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{{Infobox subdivision type
<!--{{Politics of the United States}}-->
 
  +
| name= U.S. state
A '''U.S. state''' is any one of the fifty [[Wikipedia:state (country subdivision)|subnational entities]] of the [[United States|United States]] (although four states use the official title ''[[Commonwealth (United States)|commonwealth]]''). The separate [[Wikipedia:state government|state government]]s and the [[Wikipedia:federal government of the United States|federal government]] share [[Wikipedia:sovereignty|sovereignty]], in that an "[[United States|American]]" is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of residence. However, [[Wikipedia:state citizenship|state citizenship]] is very flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states (with the exception of convicts on [[Wikipedia:parole|parole]]).
 
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| alt_name=
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| alt_name1=
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| alt_name2=
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| alt_name3=
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| alt_name4=
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| map= [[File:Blank US Map.svg|250px]]
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| category= [[Federated state]]
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| territory= [[United States]]
  +
| upper_unit=
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| start_date=
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| start_date1=
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| start_date2=
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| start_date3=
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| start_date4=
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| legislation_begin=
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| legislation_begin1=
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| legislation_begin2=
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| legislation_begin3=
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| legislation_begin4=
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| legislation_end=
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| legislation_end1=
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| legislation_end2=
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| legislation_end3=
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| legislation_end4=
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| end_date=
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| end_date1=
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| end_date2=
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| end_date3=
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| end_date4=
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| current_number= 50
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| number_date=
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| type=
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| type1=
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| type2=
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| type3=
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| type4=
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| status=
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| status1=
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| status2=
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| status3=
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| status4=
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| exofficio=
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| exofficio1=
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| exofficio2=
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| exofficio3=
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| exofficio4=
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| population_range=
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| area_range=
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| government= [[State governments of the United States|State government]]
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| government1=
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| government2=
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| government3=
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| government4=
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| subdivision=
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| subdivision1=
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| subdivision2=
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| subdivision3=
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| subdivision4=
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}}
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{{Administrative divisions of the United States}}
  +
A '''U.S. state''' (abbreviation of '''United States state''') is any one of the 50 [[federated state]]s of the [[United States|United States of America]] that share [[sovereignty]] with the [[federal government of the United States|federal government]]. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of [[Domicile (law)|domicile]].<ref>See the [[Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution]].</ref> Four states use the official title of ''[[Commonwealth (U.S. state)|commonwealth]]'' rather than ''state''. [[State citizenship]] is flexible and no government approval is required to move between states (with the exception of convicts on [[parole]]).
   
The [[Wikipedia:United States Constitution|United States Constitution]] allocates power between the two levels of government in general terms. By ratifying the Constitution, each state transfers certain sovereign powers to the federal government and agrees to share other powers. Under the [[Wikipedia:Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Tenth Amendment]], all powers not explicitly transferred or shared are retained by the states and the people. Historically, the tasks of public education, public health, transportation and other infrastructure have been considered primarily state responsibilities, although all have significant federal funding and regulation as well.
+
The [[United States Constitution]] allocates power between these two levels of government. By ratifying the Constitution, the people transferred certain [[Limited government|limited]] [[sovereign]] powers to the federal government from their states. Under the [[Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Tenth Amendment]], all powers not delegated to the U.S. government nor prohibited to the states are retained by the states or the [[People of the United States|people]]. Historically, the tasks of [[public safety]] (in the sense of controlling crime), public education, public health, transportation, and [[infrastructure]] have generally been considered primarily state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well (based largely upon the [[Commerce Clause]], the [[Taxing and Spending Clause]], and the [[Necessary and Proper Clause]] of the Constitution).
   
Over time, the Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a continuing debate over "[[Wikipedia:states' rights|states' rights]]," which concerns the extent and nature of the powers that the states have given to the federal government.
+
Over time, the Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and [[Incorporation (Bill of Rights)|incorporation]], with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a continuing debate over [[states' rights]], which concerns the extent and nature of the states' powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government as well as the rights of individual persons.
   
  +
Congress may admit new states on an equal footing with existing ones; this last happened in 1959 with the admission of [[Alaska]] and [[Hawaii]]. The Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to unilaterally leave, or secede from, the Union, but the Supreme Court has ruled<ref name="books.google.com">Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan, [http://books.google.com/books?id=-IjHbPvp1W0C Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession], p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.</ref><ref name="Texas v. White">[http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0074_0700_ZO.html ''Texas v. White''], 74 U.S. 700 (1868) at [[Cornell University Law School]] Supreme Court collection.</ref> secession to be unconstitutional, a position driven in part by the outcome of the [[American Civil War]].
==List of states==
 
<!--[[Image:Map of USA with state names.svg|center|640px]]
 
<br clear=all /> -->
 
The following sortable table lists each of the 50 states of the [[United States of America|United States of America]] with the following information:
 
*The [[Wikipedia:political divisions of the United States#States of the United States|common state name]],
 
*The [[Wikipedia:list of official names of the states of the USA|official state name or names]],
 
*The [[Wikipedia:United States Postal Service|United States Postal Service]] (USPS) two-character [[United States postal abbreviations|state abbreviation]]<ref name=USPSabbrev>{{cite web | url = http://www.usps.com/ncsc/lookups/abbreviations.html | title = Official USPS Abbreviations | format = {{subst:#ifexist:HTML|[[HTML|]]|[[Wikipedia:HTML|]]}} | publisher = {{subst:#ifexist:United States Postal Service|[[United States Postal Service|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Postal Service|]]}} | date = [[1998]] | accessdate = 2007-02-26 }}</ref><br/>(also used as the [[Wikipedia:International Organization for Standardization|International Organization for Standardization]] (ISO) Standard [[Wikipedia:ISO 3166-2|3166-2]] [[Wikipedia:ISO 3166-2:US|country subdivision code]]),
 
*The date the state [[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by date of statehood|ratified]] the [[Wikipedia:United States Constitution|United States Constitution]] or was [[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by date of statehood|admitted]] to the [[United States|Union]],
 
