Voronezh.

There is an orthodox Jewish community in Voronezh, with a synagogue located on Stankevicha Street.[43][44]

Notable peopleEdit

Nikolay Ge 015

Nikolai Ge. Mary, sister of Lazarus, meets Jesus who is going to their house

Sister CitiesEdit

Source:[45]

Date   Sister City
1968 Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic[46][47]
1989 Germany Wesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany
1991 United States Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
1992 People's Republic of China Chongqing, China
1995 Bulgaria Sliven, Bulgaria
1996 Spain León, Castile and León, Spain[48]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #87-OZ
  2. ^ "День города Воронеж 2015". http://mir36.ru/news/events/den-goroda-voronezh-2015/. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c Law #66-OZ
  4. ^ "База данных показателей муниципальных образований". http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/munst/munst20/DBInet.cgi. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Voronezh Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. [1], Voronezhstat.gks.ru, (Russian)
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ a b "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in Russian) (DOC). Муниципальное учреждение культуры Централизованная библиотечная система города Воронежа Центральная городская библиотека имени А. Платонова. 2009. http://www.voronezh-city.ru/mat/history.doc. Retrieved March 28, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in Russian). Вести. August 19, 2010. http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=386902. Retrieved March 28, 2012. 
  11. ^ "История". http://www.voronezh-city.ru/city/history/. Retrieved 2016-12-16. 
  12. ^ "Каталог компаний, справочник компаний России: Желтые страницы России - Евро Адрес". Archived from the original on August 30, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090830143126/http://www.e-adres.ru/postcodes/3800347/. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Рекетнммши Йнд Цнпндю Бнпнмеф". http://www.kody.su/telcodes/russia/voronezh. Retrieved 2016-12-16. 
  14. ^ The existence of the 12th-century settlement is assumed in the historical atlas by Karl Spruner von Merz (1855), Die Völker und Reiche der Slaven zwichen Elbe und Don bis 1125, showing Woronesch on the river Woronesch (high-resolution scan at davidrumsey.com).
  15. ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 104.
  16. ^ А. Лазарев. "Тайна имени Воронежъ" (The Mystery of the Name of Voronezh), 2009.
  17. ^ Woroneż (Wronasz) is shown on the Woroneż river by Stefan Kuczyński (1936) in a historical map of 15th-century Chernigov, «Ziemie Czernihowsko-Siewierskie pod rządami Litwy».
  18. ^ Russiæ, vulgo Moscovia, pars australis in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus in quo Tabulæ et Descriptiones Omnium Regionum, Editæ a Guiljel et Ioanne Blaeu, 1645.
  19. ^ Alex Levin, Under The Yellow & Red Stars Script error (Azrieli Foundation, 2009), pp. 45ff., "The Suvorov Military School".
  20. ^ Dahlberg, John-Thor (October 11, 1989). "Voronzeh Scientist Quoted by TASS Casts Doubt on UFO Landing Story". Associated Press. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1917&dat=19891011&id=-xQxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=y-AFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1042,2604606. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "UFO lands in Russia? Writer now waffles". United Press International. October 10, 1989. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=860&dat=19891010&id=y4FUAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Wo8DAAAAIBAJ&pg=6525,5193036. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  22. ^ Fein, Esther B.; Times, Special To The New York (11 October 1989). "U.F.O. Landing Is Fact, Not Fantasy, the Russians Insist". The New York Times: p. 6. https://www.nytimes.com/1989/10/11/world/ufo-landing-is-fact-not-fantasy-the-russians-insist.html. 
  23. ^ Интерактивная карта подготовки к 425-летию основания Воронежа (рус.). Сайт администрации города Воронеж (31.08.11). Проверено 24 января 2011
  24. ^ "В Воронеже родился миллионный житель". РБК. http://top.rbc.ru/society/17/12/2012/836948.shtml. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Главная страница - АО "Концерн «Созвездие"". http://sozvezdie.su/. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  26. ^ "Voronezh Mechanical Plant". http://vmzvrn.ru/eng/. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  27. ^ "MMHC RUDGORMASH Mining Machinery Holding Company". http://www.mmhc-rudgormash.com. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  28. ^ "НИИПМ-->О компании-->Институт сегодня". http://www.vniipm.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  29. ^ ""Конструкторское Бюро Химавтоматики" - Главная". http://www.kbkha.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Pirelli, Russian Technologies joint venture launches technologically advanced second production line at Voronezh". http://www.pirelli.com/corporate/en/press/2013/01/30/pirelli-russian-technologies-joint-venture-launches-technologically-advanced-second-production-line-at-voronezh/. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Официальный портал органов власти". http://www.govvrn.ru/wps/portal/gov/!ut/p/a1/04_Sj9CPykssy0xPLMnMz0vMAfGjzOI9AryNPAwtjLz8_QwMDRyNPNx9jENDvIzNTIEKIoEKDHAARwNC-sP1o8BK8JhQkBthkO6oqAgAOPy3bA!!/?1dmy&current=true&urile=wcm%3Apath%3A%2Fvrnmain%2Fmain%2Fregularcontent%2Fnews%2Fnew%2B10042015%2Bs4. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Главная - ЦКР". http://www.cluster36.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Жд вокзал Воронеж | Оригинал жд билета | Жд билеты | Международный аэропорт "Стригино" г. Нижний Новгород, РЖД билет, купить ж д билет, рейсы самолетов в нижний новгород, телефоны справочного бюро аэропорта стригино, заказ ж/д билетов, стоимость жд билетов, билеты на поезд, бронирование, авиарейсы - Аэропорт Нижний Новгород - Нижегородский аэропорт - сайт аэропорта нижний новгород стригино - МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ АЭРОПОРТ НИЖНИЙ НОВГОРОД". http://www.nnov-airport.ru/rus/wokzal_voronezh.html. Retrieved 2016-12-16. 
  34. ^ "Voronezh, Russia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". https://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather-summary.php3?s=22143&cityname=Voronezh,+Voronezj,+Russia&units=. 
  35. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/climate/34123.htm. Retrieved December 10, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Voronez (Voronezh) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/TABLES/REG_VI/RE/34122.TXT. Retrieved December 10, 2015. 
  37. ^ "О филиале". http://cb.rgup.ru/?mod=pages&id=1261. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Воронежский камерный театр". Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150821130235/http://chambervrn.ru/o-teatre.html. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Воронежский Академический Театр драмы им. А. Кольцова". http://www.voronezhdrama.ru. Retrieved July 22, 2015. 
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SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Charlotte Hobson's book, Black Earth City, is an account of life in Voronezh at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her experiences after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991–1992.
  • Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinist rule.

External linksEdit

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