Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev
(Владимир Всеволодович Мономах, великий князь киевский)
, Prince of Rostov
Prince of Smolensk
Prince of Chernigov
Prince of Pereyaslavl
Grand Prince of Kiev, was born 1053 to Vsevolod I Yaroslavich of Kiev (1030-1093) and Anastasia Monomachos (c1035-1067) and died 19 May 1125 of unspecified causes. He married Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098) . He married Yefimiya (c1078-1107) 1099 JL . He married Unknown Cuman .

Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh (Old Russian: Володимиръ (-мѣръ) Мономахъ, Volodimir Monomakh; Christian name Vasili, or Basil) (1053 – May 19, 1125) Prince of Rostov (1066-1073), Smolensk (1073-1078) [1], Chernigov (1076-1077, 1078-1094), Pereyaslavl (1094-1113), Grand Prince of Kiev (1113-1125), statesman, military leader, writer, thinker. On the surviving seals Vladimir Monomakh also used the titlearchon of all the Russian land , in the manner of Byzantine titles [2][3]..

Vladimir Monomakh was the son of Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavich. He was nicknamed Monomakh by the nickname of the mother's family, which, presumably, was the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomakh.

In the Russian Orthodox Church he is revered as a pious prince in the Cathedral of All Saints Resplendent in the Russian Land (second Sunday after Pentecost ) [4] and in the cathedral of saints Kiev ( July 15 ( July 28 )) [5][6]..

Family

He was the son of Vsevolod I (married in 1046) and Anastasia of the Eastern Roman Empire (d. 1067) which is now called the Byzantine Empire. Some claim that her father had been Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, but this is not attested in any reliable primary source.

Eupraxia of Kiev, a half-sister of Vladimir, became notorious all over Europe for her divorce from the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV on the grounds that he had attempted a black mass on her naked body.

Reign

The Testament of Vladimir Monomakh to Children, 1125. Lithography of 1836.

In his famous Instruction (also known as The Testament) to his own children, Monomakh mentions that he conducted 83 military campaigns and 19 times made peace with the Polovtsians. At first he waged war against the steppe jointly with his cousin Oleg Svyatoslavich, but after Vladimir was sent by his father to rule Chernigov and Oleg made peace with the Polovtsians to retake that city from him, they parted company. Since that time, Vladimir and Oleg were bitter enemies who would often engage in internecine wars. The enmity continued among their children and more distant posterity.

From 1094, his chief patrimony was the southern town of Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky, although he also controlled Rostov, Suzdal, and other northern provinces (see Principality of Pereyaslavl). In these lands he founded several towns, notably his namesake, Vladimir, the future capital of Russia. In order to unite the princes of Rus' in their struggle against the Great Steppe, Vladimir initiated three princely councils, the most important being held at Lyubech in 1097 and at Lake Dologskoye in 1103.

In 1107 he defeated Bonyak, a Cuman khan who led an invasions on Kievan Rus'. When Svyatopolk Izyaslavich died in 1113, the Kievan populace revolted and summoned Vladimir to the capital. The same year he entered Kiev to the great delight of the crowd and reigned there until his death in 1125. As may be seen from his Instruction, he promulgated a number of reforms in order to allay the social tensions in the capital. These years saw the last flowering of Kievan Rus', which was torn apart 10 years after his death.

Vladimir Monomakh is buried in the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. Succeeding generations often referred to his reign as the golden age of that city. Numerous legends are connected with Monomakh's name, including the transfer from Constantinople to Rus of such precious relics as the Theotokos of Vladimir and the Vladimir/Muscovite crown called Monomakh's Cap.

Marriages and children

Vladimir was married three times. His first wife was Gytha of Wessex, daughter of Harold of England who fell at Hastings and Edith the Fair. They had at least five children:

Some historians consider that ha had another daughter, Sofiya Vladimirovna who married Svyatoslav Vseslavich

The second wife, Yefimiya, is considered to have been a Byzantine noblewoman. The Primary Chronicle and "Testament of Vladimir Monomakh" record her date of death on 7 May 1107. However the Chronicle does not mention her name. They had the following children:

Monomakh rests after hunting (painting by Viktor Vasnetsov, c. 1900).