*The [[United States Census Bureau|United States Census Bureau]] estimate of state population as of [[Wikipedia:2006-07-01|2006-07-01]],<ref name=PopEstStates>{{cite web | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2006-01.csv | title = Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 | format = {{subst:#ifexist:comma-separated values|[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|[[Wikipedia:comma-separated values|CSV]]}} | work = 2006 Population Estimates | publisher = {{subst:#ifexist:United States Census Bureau|[[United States Census Bureau|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Census Bureau|]]}}, Population Division | date = {{subst:#ifexist:2006-12-22|[[2006-12-22|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-12-22|]]}} | accessdate = 2007-02-26 }}</ref>
 
*The [[List of capitals in the United States|state capital]],
 
*The most populous [[Wikipedia:incorporated place|incorporated place]] or [[census-designated place|census-designated place]] within the state as of [[Wikipedia:2005-07-01|2005-07-01]], as estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau,<ref name=PopEstCities>{{cite web | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/files/SUB-EST2005-ip.csv | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for All Incorporated Places: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 | format = {{subst:#ifexist:comma-separated values|[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|[[Wikipedia:comma-separated values|CSV]]}} | work = 2005 Population Estimates | publisher = {{subst:#ifexist:United States Census Bureau|[[United States Census Bureau|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Census Bureau|]]}}, Population Division | date = {{subst:#ifexist:2006-06-20|[[2006-06-20|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-06-20|]]}} | accessdate = 2007-02-26 }}</ref> and
 
*An image of the [[Wikipedia:flags of the U.S. states|state flag]].
 
   
  +
==List of states==<!--Linked from [[Template:US states navbox with columns/doc]]-->
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
  +
{{USA imagemap with state names}}
|+ The 50 United States of America
 
  +
! State
 
  +
The following table lists each of the 50 states of the [[United States]] with the following information:
! Official Name
 
  +
#The [[political divisions of the United States#States of the United States|state name]]
! USPS
 
  +
#The preferred pronunciation of the common state name as transcribed with the [[International Phonetic Alphabet]] (see [[Help:IPA for English]] for a key)
! Date
 
  +
#The [[United States Postal Service]] (USPS) two-character [[United States postal abbreviations|state abbreviation]]<ref name=USPSabbrev>{{cite web | url = http://www.usps.com/ncsc/lookups/abbreviations.html | title = Official USPS Abbreviations | publisher = [[United States Postal Service]] | year = 1998 | accessdate = 2007-02-26 }}</ref><br/>(also used as the [[International Organization for Standardization]] (ISO) Standard [[ISO 3166-2|3166-2]] [[ISO 3166-2:US|country subdivision code]])
! Population
 
  +
#An image of the official [[flags of the U.S. states|state flag]]
! Capital
 
  +
#The date the state [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood|ratified]] the [[United States Constitution]] or was admitted to the [[United States|Union]]
! Most Populous City
 
  +
#The total land and water area of the state
! Flag
 
  +
#The [[2010 United States Census|United States Census 2010]] of state population as of {{dts|2010|4|1}}<ref name=PopCensusState>{{cite web|url=http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/pop_change.csv|title=POPULATION CHANGE DATA PROVIDED BY U.S. CENSUS 2010|publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division|date={{dts|2010|12|21}}|accessdate={{dts|2010|12|21}}}}</ref>
  +
#The [[List of capitals in the United States#State capitals|state capital]]
  +
#The most populous [[incorporated place]] or [[Census Designated Place]] within the state as of {{dts|2008|7|1}}, as estimated by the [[U.S. Census Bureau]]<ref name=PopEstIP>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/files/SUB-EST2008-IP.csv|title=Resident Population Estimates of Incorporated Places Only: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008|format=[[comma-separated values|CSV]]|work=2008 Population Estimates|publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]], Population Division|date={{dts|2009|7|1}}|accessdate={{dts|2009|10|1}}}}</ref>
  +
#Preceding entity of the state, in which it does not account for the [[Ordinance of Secession]] during the [[American Civil War]] of 13 states, 11 of which formed the [[Confederate States of America]], and the subsequent restoration of those states to representation in Congress (sometimes called "readmission") between 1866 and 1870, or the end of the [[reconstruction era of the United States]].
  +
{{-}}
  +
<!-- THE FOLLOWING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO NOT ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. -->
  +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:100%;"
  +
|+<big>The 50 United States of America</big>
  +
!Name
  +
!class="unsortable" | IPA
  +
!USPS
  +
!class="unsortable" | Flag
  +
!Statehood
  +
!Area (sq mi)
  +
!Population ({{as of|2010|alt=2010}})
  +
!Capital
  +
!Most populous city
  +
!Preceding entity
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Alabama|Alabama]]
+
|[[Alabama]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌæləˈbæmə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Alabama|State of Alabama]]
 
| align=center | AL
+
|align=center|AL
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Alabama.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18191214</span>[[Wikipedia:1819-12-14|1819-12-14]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1819|12|14}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>4,599,030
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|135,765|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Montgomery, Alabama|Montgomery]]
 
  +
|align=right|4,779,736
| [[Wikipedia:Birmingham, Alabama|Birmingham]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Alabama.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Montgomery, Alabama|Montgomery]]
  +
|[[Birmingham, Alabama|Birmingham]]
  +
|[[Alabama Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Alaska|Alaska]]
+
|[[Alaska]]
  +
|{{IPA|/əˈlæskə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Alaska|State of Alaska]]
 
| align=center | AK
+
|align=center|AK
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Alaska.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">19590103</span>[[Wikipedia:1959-01-03|1959-01-03]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1959|1|03}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>670,053
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|1,717,854|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Juneau, Alaska|Juneau]]
 
  +
|align=right|710,231
| [[Wikipedia:Anchorage, Alaska|Anchorage]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Alaska.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Juneau, Alaska|Juneau]]
  +
|[[Anchorage, Alaska|Anchorage]]
  +
|[[Alaska Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Arizona|Arizona]]
+
|[[Arizona]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌær<s>ɪ</s>ˈzoʊnə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Arizona|State of Arizona]]
 
| align=center | AZ
+
|align=center|AZ
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Arizona.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">19120214</span>[[Wikipedia:1912-02-14|1912-02-14]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1912|2|14}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>6,166,318
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|295,254|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix]]
 
