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{{About|the title|the surname|Vogt (surname)|the place|Vogt, Germany}}
 
{{About|the title|the surname|Vogt (surname)|the place|Vogt, Germany}}
 
[[File:Chełmoński Trial before the village mayor.png|thumb|350px|''Trial before the wójt '' by [[Józef Chełmoński]] (1873), [[National Museum, Warsaw|National Museum]] in [[Warsaw]]]]
 
[[File:Chełmoński Trial before the village mayor.png|thumb|350px|''Trial before the wójt '' by [[Józef Chełmoński]] (1873), [[National Museum, Warsaw|National Museum]] in [[Warsaw]]]]
A '''''Vogt''''' (from the [[Old High German]], also ''Voigt'' or ''Fauth''); plural '''''Vögte'''''; [[Dutch language|Dutch]] (land)''voogd''; [[Swedish language|Swedish]] ''fogde''; [[Danish language|Danish]] ''foged''; {{lang-pl|wójt}}; ultimately from [[Latin]] ''[ad]vocatus'', in the [[Holy Roman Empire]] was a title of a [[reeve]] or [[advocate (historical)|advocate]], an overlord (mostly of [[nobility]]) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (''[[Blutgericht]]'') over a certain territory. The territory or area of responsibility of a Vogt is called a ''Vogtei'' (from ''[ad]vocatia''). The term also denotes a mayor of a village.
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A '''''Vogt''''' (from the [[Old High German]], also ''Voigt'' or ''Fauth''); plural '''''Vögte'''''; [[Dutch language|Dutch]] (land)''voogd''; [[Swedish language|Swedish]] ''fogde''; [[Danish language|Danish]] ''foged''; {{lang-pl|wójt}}; ultimately from [[Latin]] ''[ad]vocatus'', in the [[Holy Roman Empire]] was a title of a [[reeve]] or [[advocate (historical)|advocate]], an overlord (mostly of [[nobility]]) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (''[[Blutgericht]]'') over a certain territory. The territory or area of responsibility of a Vogt is called a ''Vogtei'' (from ''[ad]vocatia''). The term also denotes a mayor of a village.
   
 
==Frankish Empire==
 
==Frankish Empire==
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===Church ''vogt''===
 
===Church ''vogt''===
In private and family monasteries (see [[proprietary church]]) the proprietor himself often also held the office of ''Vogt'', frequently retaining it after reform of the proprietorship (see also [[Lay abbot]]).
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In private and family monasteries (see [[proprietary church]]) the proprietor himself often also held the office of ''Vogt'', frequently retaining it after reform of the proprietorship (see also [[Lay abbot]]).
   
The three-way struggle for control of the ''Vogtei'' of the more important abbacies, played out among the central monarchy, the Church and the territorial nobility,<ref>This institutional struggle is analysed by Theodor Mayer, ''Fürsten und Staat: Studien zur Verfassungsgeschichte des deutschen Mittelalters'' (Weimar, 1950) chapters i to xii.</ref> was pretty well established as a prorogative of the nobility; the [[Hirsau Abbey|Hirsau formulary]] (1075) confirmed count Adalbert of Calw as hereditary advocate of the Abbey, an agreement so widely copied elsewhere in Germany that from the tenth century the office developed into an hereditary possession of the higher nobility, who frequently exploited it as a way of extending their power and territories, and in some cases took for themselves the estates and assets of the church bodies for whose protection they were supposedly responsible. In Austria, the teaching of the Church that, according to [[canon law]] individuals were prohibited from exercising authority over Church property, was only with reluctance accepted by the nobles. The rights of advocacy were bought back by the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century abbeys in alliance with the Babenberg and early Habsburg dukes; the abolition of the ''Vogtei'' (''Entvogtung'') thereby exchanged local secular jurisdiction for the protective overlordship of the [[duke of Austria]], sometimes by forging charters that the duke confirmed.<ref>Folker Reichert, ''Landesherrschaft, Adel, und Vogtei: Zur Vorgeschichte des spätmittelalterlichen Ständestaates im Herzogtum Österreich'' (Cologne and Vienna, 1985).</ref>
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The three-way struggle for control of the ''Vogtei'' of the more important abbacies, played out among the central monarchy, the Church and the territorial nobility,<ref>This institutional struggle is analysed by Theodor Mayer, ''Fürsten und Staat: Studien zur Verfassungsgeschichte des deutschen Mittelalters'' (Weimar, 1950) chapters i to xii.</ref> was pretty well established as a prorogative of the nobility; the [[Hirsau Abbey|Hirsau formulary]] (1075) confirmed count Adalbert of Calw as hereditary advocate of the Abbey, an agreement so widely copied elsewhere in Germany that from the tenth century the office developed into an hereditary possession of the higher nobility, who frequently exploited it as a way of extending their power and territories, and in some cases took for themselves the estates and assets of the church bodies for whose protection they were supposedly responsible. In Austria, the teaching of the Church that, according to [[canon law]] individuals were prohibited from exercising authority over Church property, was only with reluctance accepted by the nobles. The rights of advocacy were bought back by the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century abbeys in alliance with the Babenberg and early Habsburg dukes; the abolition of the ''Vogtei'' (''Entvogtung'') thereby exchanged local secular jurisdiction for the protective overlordship of the [[duke of Austria]], sometimes by forging charters that the duke confirmed.<ref>Folker Reichert, ''Landesherrschaft, Adel, und Vogtei: Zur Vorgeschichte des spätmittelalterlichen Ständestaates im Herzogtum Österreich'' (Cologne and Vienna, 1985).</ref>
   
