|— Municipality —|
|• Mayor||Aleid Wolfsen|
|• Municipality||99.32 km2 (38.35 sq mi)|
|• Land||95.67 km2 (36.94 sq mi)|
|• Water||3.64 km2 (1.41 sq mi)|
|Population (1 January 2011)|
|• Density||3,279/km2 (8,490/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Utrecht (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈytrɛxt] ( listen), English pronunciation: /ˈjuːtrɛkt/) city and municipality is the capital and most populous city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, and is the fourth largest city of the Netherlands with a population of 312,634 on 1 Jan 2011.
Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures from the Early Middle Ages. It has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the eighth century. Currently it is the see of the Archbishop of Utrecht, the most important Dutch Roman Catholic leader. Utrecht is also the see of the archbishop of the Old Catholic church, titular head of the Union of Utrecht (Old Catholic), and the location of the offices of the main Protestant church. Until the golden age, Utrecht was the city of most importance of the Netherlands until Amsterdam became its cultural and most populous centre.
Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university of the Netherlands, as well as several other institutes for higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport. It has the second highest number of cultural events in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Cityscape
- 5 Transport
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 Notable people from Utrecht
- 10 International relations
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
History[edit | edit source]
Origins (until 650)[edit | edit source]
Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation in the region of Utrecht, dating back to the Stone Age (app. 2200 BCE) and settling in the Bronze Age (app. 1800–800 BCE), the founding date of the city is usually related to the construction of a Roman fortification (castellum), probably built in around 50 CE. These fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers. Near the fort a settlement would grow housing artisans, traders and soldiers' wives and children. A line of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand further north. To consolidate the border the limes Germanicus defense line was constructed. This line was located at the borders of the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today, along what is now the Kromme Rijn.
In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum denoting its location on the Rhine at a ford. Traiectum became Dutch Trecht. The U comes from Old Dutch "uut" meaning downriver. It was added to distinguish from the other Tricht, Maas-tricht. In 11th century official documents it was then Latinized as Ultra Traiectum. Around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square.
From the middle of the 3rd century Germanic tribes regularly invaded the Roman territories. Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270-650. Utrecht is first spoken of again in the 7th century when the influence of the growing realms of the Franks led Dagobert I to build a church devoted to Saint Martin within the walls of the Roman fortress. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians the church was however destroyed.
Centre of Christianity in the Netherlands (650-1579)[edit | edit source]
By the mid 7th century, English and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. The pope appointed their leader, Willibrordus, bishop of the Frisians; which is usually considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish king bestowed the fortress in Utrecht and the surrounding lands as the base of bishops. From then on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The see of the archbishops of Utrecht was located at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire. Furthermore it had to compete with the nearby trading centre Dorestad, also founded near the location of a Roman fortress. After the downfall of Dorestad around 850, Utrecht became one of the most important cities in the Netherlands. The importance of Utrecht as a centre of Christianity is illustrated by the appointment of the Utrecht-born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens as pope in 1522 (the last non-Italian pope before John Paul II).
Prince-Bishops[edit | edit source]
When the Frankish rulers established the system of feudalism, the Bishops of Utrecht came to exercise worldly power as prince-bishops. The realm of the bishopry included not only the land of the modern province of Utrecht (Nedersticht, 'lower Sticht'), but also extended to the northeast. However, the feudalist system resulted in conflict between the different lords. The prince bishopry had its conflicts with the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Guelders. The Veluwe region was soon taken by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.