  +
|align=right|6,392,017
| [[Wikipedia:Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Arizona.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix]]
  +
|[[Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix]]
  +
|[[Arizona Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Arkansas|Arkansas]]
+
|[[Arkansas]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈɑrkənsɔː/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Arkansas|State of Arkansas]]
 
| align=center | AR
+
|align=center|AR
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Arkansas.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18360615</span>[[Wikipedia:1836-06-15|1836-06-15]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1836|6|15}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>2,810,872
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|137,002|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Little Rock, Arkansas|Little Rock]]
 
  +
|align=right|2,915,918
| [[Wikipedia:Little Rock, Arkansas|Little Rock]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Arkansas.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Little Rock, Arkansas|Little Rock]]
  +
|[[Little Rock, Arkansas|Little Rock]]
  +
|[[Arkansas Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[California|California]]
+
|[[California]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌkæl<s>ɪ</s>ˈfɔrnjə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of California|State of California]]
 
| align=center | CA
+
|align=center|CA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of California.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18500909</span>[[Wikipedia:1850-09-09|1850-09-09]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1850|9|09}}
| align=right | 36,457,549
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|423,970|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Sacramento, California|Sacramento]]
 
  +
|align=right|37,253,956
| [[Los Angeles, California|Los Angeles]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of California.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Sacramento, California|Sacramento]]
  +
|[[Los Angeles]]
  +
|Directly admitted from [[Mexican Cession]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Colorado|Colorado]]
+
|[[Colorado]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Colorado|State of Colorado]]
 
| align=center | CO
+
|align=center|CO
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Colorado.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18760801</span>[[Wikipedia:1876-08-01|1876-08-01]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1876|8|01}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>4,753,377
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|269,837|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Denver, Colorado|Denver]]
 
  +
|align=right|5,029,196
| [[Wikipedia:Denver, Colorado|Denver]]
 
  +
|[[Denver]]
| [[Image:Flag of Colorado.svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Denver]]
  +
|[[Colorado Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Connecticut|Connecticut]]
+
|[[Connecticut]]
  +
|{{IPA|/kəˈnɛt<s>ɪ</s>kət/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Connecticut|State of Connecticut]]
 
| align=center | CT
+
|align=center|CT
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Connecticut.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880109</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-01-09|1788-01-09]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|1|09}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>3,504,809
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|14,356|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
 
  +
|align=right|3,574,097
| [[Wikipedia:Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name=Hartford>The {{subst:#ifexist:Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic Combined Statistical Area|[[Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic Combined Statistical Area|]]}} is the most populous metropolitan area in {{subst:#ifexist:Connecticut|[[Connecticut|]]|[[Wikipedia:Connecticut|]]}}.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Connecticut.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Hartford, Connecticut|Hartford]]
  +
|[[Bridgeport, Connecticut|Bridgeport]]<ref name=Hartford>The [[Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic Combined Statistical Area]] is the most populous metropolitan area in [[Connecticut]].</ref>
  +
|[[Connecticut Colony]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Delaware|Delaware]]
+
|[[Delaware]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈdɛləwɛər/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Delaware|State of Delaware]]
 
| align=center | DE
+
|align=center|DE
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Delaware.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17871207</span>[[Wikipedia:1787-12-07|1787-12-07]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1787|12|07}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>853,476
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|6,452|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Dover, Delaware|Dover]]
 
  +
|align=right|897,934
| [[Wikipedia:Wilmington, Delaware|Wilmington]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Delaware.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Dover, Delaware|Dover]]
  +
|[[Wilmington, Delaware|Wilmington]]
  +
|[[Lower Counties on Delaware]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Florida|Florida]]
+
|[[Florida]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈflɒr<s>ɪ</s>də/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Florida|State of Florida]]
 
| align=center | FL
+
|align=center|FL
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Florida.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18450303</span>[[Wikipedia:1845-03-03|1845-03-03]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1845|3|03}}
| align=right | 18,089,888
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|170,304|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]]
 
  +
|align=right|18,801,310
| [[Wikipedia:Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]]<ref name=Miami>The {{subst:#ifexist:Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area|[[Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area|]]}} is the most populous metropolitan area in {{subst:#ifexist:Florida|[[Florida|]]|[[Wikipedia:Florida|]]}}.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Florida.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Tallahassee, Florida|Tallahassee]]
  +
|[[Jacksonville, Florida|Jacksonville]]<ref name=Miami>The [[South Florida metropolitan area|Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area]] is the most populous metropolitan area in [[Florida]].</ref>
  +
|[[Florida Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]]
+
|[[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈdʒɔrdʒə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Georgia|State of Georgia]]
 
| align=center | GA
+
|align=center|GA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880102</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-01-02|1788-01-02]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|1|02}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>9,363,941
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|153,909|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Atlanta, Georgia|Atlanta]]
 
  +
|align=right|9,687,653
| [[Atlanta, Georgia|Atlanta]]
 
  +
|[[Atlanta]]
| [[Image:Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Atlanta]]
  +
|[[Province of Georgia]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Hawaii|Hawaii]]
+
|[[Hawaii]]
  +
|{{IPA|/həˈwaɪ.iː/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Hawai`i|State of Hawai`i]]<br/>[[Wikipedia:Moku`a-ina o Hawai`i|Moku`a-ina o Hawai`i]]
 
| align=center | HI
+
|align=center|HI
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Hawaii.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">19590821</span>[[Wikipedia:1959-08-21|1959-08-21]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1959|8|21}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,285,498
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|28,311|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Honolulu, Hawaii|Honolulu]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,360,301
| [[Wikipedia:Honolulu, Hawaii|Honolulu]]
 