 
===Imperial vogt===
 
===Imperial vogt===
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The title of ''Landvogt'' appears in the [[Old Swiss Confederacy]] in 1415. A ''Landvogt'' ruled a ''Landvogtei'', either representing a sovereign [[canton of Switzerland|canton]], or acting on behalf of the Confederacy, or a subset thereof, administering a condominium (''[[Gemeine Herrschaft]]'') shared between several cantons. In the case of condominiums, the cantons took turns in appointing a ''Landvogt'' for a period of two years.
 
The title of ''Landvogt'' appears in the [[Old Swiss Confederacy]] in 1415. A ''Landvogt'' ruled a ''Landvogtei'', either representing a sovereign [[canton of Switzerland|canton]], or acting on behalf of the Confederacy, or a subset thereof, administering a condominium (''[[Gemeine Herrschaft]]'') shared between several cantons. In the case of condominiums, the cantons took turns in appointing a ''Landvogt'' for a period of two years.
   
In exceptional cases, the population of the ''Landvogtei'' was allowed to elect their own ''Landvogt''. This concerned [[Oberhasli]] in particular, which was nominally a subject territory of [[Berne]], but enjoyed a special status as a military ally. The office of ''Landvogt'' was abolished in 1798, with the foundation of the [[Helvetic Republic]].
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In exceptional cases, the population of the ''Landvogtei'' was allowed to elect their own ''Landvogt''. This concerned [[Oberhasli]] in particular, which was nominally a subject territory of [[Berne]], but enjoyed a special status as a military ally. The office of ''Landvogt'' was abolished in 1798, with the foundation of the [[Helvetic Republic]].
   
 
==Habsburg Netherlands==
 
==Habsburg Netherlands==
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==Modern Europe==
 
==Modern Europe==
 
===Poland===
 
===Poland===
In [[Poland]] the title of ''Wójt'' was used to denote hereditary heads of towns (under the overlordship of the town's owner - the King, the Church or a nobleman). Today ''Wójt'' denotes the elected mayor of a rural commune (''[[gmina]]''), i.e. one consisting only of villages (mayors of towns and cities take different titles).
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In [[Poland]] the title of ''Wójt'' was used to denote hereditary heads of towns (under the overlordship of the town's owner - the King, the Church or a nobleman). Today ''Wójt'' denotes the elected mayor of a rural commune (''[[gmina]]''), i.e. one consisting only of villages (mayors of towns and cities take different titles).
   
 
===Denmark===
 
===Denmark===
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=== Netherlands ===
 
=== Netherlands ===
In modern [[Dutch language|Dutch]] the word ''voogd'' is the primary word for the concept of [[legal guardian]]. In historic texts, "''Landvoogd''" or "''Landvoogdes''" in the feminine form is used. Especially as the main title of [[Margaret of Parma]].
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In modern [[Dutch language|Dutch]] the word ''voogd'' is the primary word for the concept of [[legal guardian]]. In historic texts, "''Landvoogd''" or "''Landvoogdes''" in the feminine form is used. Especially as the main title of [[Margaret of Parma]].
   
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
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[[Category:Judges]]
 
[[Category:Judges]]
 
[[Category:Obsolete occupations]]
 
[[Category:Obsolete occupations]]
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[[Category:Bailiff]]
 
 
{{usedwps}}
 
{{usedwps}}

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