Clerical buildings[edit | edit source]
The clergy built several churches and monasteries inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht. Most dominant of these was the gothic Cathedral of Saint Martin, inside the old Roman fortress. The construction of this cathedral started in 1254 after an earlier romanesque cathedral had been badly damaged by fire. When the choir and transept were finished from 1320 the ambitious Dom tower was built. The central nave was the last part to be constructed from 1420. By that time, however, the time of the great cathedrals had ended and declining finances prevented this ambitious cathedral from being finished, resulting in the construction of the central nave being suspended before finishing the planned flying buttresses. Besides the cathedral there were four additional collegiate churches in Utrecht: St. Salvator's Church (demolished in the 16th century), on the Dom square, dating back to the early 8th century. Saint John (Janskerk), originating in 1040; Saint Peter, building started in 1039 and Saint Mary's church building started around 1090 (demolished in the early 19th century, cloister survives). Besides these churches the city housed Saint Paul abbey. The 15th century beguine monastery of Saint Nicholas, and a 14th century chapter house of the Teutonic Knights.
Besides these buildings which were part of the hierarchy of the bishopric; an additional four parish churches were constructed in the city: the Jacobikerk (dedicated to Saint James), founded in the 11th century, with the current gothic church dating back to the 14th century; the Buurkerk (Neighbourhood-church) of the 11th century parish in the centre of the city; Nicolaichurch (dedicated to Saint Nicholas), from the 12th century and the 13th century Geertekerk (dedicated to Saint Gertrude of Nivelles).
City of Utrecht[edit | edit source]
The location on the banks of the river Rhine allowed Utrecht to become an important trade centre in the Northern Netherlands. The growing town Utrecht was granted city rights by Henry V. in 1122. When the main flow of the Rhine moved south, the old bed, which still flowed through the heart of the town became evermore canalized; and a unique wharf system was built as an inner city harbour system. On the wharfs storage facilities (werfkelders) were built, on top of which the main street, including houses was constructed. The wharfs and the cellars are accessible from a platform at water level with stairs descending from the street level to form a unique structure.[nb 1] The relations between the bishop, who controlled many lands outside of the city, and the citizens of Utrecht was not always easy. The bishop, for example dammed the Kromme Rijn at Wijk bij Duurstede to protect his estates from flooding. This threatened shipping for the city and led the city of Utrecht to commission a canal to ensure access to the town for shipping trade: the Vaartse Rijn, connecting Utrecht to the Hollandse IJssel at IJsselstein.
The end of independence[edit | edit source]
In 1528, the worldly powers of the bishop over both Neder- and Oversticht - which included the city of Utrecht - were transferred to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who became the Lord of the Seventeen Provinces, (the current Benelux and the northern parts of France). This transition was not an easy one and Charles V wanted to exert his power over the citizens of the city, who had achieved a certain level of independence from the bishops and were not willing to give this power to their new lord. Charles decided to build a heavily fortified castle Vredenburg to house a large garrison whose most important task would be to maintain order in the city. The castle would last less than 50 years before it was demolished in an uprising in the early stages of the Dutch Revolt.
Republic of the Netherlands (1579–1815)[edit | edit source]
In 1579 the northern seven provinces signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they decided to join forces against Spanish rule. The Union of Utrecht is seen as the beginning of the Dutch Republic. In 1580 the new and predominantly Protestant state abolished the bishoprics, including the one in Utrecht, which had become an archbishopric in 1559. The stadtholders disapproved of the independent course of the Utrecht bourgeoisie and brought the city under much more direct control of the Holland dominated leadership of the republic. This was the start of a long period of stagnation of trade and development in Utrecht, an atypical city in the new state, still about 40% Catholic in the mid-17th century, and even more so among the elite groups, who included many rural nobility and gentry with town houses there.
The city, which was held against its will in the states of the Republic, failed to defend itself against the French invasion in 1672 (the Disaster Year)
The lack of structural integrity proved to be the undoing of the central section of the cathedral of St Martin church when Utrecht was struck by a tornado in 1674.
Since 1723 (but especially after 1870) Utrecht became the centre of the non-Roman Old Catholic Churches in the world.
Modern history (1815-present)[edit | edit source]
In the early 19th century, the role of Utrecht as a fortified town had become obsolete. The fortifications of the Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie were moved east of Utrecht. The town walls could now be demolished to allow for expansion. The moats remained intact and formed an important feature of the Zocher plantsoen, an English style landscape park that remains largely intact today.