  +
|[[Honolulu]]
| [[Image:Flag of Hawaii.svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Honolulu]]
  +
|[[Territory of Hawaii]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Idaho|Idaho]]
+
|[[Idaho]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈaɪdəhoʊ/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Idaho|State of Idaho]]
 
| align=center | ID
+
|align=center|ID
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Idaho.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18900703</span>[[Wikipedia:1890-07-03|1890-07-03]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1890|7|03}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,466,465
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|216,632|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Boise, Idaho|Boise]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,567,582
| [[Wikipedia:Boise, Idaho|Boise]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Idaho.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Boise, Idaho|Boise]]
  +
|[[Boise, Idaho|Boise]]
  +
|[[Idaho Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Illinois|Illinois]]
+
|[[Illinois]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ɪl<s>ɪ</s>ˈnɔɪ/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Illinois|State of Illinois]]
 
| align=center | IL
+
|align=center|IL
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Illinois.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18181203</span>[[Wikipedia:1818-12-03|1818-12-03]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1818|12|03}}
| align=right | 12,831,970
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|141,998|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Springfield, Illinois|Springfield]]
 
  +
|align=right|12,830,632
| [[Chicago|Chicago]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Illinois.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Springfield, Illinois|Springfield]]
  +
|[[Chicago]]
  +
|[[Illinois Territory]], formed from the [[Northwest Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Indiana|Indiana]]
+
|[[Indiana]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌɪndiˈænə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Indiana|State of Indiana]]
 
| align=center | IN
+
|align=center|IN
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Indiana.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18161211</span>[[Wikipedia:1816-12-11|1816-12-11]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1816|12|11}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>6,313,520
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|94,321|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Indianapolis, Indiana|Indianapolis]]
 
  +
|align=right|6,483,802
| [[Wikipedia:Indianapolis, Indiana|Indianapolis]]
 
  +
|[[Indianapolis]]
| [[Image:Flag of Indiana.svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Indianapolis]]
  +
|[[Indiana Territory]], formed from the [[Northwest Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Iowa|Iowa]]
+
|[[Iowa]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈaɪ.ɵwə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Iowa|State of Iowa]]
 
| align=center | IA
+
|align=center|IA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Iowa.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18461228</span>[[Wikipedia:1846-12-28|1846-12-28]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1846|12|28}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>2,982,085
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|145,743|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Des Moines, Iowa|Des Moines]]
 
  +
|align=right|3,046,355
| [[Wikipedia:Des Moines, Iowa|Des Moines]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Iowa.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Des Moines, Iowa|Des Moines]]
  +
|[[Des Moines, Iowa|Des Moines]]
  +
|[[Iowa Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Kansas|Kansas]]
+
|[[Kansas]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈkænzəs/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Kansas|State of Kansas]]
 
| align=center | KS
+
|align=center|KS
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Kansas.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18610129</span>[[Wikipedia:1861-01-29|1861-01-29]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1861|1|29}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>2,764,075
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|213,096|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Topeka, Kansas|Topeka]]
 
  +
|align=right|2,853,118
| [[Wikipedia:Wichita, Kansas|Wichita]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Kansas.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Topeka, Kansas|Topeka]]
  +
|[[Wichita, Kansas|Wichita]]
  +
|[[Kansas Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|[[Kentucky]]<ref name=commonwealth>Officially called a '[[Commonwealth]]'.</ref>
| [[Kentucky|Kentucky]]
 
  +
|{{IPA|/k<s>ɪ</s>nˈtʌki/}}
| [[Wikipedia:Commonwealth of Kentucky|Commonwealth of Kentucky]]
 
| align=center | KY
+
|align=center|KY
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Kentucky.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17920601</span>[[Wikipedia:1792-06-01|1792-06-01]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1792|6|01}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>4,206,074
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|104,659|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Frankfort, Kentucky|Frankfort]]
 
  +
|align=right|4,339,367
| [[Wikipedia:Louisville, Kentucky|Louisville]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Kentucky.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Frankfort, Kentucky|Frankfort]]
  +
|[[Louisville, Kentucky|Louisville]]
  +
|Split off from [[Virginia]] with that state's consent. The former huge [[Kentucky County]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Louisiana|Louisiana]]
+
|[[Louisiana]]
  +
|{{IPA|/luːˌiːziˈænə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Louisiana|State of Louisiana]]<br/>[[Wikipedia:État de Louisiane|État de Louisiane]]
 
| align=center | LA
+
|align=center|LA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Louisiana.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18120430</span>[[Wikipedia:1812-04-30|1812-04-30]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1812|4|30}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>4,287,768
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|135,382|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Baton Rouge, Louisiana|Baton Rouge]]
 
  +
|align=right|4,533,372
| [[Wikipedia:New Orleans, Louisiana|New Orleans]]<ref name=Katrina>The {{subst:#ifexist:United States Census Bureau|[[United States Census Bureau|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Census Bureau|]]}} estimates that, as of {{subst:#ifexist:2005-07-01|[[2005-07-01|]]|[[Wikipedia:2005-07-01|]]}}, the population of the {{subst:#ifexist:New Orleans, Louisiana|[[New Orleans, Louisiana|City of New Orleans]]|[[Wikipedia:New Orleans, Louisiana|City of New Orleans]]}} was 454,863 and the population of the {{subst:#ifexist:Baton Rouge, Louisiana|[[Baton Rouge, Louisiana|City of Baton Rouge]]|[[Wikipedia:Baton Rouge, Louisiana|City of Baton Rouge]]}} was 222,064. After {{subst:#ifexist:Hurricane Katrina|[[Hurricane Katrina|]]|[[Wikipedia:Hurricane Katrina|]]}} struck {{subst:#ifexist:Louisiana|[[Louisiana|]]|[[Wikipedia:Louisiana|]]}}, New Orleans lost a significant portion of its population while the population of Baton Rouge increased substantially.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Louisiana.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Baton Rouge, Louisiana|Baton Rouge]]
  +
|[[New Orleans]]
  +
|[[Territory of Orleans]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Maine|Maine]]
+
|[[Maine]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈmeɪn/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Maine|State of Maine]]
 
| align=center | ME
+
|align=center|ME
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Maine.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18200315</span>[[Wikipedia:1820-03-15|1820-03-15]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1820|3|15}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,321,574
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|91,646|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Augusta, Maine|Augusta]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,328,361
| [[Wikipedia:Portland, Maine|Portland]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Maine.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Augusta, Maine|Augusta]]
  +
|[[Portland, Maine|Portland]]
  +
|Split off from [[Massachusetts]] with that state's consent (the former [[District of Maine]])
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Maryland|Maryland]]
+
|[[Maryland]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈmɛrələnd/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Maryland|State of Maryland]]
 
| align=center | MD
+
|align=center|MD
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Maryland.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880428</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-04-28|1788-04-28]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|4|28}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>5,615,727
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|32,133|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Annapolis, Maryland|Annapolis]]
 