His third marriage is thought to have been to a daughter of Aepa Osenevich, Khan of the Cumans. Her paternal grandfather was Osen. Her people belonged to the Kipchaks, a confederation of cattle growers and warriors of Turkic origin.

However the Primary Chronicle identifies Aepa as father-in-law to Yuri Dolgoruki. With Vladimir negotiating the marriage in name of his son. Whether father and son married sisters or the identity of intended groom was misidentified is unclear.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ВТ-ЭСБЕ - Смоленская земля - Рудаков В. Е.
  2. ^ Филюшкин А. И. Титулы русских государей. М.; СПб., 2006. С. 16.
  3. ^ Янин В. Л. Актовые печати древней Руси X—XV вв. М., 1970. Т 1: Печати X — начала XIII в. С. 16—17, 20—23
  4. ^ Минея, Май, часть 3 — М.: Издательский совет Русской Православной Церкви, 2002. — С. 360.
  5. ^ Слепынин О. С. Мономах. Святая Русь. 28.04.2013
  6. ^ Русская Православная Церковь. Собор Киевских святых

References

Further reading

External links

Vladimir II Monomakh
Rurikovich
Born: 1053 Died: 1125
Regnal titles
Preceded by
'
Prince of Rostov
1066–1073
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
Izyaslav Yaroslavich
Svyatoslav Yaroslavich
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
Prince of Smolensk
1073–1077
Succeeded by
Interregnum
Preceded by
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
Prince of Chernigov
1076–1077
Succeeded by
Boris Vyacheslavich
Preceded by
Oleg Svyatoslavich
Prince of Chernigov
1078–1094
Succeeded by
Oleg Svyatoslavich
Preceded by
Rostislav Vsevolodich
Prince of Pereyaslavl
1094–1113
Succeeded by
Svyatoslav Vladimirovich
Preceded by
Svyatopolk Iztyaslavich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1113–1125
Succeeded by
Mstislav Vladimirovich




Children



Offspring of Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev
(Владимир Всеволодович Мономах, великий князь киевский) and Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mstislav I Vladimirovich of Kiev (1076-1132) 1 June 1076 Turau, Zhytkavichy Rayon, Homiel Voblasts, Belarus 15 April 1132 Kiev, Ukraine Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden (c1080-1122) Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden (c1080-1122) Lyubava Dmitriyevna (c1104-c1170)
Izyaslav Vladimirovich of Kursk (c1077-1096) 6 December 1096 Murom
Sofiya Vladimirovna (c1078-c1140) 1078 1140 Svyatoslav Vseslavich of Vitebsk (c1065-c1130)
Svyatoslav Vladimirovich of Smolensk (c1080-1114) 1080 6 March 1114
Yaropolk II Vladimirovich of Kiev (1082-1139) 1082 Chernihiv, Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine 18 February 1139 Kiev, Ukraine Yelena of Ossetia (c1100-c1150)
Vyacheslav I Vladimirovich of Kiev (1083-1154) 1083 2 February 1154
Maritsa Vladimirovna (c1085-1146) 1085 20 January 1146 Pseudo-Leo Diogenes II (c1070-1116)
Yuri I Vladimirovich Dolgoruky of Kiev (c1090-1157) 1090 15 May 1157 Anna of Cumania (c1092-c1135) Anna of Cumania (c1092-c1135) Olga NN (c1120-c1183)
Roman Vladimirovich of Volhynia (c1091-1119) 1091 6 January 1119 Daughter of Volodar Rostislavich (c1100-c1150)
Yefimiya Vladimirovna of Kiev (c1095-1139) 1095 Kiev, Ukraine 4 April 1139 Kiev, Ukraine Coloman of Hungary (c1070-1116)



Offspring of Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev
(Владимир Всеволодович Мономах, великий князь киевский) and Yefimiya (c1078-1107)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Agafiya Vladimirovna of Kiev (c1097-1144) 1097 1144 Vsevolodko Davydovich of Goroden (c1080-1142)
Andrei Vladimirovich of Volhynia (1102-1141) 11 August 1102 22 January 1141 Granddaughter of Tugorkhan (c1100-c1145)









Residences

Siblings

Footnotes (including sources)

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