Growth of the city increased when, in 1843, a railway connecting Utrecht to Amsterdam was opened. After that, Utrecht gradually became the main hub of the Dutch railway network.
In 1853, the Dutch government allowed the bishopric of Utrecht to be reinstated by Rome, and Utrecht became the centre of Dutch Catholicism once more.
With the industrial revolution finally gathering speed in the Netherlands and the ramparts taken down, Utrecht began to grow far beyond the medieval center from the 1880s onward with the construction of neighbourhoods such as Oudwijk, Wittevrouwen, Vogelenbuurt to the East, and Lombok to the West. New middle class residential areas, such as Tuindorp and Oog in Al, were built in the 1920s and 1930s. During this period, several Jugendstil houses and office buildings were built, followed by Rietveld who built the Rietveld Schröder House (1924), and Dudok's construction of the city theater (1941).
During World War II, Utrecht was held by the Germans until the general German surrender of the Netherlands on 5 May 1945. Canadian troops that surrounded the city entered it after that surrender, on May 7, 1945.
Since World War II, the city has grown considerably when new neighbourhoods such as Overvecht, Kanaleneiland, Hoograven and Lunetten were built. Additionally the area surrounding Utrecht Centraal railway station and the station itself have been developed following modernist ideas of the 1960s, in a brutalist style. This led to the construction of the shopping mall Hoog Catharijne, music centre Vredenburg (Hertzberger, 1979), and conversion of part of the ancient canal structure into a highway (Catherijnebaan). Protest against further modernisation of the city centre followed even before the last buildings were finalised. In the early 21st century the whole area is being redeveloped.
Currently the city is expanding once more with the development of the Leidsche Rijn housing area.
Geography[edit | edit source]
Climate[edit | edit source]
|Climate data for Utrecht (1981-2010 data)|
|Average high °C (°F)||5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.1
|Average low °C (°F)||1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||69.6
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||62.3||86.4||121.6||173.6||207.2||194.0||206.0||187.7||138.4||112.4||62.6||48.8||1,601|
Demographics[edit | edit source]
Utrecht city had a population of 296,305 in 2007. Utrecht is a growing municipality and projections are that the city's population will surpass 392,000 by 2025.
In Utrecht 52% of the population is female, 48% is male. Utrecht has a young population, with many inhabitants in the age category from 20 and 30 years, due to the presence of a large university.
The majority of households (52.5%) in Utrecht are single person households. About 29% of people living in Utrecht are either married, or have another legal partnership. About 3% of the population of Utrecht is divorced.
About 69% of the population is of Dutch ancestry. Approximately 10% of the population consists of immigrants from Western countries, while 21% of the population is of non-Western origin (9% Moroccan, 5% Turkish, 3% Surinamese and Dutch Caribbean and 5% of other countries). With 9% of its population being of Moroccan heritage, Utrecht contains the largest proportion of people of Moroccan descent of any Dutch municipality. Many of the city's boroughs have a relatively high percentage of originally non-Dutch inhabitants - i.e. Kanaleneiland 83% and Overvecht 57%.
Like Rotterdam, Amsterdam, The Hague and other large Dutch cities, Utrecht faces socio-economic problems. About 38% percent of its population either earns a minimum income or is dependant on social welfare (17% of all households). Boroughs such as Kanaleneiland, Overvecht and Hoograven consist primarily of high-rise housing developments, and are known for relatively high poverty and crime rate.
|Population in Utrecht|
Population centres and agglomeration[edit | edit source]
Besides the city of Utrecht, the municipality of Utrecht also includes Vleuten-De Meern, which was a separate municipality until 2001. Vleuten-De Meern in turn included the villages of Haarzuilens and Veldhuizen. Thus the municipality of Utrecht includes several population centres:
- The city of Utrecht (population: app. 258000)
- Vleuten-De Meern (population: app. 30000)
Utrecht is the centre of a densely populated area, which makes concise definitions of its agglomeration difficult, and somewhat arbitrary. The smaller Utrecht agglomeration counts some 420,000 inhabitants and includes Nieuwegein, IJsselstein and Maarssen. It is sometimes argued that the municipalities De Bilt, Zeist, Houten, Vianen, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Utrechtse Heuvelrug), and Bunnik should also be counted towards the Utrecht agglomeration, bringing the total to 640,000 inhabitants. The larger region, including slightly more remote towns such as Woerden and Amersfoort counts up to 820,000 inhabitants.