  +
|align=right|5,773,552
| [[Baltimore, Maryland|Baltimore]]<ref name=Maryland>{{subst:#ifexist:Baltimore, Maryland|[[Baltimore, Maryland|Baltimore City]]|[[Wikipedia:Baltimore, Maryland|Baltimore City]]}} and the 12 {{subst:#ifexist:Maryland|[[Maryland|]]|[[Wikipedia:Maryland|]]}} {{subst:#ifexist:county (United States)|[[county (United States)|counties]]|[[Wikipedia:county (United States)|counties]]}} of the {{subst:#ifexist:Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area|[[Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area|]]}} form the most populous metropolitan region in Maryland.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Maryland.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Annapolis, Maryland|Annapolis]]
  +
|[[Baltimore]]<ref name=Maryland>[[Baltimore|Baltimore City]] and the 12 [[Maryland]] [[county (United States)|counties]] of the [[Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area|Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area]] form the most populous metropolitan region in Maryland.</ref>
  +
|[[Province of Maryland]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]
+
|[[Massachusetts]]<ref name=commonwealth/>
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌmæsəˈtʃuːs<s>ɪ</s>ts/}}
| [[Wikipedia:Commonwealth of Massachusetts|Commonwealth of Massachusetts]]
 
| align=center | MA
+
|align=center|MA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Massachusetts.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880206</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-02-06|1788-02-06]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|2|06}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>6,437,193
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|27,336|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Boston, Massachusetts|Boston]]
 
  +
|align=right|6,547,629
| [[Wikipedia:Boston, Massachusetts|Boston]]
 
  +
|[[Boston]]
| [[Image:Flag of Massachusetts.svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Boston]]
  +
|[[Province of Massachusetts Bay]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Michigan|Michigan]]
+
|[[Michigan]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈmɪʃ<s>ɪ</s>ɡən/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Michigan|State of Michigan]]
 
| align=center | MI
+
|align=center|MI
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Michigan.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18370126</span>[[Wikipedia:1837-01-26|1837-01-26]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1837|1|26}}
| align=right | 10,095,643
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|253,793|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Lansing, Michigan|Lansing]]
 
  +
|align=right|9,883,640
| [[Wikipedia:Detroit, Michigan|Detroit]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Michigan.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Lansing, Michigan|Lansing]]
  +
|[[Detroit]]
  +
|[[Michigan Territory]], formed from the [[Northwest Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Minnesota|Minnesota]]
+
|[[Minnesota]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌmɪn<s>ɪ</s>ˈsoʊtə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Minnesota|State of Minnesota]]
 
| align=center | MN
+
|align=center|MN
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Minnesota.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18580511</span>[[Wikipedia:1858-05-11|1858-05-11]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1858|5|11}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>5,167,101
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|225,181|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Saint Paul, Minnesota|Saint Paul]]
 
  +
|align=right|5,303,925
| [[Wikipedia:Minneapolis, Minnesota|Minneapolis]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Minnesota.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Saint Paul, Minnesota|Saint Paul]]
  +
|[[Minneapolis]]
  +
|[[Minnesota Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Mississippi|Mississippi]]
+
|[[Mississippi]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌmɪs<s>ɪ</s>ˈsɪpi/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Mississippi|State of Mississippi]]
 
| align=center | MS
+
|align=center|MS
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Mississippi.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18171210</span>[[Wikipedia:1817-12-10|1817-12-10]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1817|12|10}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>2,910,540
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|125,443|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Jackson, Mississippi|Jackson]]
 
  +
|align=right|2,967,297
| [[Wikipedia:Jackson, Mississippi|Jackson]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Mississippi.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Jackson, Mississippi|Jackson]]
  +
|[[Jackson, Mississippi|Jackson]]
  +
|[[Mississippi Territory]], formed from land donated to the U.S. by [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Missouri|Missouri]]
+
|[[Missouri]]
  +
|{{IPA|/m<s>ɪ</s>ˈzʊəri, m<s>ɪ</s>ˈzʊərə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Missouri|State of Missouri]]
 
| align=center | MO
+
|align=center|MO
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Missouri.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18210810</span>[[Wikipedia:1821-08-10|1821-08-10]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1821|8|10}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>5,842,713
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|180,533|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Jefferson City, Missouri|Jefferson City]]
 
  +
|align=right|5,988,927
| [[Wikipedia:Kansas City, Missouri|Kansas City]]<ref name=Saint_Louis>The {{subst:#ifexist:St. Louis, Missouri|[[St. Louis, Missouri|City of Saint Louis]]|[[Wikipedia:St. Louis, Missouri|City of Saint Louis]]}} and the 8 {{subst:#ifexist:Missouri|[[Missouri|]]|[[Wikipedia:Missouri|]]}} {{subst:#ifexist:county (United States)|[[county (United States)|counties]]|[[Wikipedia:county (United States)|counties]]}} of the {{subst:#ifexist:St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington Combined Statistical Area|[[St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington Combined Statistical Area|]]}} form the most populous metropolitan region in Missouri.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Missouri.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Jefferson City, Missouri|Jefferson City]]
  +
|[[Kansas City, Missouri|Kansas City]]<ref name=Saint_Louis>The [[St. Louis, Missouri|City of Saint Louis]] and the 8 [[Missouri]] [[county (United States)|counties]] of the [[Greater St. Louis|St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington Combined Statistical Area]] form the most populous metropolitan region in Missouri.</ref>
  +
|[[Missouri Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Montana|Montana]]
+
|[[Montana]]
  +
|{{IPA|/mɒnˈtænə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Montana|State of Montana]]
 
| align=center | MT
+
|align=center|MT
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Montana.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18891108</span>[[Wikipedia:1889-11-08|1889-11-08]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1889|11|08}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>944,632
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|381,156|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Helena, Montana|Helena]]
 