Cityscape[edit | edit source]
Utrecht's cityscape features the Dom Tower, belonging to the former cathedral (Dom Church). An ongoing debate is if any building in or near the centre of town may surpass the Dom Tower in height (112 m). Nevertheless, some tall buildings are now being constructed that will become part of the skyline of Utrecht. The second highest building of the city, the Rabobank-tower, completed in 2010 and standing 105 m (344.49 ft) tall. Two antennas will increase that height to 120 m (393.70 ft). Two other buildings were constructed around the Nieuw Galgenwaard stadium (2007). These buildings, the 'Kantoortoren Galghenwert' and 'Apollo Residence', stand 85.5 and 64.5 metres high respectively.
Another landmark is the old centre and the canal structure in the inner city. The Oudegracht is a curved canal, partly following an old arm of the Rhine. It is lined with the unique wharf-basement structures that create a two-level street along the canals. The inner city has largely retained its Medieval structure, and the moat ringing the old town is largely intact. Because of the role of Utrecht as a fortified city,which restricted construction outside the walls, until the 19th century the city has remained very compact. Surrounding the medieval core there is a ring of late 19th and early 20th century neighbourhoods, with newer neighbourhoods positioned farther out. The eastern part of Utrecht remains fairly open. The Dutch Water Line, moved east of the city in the early 19th century required open lines of fire thus prohibiting all permanent constructions until the mid of the 20th century on the east side of the city.
Due to the past importance of Utrecht as a religious centre, several monumental churches have survived. Most prominent is the Dom Church. Other notable churches include the romanesque St Peter's and St John's churches, the gothic churches of St James and St Nicholas, and the so-called Buurkerk, now converted into a museum for automatically playing musical instruments .
Transport[edit | edit source]
Public transport[edit | edit source]
Because of its central location, Utrecht is well connected to the rest of the Netherlands and has a well-developed public transport network.
Heavy and light rail[edit | edit source]
Utrecht Centraal is the main railway station of Utrecht. There are also some smaller stations in the suburbs: Utrecht Lunetten, Utrecht Overvecht, Utrecht Terwijde and Utrecht Zuilen. Utrecht Maliebaan closed in 1939 and has since been converted into the Dutch Railway Museum.
From Utrecht Centraal, there are regular services to all major Dutch cities; direct services to Schiphol Airport began in March 2006 with the opening of the Utrechtboog. International InterCityExpress (ICE) services to Germany as well as regular local trains to all areas surrounding Utrecht also depart from Utrecht Centraal.
The Utrecht sneltram is a light rail scheme running southwards Utrecht Centraal to the suburbs of IJsselstein, Kanaleneiland, Lombok-Leidseweg and Nieuwegein. The sneltram began operating in 1983 and is currently operated by the private transport company Connexxion; from December 2011, it will be operated by Qbuzz.
Utrecht is also the location of the headquarters of both Nederlandse Spoorwegen (English: Dutch Railways) - the largest rail operator in the Netherlands - and ProRail - the state-owned company responsible for the construction and maintenance of the country's rail infrastructure.
Bus transport[edit | edit source]
The main local and regional bus station of Utrecht is located adjacent to Utrecht Centraal railway station. Local buses in Utrecht are operated by GVU - its services include a high-frequency service to the Uithof university district. Regional buses from the city are operated by Arriva, Connexxion, Qliner and Veolia. Utrecht Centraal's bus station is the busiest in the Netherlands.
The Utrecht Centraal railway station is also served by the pan-European services of Eurolines. Furthermore, it acts as departure and arrival place of many coach companies serving holiday resorts in Spain and France - and during winter in Austria and Switzerland.
Road transport[edit | edit source]
Utrecht is well-connected to the Dutch road network. Two of the most important major roads serve the city of Utrecht: the A12 and A2 motorways connect Amsterdam, Arnhem, The Hague and Maastricht, as well as Belgium and Germany. Other major motorways in the area are the Almere–Breda A27 and the Utrecht–Groningen A28 Due to the increasing traffic, traffic congestion is a common phenomenon in and around Utrecht, causing elevated levels of air pollutants. This has led to a passionate debate in the city about the best way to improve the city's air quality.
Shipping[edit | edit source]
Utrecht has a industrial port located on the Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal. The container terminal has a capacity of 80,000 containers a year. In 2003, the port facilitated the transport of four million tons of cargo; mostly sand, gravel, fertilizer and fodder.
Economy[edit | edit source]
The economy of Utrecht depends for a large part on the several large institutions located in the city. Production industry has a relatively small influence in Utrecht. Rabobank, a large bank, has its headquarters in Utrecht. It is the centre of the Dutch railroad network and the location of the head office of Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The former offices of Nederlandse Spoorwegen - De Inktpot - is the largest brick building in the Netherlands (the "UFO" featured on its facade stems from an art program in 2000). The building is currently used by ProRail.
A large indoor shopping centre called Template:Nlii is located between Utrecht Centraal railway station and the city centre. The corridors have been considered public places like streets, and the route between the station and the city centre is open all night. Over the next 20 years (counting from 2004), parts of Hoog Catharijne will disappear as a consequence of the renovation of the station area. Parts of the city's network of canals, which were filled to create the shopping center and central station area, will be recreated.
One of Europe's biggest used car markets is located in the Voordorp district. It is open every Tuesday except on official holidays. With thousands of second-hand vehicles on sale the market is a special point of interest for customers from Eastern European countries who even organize special one-way bus tours for shopping there.
Education[edit | edit source]
Utrecht is well known for its institutions of higher education. The most prominent of these is Utrecht University (est. 1636), the largest university of the Netherlands with 29,927 students (as of 2009). The university is partially based in the inner city as well as in the Uithof campus area, on the east of the city. According to Shanghai Jiaotong University's university ranking in 2010 it is the 50th best university in the world. Utrecht also houses the much smaller University of Humanistics (estimated at a few hundred students).
Utrecht is home of one of the locations of TiasNimbas, focused on post-experience management education and the largest management school of its kind in the Netherlands. In 2008, its executive MBA program was rated the 24th best program in the world by the Financial Times.
Utrecht is also home to two other large institutions of higher education: the Hogeschool Utrecht (30,000 students), with locations in the city and the Uithof campus, and the HKU Utrecht School of the Arts (3,000 students).
There are many schools for primary and secondary education; allowing for different philosophies and religions as is inherent in the Dutch school system. There is some debate about segregation in the primary schools (which is a common occurrence in many large cities in the Netherlands). This is a result of immigrant families lack of Dutch language skills and a lack of knowledge of Dutch culture, leading Dutch parents to send their children to schools which are able to maintain high standards in turn leading to a situation where schools with a large proportion of immigrant children squeeze out more and more Dutch children.
Culture[edit | edit source]
There are several theatres and theatre companies. The 1941 main city theatre was built by Dudok. Besides theatres there is a large number of cinemas including three arthouse cinemas. Utrecht is host to the Netherlands Film Festival. The city has an important classical music hall Vredenburg (1979 by Herman Hertzberger). Its acoustics are considered among the best of the 20th century original music halls. Young musicians are educated in the conservatory (a department of the Utrecht School of the Arts). There is a specialised museum of automatically playing musical instruments. Located at the Oudegracht is the rock club Tivoli (which has a second location just outside the centre). There are several other venues for music throughout the city.