  +
|align=right|989,415
| [[Wikipedia:Billings, Montana|Billings]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Montana.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Helena, Montana|Helena]]
  +
|[[Billings, Montana|Billings]]
  +
|[[Montana Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Nebraska|Nebraska]]
+
|[[Nebraska]]
  +
|{{IPA|/nəˈbræskə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Nebraska|State of Nebraska]]
 
| align=center | NE
+
|align=center|NE
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Nebraska.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18670301</span>[[Wikipedia:1867-03-01|1867-03-01]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1867|3|01}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,768,331
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|200,520|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Lincoln, Nebraska|Lincoln]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,826,341
| [[Wikipedia:Omaha, Nebraska|Omaha]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Nebraska.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Lincoln, Nebraska|Lincoln]]
  +
|[[Omaha, Nebraska|Omaha]]
  +
|[[Nebraska Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Nevada|Nevada]]
+
|[[Nevada]]
  +
|{{IPA|/nəˈvædə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Nevada|State of Nevada]]
 
| align=center | NV
+
|align=center|NV
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Nevada.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18641031</span>[[Wikipedia:1864-10-31|1864-10-31]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1864|10|31}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>2,495,529
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|286,367|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Carson City, Nevada|Carson City]]
 
  +
|align=right|2,700,551
| [[Wikipedia:Las Vegas, Nevada|Las Vegas]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Nevada.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Carson City, Nevada|Carson City]]
  +
|[[Las Vegas, Nevada|Las Vegas]]
  +
|[[Nevada Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[New Hampshire|New Hampshire]]
+
|[[New Hampshire]]
  +
|{{IPA|/nuː ˈhæmpʃər/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of New Hampshire|State of New Hampshire]]
 
| align=center | NH
+
|align=center|NH
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of New Hampshire.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880621</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-06-21|1788-06-21]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|6|21}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,314,895
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|24,217|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Concord, New Hampshire|Concord]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,316,470
| [[Wikipedia:Manchester, New Hampshire|Manchester]]<ref name=Rockingham>The 5 southeastern {{subst:#ifexist:New Hampshire|[[New Hampshire|]]|[[Wikipedia:New Hampshire|]]}} {{subst:#ifexist:county (United States)|[[county (United States)|counties]]|[[Wikipedia:county (United States)|counties]]}} of the {{subst:#ifexist:Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area|[[Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area|]]}} form the most populous metropolitan region in New Hampshire.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of New Hampshire.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Concord, New Hampshire|Concord]]
  +
|[[Manchester, New Hampshire|Manchester]]<ref name=Rockingham>The 5 southeastern [[New Hampshire]] [[county (United States)|counties]] of the [[Greater Boston|Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area]] form the most populous metropolitan region in New Hampshire.</ref>
  +
|[[Province of New Hampshire]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[New Jersey|New Jersey]]
+
|[[New Jersey]]
  +
|{{IPA|/nuː ˈdʒɜrzi/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of New Jersey|State of New Jersey]]
 
| align=center | NJ
+
|align=center|NJ
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of New Jersey.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17871218</span>[[Wikipedia:1787-12-18|1787-12-18]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1787|12|18}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>8,724,560
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|22,608|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Trenton, New Jersey|Trenton]]
 
  +
|align=right|8,791,894
| [[Wikipedia:Newark, New Jersey|Newark]]<ref name=New_Jersey>The 13 northern {{subst:#ifexist:New Jersey|[[New Jersey|]]|[[Wikipedia:New Jersey|]]}} {{subst:#ifexist:county (United States)|[[county (United States)|counties]]|[[Wikipedia:county (United States)|counties]]}} of the {{subst:#ifexist:New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area|[[New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area|]]}} form the most populous metropolitan region in New Jersey.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of New Jersey.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Trenton, New Jersey|Trenton]]
  +
|[[Newark, New Jersey|Newark]]<ref name=New_Jersey>The 13 northern [[New Jersey]] [[county (United States)|counties]] of the [[New York metropolitan area|New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area]] form the most populous metropolitan region in New Jersey.</ref>
  +
|[[Province of New Jersey]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[New Mexico|New Mexico]]
+
|[[New Mexico]]
  +
|{{IPA|/nuː ˈmɛks<s>ɪ</s>koʊ/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of New Mexico|State of New Mexico]]<br/>[[Wikipedia:Estado de Nuevo México|Estado de Nuevo México]]
 
| align=center | NM
+
|align=center|NM
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of New Mexico.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">19120106</span>[[Wikipedia:1912-01-06|1912-01-06]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1912|1|06}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,954,599
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|315,194|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Santa Fe, New Mexico|Santa Fe]]
 
  +
|align=right|2,059,179
| [[Wikipedia:Albuquerque, New Mexico|Albuquerque]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of New Mexico.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Santa Fe, New Mexico|Santa Fe]]
  +
|[[Albuquerque, New Mexico|Albuquerque]]
  +
|[[New Mexico Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[New York|New York]]
+
|[[New York]]
  +
|{{IPA|/nuː ˈjɔrk/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of New York|State of New York]]
 
| align=center | NY
+
|align=center|NY
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of New York.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880726</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-07-26|1788-07-26]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|7|26}}
| align=right | 19,306,183
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|141,299|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Albany, New York|Albany]]
 
  +
|align=right|19,378,102
| [[New York City|New York]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of New York.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Albany, New York|Albany]]
  +
|[[New York City]]<ref>[[New York City]] is the [[List of United States cities by population|most populous city]] in the United States.</ref>
  +
|[[Province of New York]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[North Carolina|North Carolina]]
+
|[[North Carolina]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌnɔrθ kærəˈlaɪnə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of North Carolina|State of North Carolina]]
 
| align=center | NC
+
|align=center|NC
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of North Carolina.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17891121</span>[[Wikipedia:1789-11-21|1789-11-21]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1789|11|21}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>8,856,505
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|139,509|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]
 
  +
|align=right|9,535,483
| [[Wikipedia:Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of North Carolina.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Raleigh, North Carolina|Raleigh]]
  +
|[[Charlotte, North Carolina|Charlotte]]
  +
|[[Province of North Carolina]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[North Dakota|North Dakota]]
+
|[[North Dakota]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌnɔrθ dəˈkoʊtə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of North Dakota|State of North Dakota]]
 
| align=center | ND
+
|align=center|ND
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of North Dakota.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18891102</span>[[Wikipedia:1889-11-02|1889-11-02]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1889|11|02}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>635,867
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|183,272|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Bismarck, North Dakota|Bismarck]]
 