There are many art galleries in Utrecht. There are also several foundations to support art, and artists. Training of artists is done at the Utrecht School of the Arts. The Centraal Museum has many exhibitions on the arts, including a permanent exhibition on the works of Utrecht resident illustrator Dick Bruna, who is best known for creating Miffy ("Nijntje", in Dutch). Utrecht also houses one of the landmarks of modern architecture, the 1924 Rietveld Schröder House, which is listed on UNESCO's world heritage sites.
To involve the city population as a whole (rather than the elite alone) in the cultural riches of the city, Utrecht city, in collaboration with the different cultural organisations, regularly organise cultural Sundays. During a thematic Sunday several organisations create a program, which is open to everyone without, or with a very much reduced, admission fee. Furthermore there are many initiatives for amateur artists; e.g. in the performing arts, painting and sculpture. The city subsidises an organisation for amateur education in arts aimed at all inhabitants (Utrechts Centrum voor de Kunsten), as does the university for its staff and students. Additionally there are also several private initiatives. The city council provides coupons for discounts to inhabitants who receive welfare to be used with many of the initiatives.
Sports[edit | edit source]
Utrecht is home to the premier league (professional) football club FC Utrecht, which plays in Stadium Nieuw Galgenwaard. It is also the home of Kampong, the largest (amateur) sportsclub of the Netherlands (4,500 members), SV Kampong. Kampong features fieldhockey, soccer, cricket, tennis, squash and jeu de boules. Kampong's men and women top hockey squads play in the highest Dutch hockey league, the Rabohoofdklasse.
Museums[edit | edit source]
Utrecht has several smaller and larger museums. Many of those are located in the southern part of the old town, the Museumkwartier.
- Aboriginal Art Museum Located at the Oudegracht this museum has a small exhibit of Australian Aboriginal Art
- Centraal Museum Located in the MuseumQuarter this municipal museum has a large collection of art, design, and historical artifacts.
- Dick Bruna Huis Part of Centraal Museum this separate location is dedicated to Miffy creator Dick Bruna
- Museum Catharijneconvent Museum of the Catholic Church shows the history of Christian culture and arts in the Netherlands
- National museum 'From musical clock to street organ' National Museum in the centre of the city, displays several centuries of mechanical musical instruments.
- Railroad Museum Railroad sponsored museum on the history of the Dutch railroads
- University museum Utrecht University museum includes the ancient botanical garden
- Volksbuurtmuseum Wijk C
- Money museum, museum of the Royal Dutch Mint, located in the actual building where Dutch coins are minted.
Music and Events[edit | edit source]
The city has several music venues such as Tivoli Oudegracht, Tivoli De Helling, Vredenburg, EKKO, DBs and RASA. Utrecht hosts the yearly Utrecht Early Music Festival - Festival Oude Muziek Utrecht. In Jaarbeurs it hosts Trance Energy too. Every summer there is the Summer Darkness festival, which celebrates goth culture and music. In November the Le Guess Who? festival, focused on indie rock, art rock and experimental rock, takes place in many of the city's venues together.
Theatre[edit | edit source]
There are two main theaters in the city, the Theater Kikker and the Stadsschouwburg Utrecht. The city also hosts the yearly Festival a/d Werf which offers a selection of contemporary international theater pieces, together with visual arts, public art and music.
Notable people from Utrecht[edit | edit source]
- People from Utrecht See also the category
Over the ages famous people have been born and raised in Utrecht. Among the most famous Utrechters are:
- Pope Adrian VI (1459–1523) - head of the Catholic Church
- C.H.D. Buys Ballot (1817–1890) - meteorologist (Buys-Ballot's law)
- Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) - painter, artist (De Stijl movement)
- Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964) - designer, architect (De Stijl movement)
- Karel Doorman (1889–1942) - Rear Admiral (Battle of the Java Sea)
- Dick Bruna (1927) - writer, illustrator (Miffy)
- Louis Andriessen (1939) - composer
- Marco Van Basten (1964) - football player
International relations[edit | edit source]
Twin towns[edit | edit source]
Utrecht is twinned with:
- León, Nicaragua
- Brno, Czech Republic
- Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
- previously Hannover, Germany, between 1970 and 1976
See also[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
- ^ All other canal cities in The Netherlands (such as Leiden, Amsterdam and Delft) have the water in canals bordering directly to the road surface
- ^ The term ‘Utrechtenaar’ has become a profane expression for homosexual after the 1730-31 sodomy trials, and has fallen into disuse since. This distinction, however, is not always known by Dutch speakers from outside the region, who may use the term ‘Utrechtenaar’ without being aware of the specific connotation.