  +
|align=right|672,591
| [[Wikipedia:Fargo, North Dakota|Fargo]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of North Dakota.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Bismarck, North Dakota|Bismarck]]
  +
|[[Fargo, North Dakota|Fargo]]
  +
|[[Dakota Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Ohio|Ohio]]
+
|[[Ohio]]
  +
|{{IPA|/oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Ohio|State of Ohio]]
 
| align=center | OH
+
|align=center|OH
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Ohio.svg|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18030301</span>[[Wikipedia:1803-03-01|1803-03-01]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1803|3|01}}
| align=right | 11,478,006
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|116,096|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Columbus, Ohio|Columbus]]
 
  +
|align=right|11,536,504
| [[Wikipedia:Columbus, Ohio|Columbus]]<ref name=Cleveland>The {{subst:#ifexist:Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area|[[Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area|]]}} is the most populous metropolitan area in {{subst:#ifexist:Ohio|[[Ohio|]]|[[Wikipedia:Ohio|]]}}.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Ohio.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Columbus, Ohio|Columbus]]
  +
|[[Columbus, Ohio|Columbus]]<ref name=Cleveland>The [[Greater Cleveland|Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area]] is the most populous metropolitan area in [[Ohio]].</ref>
  +
|[[Northwest Territory]], land donated to the U.S. by [[Pennsylvania]], [[Virginia]], and [[New York]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Oklahoma|Oklahoma]]
+
|[[Oklahoma]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Oklahoma|State of Oklahoma]]
 
| align=center | OK
+
|align=center|OK
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Oklahoma.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">19071116</span>[[Wikipedia:1907-11-16|1907-11-16]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1907|11|16}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>3,579,212
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|181,195|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Oklahoma City, Oklahoma|Oklahoma City]]
 
  +
|align=right|3,751,351
| [[Wikipedia:Oklahoma City, Oklahoma|Oklahoma City]]
 
  +
|[[Oklahoma City]]
| [[Image:Flag of Oklahoma.svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Oklahoma City]]
  +
|[[Oklahoma Territory]] and [[Indian Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Oregon|Oregon]]
+
|[[Oregon]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈɒr<s>ɪ</s>ɡən/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Oregon|State of Oregon]]
 
| align=center | OR
+
|align=center|OR
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Oregon.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18590214</span>[[Wikipedia:1859-02-14|1859-02-14]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1859|2|14}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>3,700,758
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|255,026|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Salem, Oregon|Salem]]
 
  +
|align=right|3,831,074
| [[Wikipedia:Portland, Oregon|Portland]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Oregon.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Salem, Oregon|Salem]]
  +
|[[Portland, Oregon|Portland]]
  +
|[[Oregon Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]]
+
|[[Pennsylvania]]<ref name=commonwealth/>
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌpɛns<s>ɪ</s>lˈveɪnjə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:Commonwealth of Pennsylvania|Commonwealth of Pennsylvania]]
 
| align=center | PA
+
|align=center|PA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Pennsylvania.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17871212</span>[[Wikipedia:1787-12-12|1787-12-12]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1787|12|12}}
| align=right | 12,440,621
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|119,283|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Harrisburg, Pennsylvania|Harrisburg]]
 
  +
|align=right|12,702,379
| [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Philadelphia]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Pennsylvania.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Harrisburg, Pennsylvania|Harrisburg]]
  +
|[[Philadelphia]]
  +
|[[Province of Pennsylvania]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Rhode Island|Rhode Island]]
+
|[[Rhode Island]]<ref>Full name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations</ref>
  +
|{{IPA|/rɵd ˈaɪlənd/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations|State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations]]
 
| align=center | RI
+
|align=center|RI
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Rhode Island.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17900529</span>[[Wikipedia:1790-05-29|1790-05-29]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1790|5|29}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,067,610
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|3140|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,052,567
| [[Wikipedia:Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Rhode Island.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]]
  +
|[[Providence, Rhode Island|Providence]]
  +
|[[Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations]], then sovereign state
 
|-
 
|-
| [[South Carolina|South Carolina]]
+
|[[South Carolina]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of South Carolina|State of South Carolina]]
 
| align=center | SC
+
|align=center|SC
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of South Carolina.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880523</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-05-23|1788-05-23]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|5|23}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>4,321,249
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|82,931|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Columbia, South Carolina|Columbia]]
 
  +
|align=right|4,625,364
| [[Wikipedia:Columbia, South Carolina|Columbia]]<ref name=Greenville>The {{subst:#ifexist:Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area|[[Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area|]]}} is the most populous metropolitan area in {{subst:#ifexist:South Carolina|[[South Carolina|]]|[[Wikipedia:South Carolina|]]}}.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of South Carolina.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Columbia, South Carolina|Columbia]]
  +
|[[Columbia, South Carolina|Columbia]]<ref name=Greenville>The [[Upstate South Carolina|Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area]] is the most populous metropolitan area in [[South Carolina]].</ref>
  +
|[[Province of South Carolina]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[South Dakota|South Dakota]]
+
|[[South Dakota]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌsaʊθ dəˈkoʊtə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of South Dakota|State of South Dakota]]
 
| align=center | SD
+
|align=center|SD
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of South Dakota.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18891102</span>[[Wikipedia:1889-11-02|1889-11-02]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1889|11|02}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>781,919
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|199,905|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Pierre, South Dakota|Pierre]]
 
  +
|align=right|814,180
| [[Wikipedia:Sioux Falls, South Dakota|Sioux Falls]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of South Dakota.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Pierre, South Dakota|Pierre]]
  +
|[[Sioux Falls, South Dakota|Sioux Falls]]
  +
|[[Dakota Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Tennessee|Tennessee]]
+
|[[Tennessee]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌtɛn<s>ɪ</s>ˈsiː/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Tennessee|State of Tennessee]]
 
| align=center | TN
+
|align=center|TN
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Tennessee.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17960601</span>[[Wikipedia:1796-06-01|1796-06-01]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1796|6|01}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>6,038,803
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|109,247|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Nashville, Tennessee|Nashville]]
 