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ "Aartsbisdom Utrecht" (in Dutch). http://www.aartsbisdom.nl/. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- ^ "Katholiek Nederland" (in Dutch). http://www.katholieknederland.nl/. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- ^ a b Gemeente Utrecht. "Utrecht Monitor 2007" (in Dutch). http://www.utrecht.nl/images/Secretarie/Bestuursinformatie/Publicaties2007/UM2007/UtrechtMonitor2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- ^ "Gemeente Utrecht, Geschiedenis Utrecht voor 1528". http://www.utrecht.nl/smartsite.dws?id=163711.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i de Bruin, R.E.; T.J. Hoekstra, A. Pietersma (1999) (in Dutch). Twintig eeuwen Utrecht, korte geschiedenis van de stad. Utrecht: SPOU & Het Utrechts Archief. ISBN 90-5479-040-7.
- ^ Het Utrechts Archief. "Het ontstaan van de stad Utrecht (tot 100)" (in Dutch). http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/werkstukken/onderwerpen/ontstaan-utrecht.
- ^ Nicoline van der Sijs (2001) (in Dutch). Chronologisch woordenboek. De ouderdom en herkomst van onze woorden en betekenissen. Amsterdam/Antwerpen. p. 100. ISBN 90-204-2045-3. http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/sijs002chro01_01/sijs002chro01_01_0010.htm.
- ^ R.P.J. Kloosterman (2010). "Lichte Gaard 9. Archeologisch onderzoek naar het castellum en het bisschoppelijk paleis. Basisrapportage archeologie 41". StadsOntwikkeling gemeente Utrecht. ISBN 9789073448391. http://www.utrecht.nl/images/DSO/monumenten/publicaties/Basisrapportages_Archeologie/BRArch_41_Lichte_Gaard/BrArch41_Lichte_Gaard.pdf.
- ^ van der Tuuk, Luit (2005). "Denen in Dorestad". In Ria van der Eerden, et al. (in Dutch). Jaarboek Oud Utrecht 2005. Jaarboek Oud Utrecht. Utrecht: SPOU. pp. 5–40. ISBN 90-71108-244.
- ^ Janssen, H.P.H. (2002) (in Dutch). Geschiedenis van de Middeleeuwen (12th ed.). Utrecht: Aula. pp. 289–296. ISBN 90-274-5377-2.
- ^ Stöver, R.J. (1997) (in Dutch). De Salvator- of Oudmunsterkerk te Utrecht, Stichtingsmonument van het bisdom Utrecht. Utrecht.
- ^ "Janskerk Informatie". http://www.janskerkutrecht.nl/. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- ^ "Sint Pieterskerk Utrecht". http://www.planetware.com/utrecht/st-pieterskerk-nl-ut-piet.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- ^ Haverkate, H.M. (1985) (in Dutch). Een kerk van papier. De geschiedenis van de voormalige Mariakerk te Utrecht. Zutphen, the Netherlands.
- ^ Broer, C.J.C. (2000) (in Dutch). Uniek in de stad. De oudste geschiedenis van de kloostergemeenschap op de Hohorst sinds 1050 de Sint-Paulusabdij te Utrecht. Utrecht.
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[edit | edit source]
- Official website of the city
- Official website of the city (English)
- Mobile website of the city
- CU 2030, redevelopment of the Utrecht Central railroad station area (Dutch)
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