  +
|align=right|6,346,105
| [[Wikipedia:Memphis, Tennessee|Memphis]]<ref name=Nashville>The {{subst:#ifexist:Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Columbia Combined Statistical Area|[[Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Columbia Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Columbia Combined Statistical Area|]]}} is the most populous metropolitan area in {{subst:#ifexist:Tennessee|[[Tennessee|]]|[[Wikipedia:Tennessee|]]}}.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Tennessee.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Nashville, Tennessee|Nashville]]
  +
|[[Memphis, Tennessee|Memphis]]<ref name=Nashville>The [[Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area|Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Columbia Combined Statistical Area]] is the most populous metropolitan area in [[Tennessee]].</ref>
  +
|Formed from western land donated to the U.S. by [[North Carolina]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Texas|Texas]]
+
|[[Texas]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈtɛksəs/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Texas|State of Texas]]
 
| align=center | TX
+
|align=center|TX
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Texas.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18451229</span>[[Wikipedia:1845-12-29|1845-12-29]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1845|12|29}}
| align=right | 23,507,783
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|696,241|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Austin, Texas|Austin]]
 
  +
|align=right|25,145,561
| [[Wikipedia:Houston, Texas|Houston]]<ref name=Dallas>The {{subst:#ifexist:Dallas-Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area|[[Dallas-Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Dallas-Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area|]]}} is the most populous metropolitan area in {{subst:#ifexist:Texas|[[Texas|]]|[[Wikipedia:Texas|]]}}.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Texas.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Austin, Texas|Austin]]
  +
|[[Houston]]<ref name=Dallas>The [[Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex|Dallas-Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area]] is the most populous metropolitan area in [[Texas]].</ref>
  +
|[[Republic of Texas]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Utah|Utah]]
+
|[[Utah]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈjuːtɔː/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Utah|State of Utah]]
 
| align=center | UT
+
|align=center|UT
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Utah.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18960104</span>[[Wikipedia:1896-01-04|1896-01-04]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1896|1|04}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>2,550,063
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|219,887|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Salt Lake City, Utah|Salt Lake City]]
 
  +
|align=right|2,763,885
| [[Wikipedia:Salt Lake City, Utah|Salt Lake City]]
 
  +
|[[Salt Lake City]]
| [[Image:Flag of Utah.svg|45px]]
 
  +
|[[Salt Lake City]]
  +
|[[Utah Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Vermont|Vermont]]
+
|[[Vermont]]
  +
|{{IPA|/vərˈmɒnt/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Vermont|State of Vermont]]
 
| align=center | VT
+
|align=center|VT
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Vermont.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17910304</span>[[Wikipedia:1791-03-04|1791-03-04]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1791|3|04}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>623,908
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|24,923|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Montpelier, Vermont|Montpelier]]
 
  +
|align=right|625,741
| [[Wikipedia:Burlington, Vermont|Burlington]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Vermont.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Montpelier, Vermont|Montpelier]]
  +
|[[Burlington, Vermont|Burlington]]
  +
|[[Province of New York]] and [[New Hampshire Grants]] (ownership disputed); [[Vermont Republic]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Virginia|Virginia]]
+
|[[Virginia]]<ref name=commonwealth/>
  +
|{{IPA|/vərˈdʒɪnjə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:Commonwealth of Virginia|Commonwealth of Virginia]]
 
| align=center | VA
+
|align=center|VA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Virginia.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">17880625</span>[[Wikipedia:1788-06-25|1788-06-25]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1788|6|25}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>7,642,884
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|110,785|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Richmond, Virginia|Richmond]]
 
  +
|align=right|8,001,024
| [[Wikipedia:Virginia Beach, Virginia|Virginia Beach]]<ref name=Virginia>The 10 {{subst:#ifexist:Virginia|[[Virginia|]]|[[Wikipedia:Virginia|]]}} {{subst:#ifexist:county (United States)|[[county (United States)|counties]]|[[Wikipedia:county (United States)|counties]]}} and 6 {{subst:#ifexist:independent cities#Virginia|[[independent cities#Virginia|Virginia cities]]|[[Wikipedia:independent cities#Virginia|Virginia cities]]}} of the {{subst:#ifexist:Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area|[[Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area|]]|[[Wikipedia:Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area|]]}} form the most populous metropolitan region in Virginia.</ref>
 
| [[Image:Flag of Virginia.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Richmond, Virginia|Richmond]]
  +
|[[Virginia Beach, Virginia|Virginia Beach]]<ref name=Virginia>The 10 [[Virginia]] [[county (United States)|counties]] and 6 [[independent cities#Virginia|Virginia cities]] of the [[Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area|Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area]] form the most populous metropolitan region in Virginia.</ref>
  +
|[[Colony of Virginia]], then sovereign state in Confederation
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Washington|Washington]]
+
|[[Washington (state)|Washington]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Washington|State of Washington]]
 
| align=center | WA
+
|align=center|WA
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Washington.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18891111</span>[[Wikipedia:1889-11-11|1889-11-11]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1889|11|11}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>6,395,798
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|184,827|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Olympia, Washington|Olympia]]
 
  +
|align=right|6,724,540
| [[Wikipedia:Seattle, Washington|Seattle]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Washington.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Olympia, Washington|Olympia]]
  +
|[[Seattle]]
  +
|[[Washington Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[West Virginia|West Virginia]]
+
|[[West Virginia]]
  +
|{{IPA|/ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of West Virginia|State of West Virginia]]
 
| align=center | WV
+
|align=center|WV
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of West Virginia.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18630620</span>[[Wikipedia:1863-06-20|1863-06-20]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1863|6|20}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>1,818,470
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|62,755|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Charleston, West Virginia|Charleston]]
 
  +
|align=right|1,852,994
| [[Wikipedia:Charleston, West Virginia|Charleston]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of West Virginia.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Charleston, West Virginia|Charleston]]
  +
|[[Charleston, West Virginia|Charleston]]
  +
|Divided off from [[Virginia]] with the questionable consent of that state
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Wisconsin|Wisconsin]]
+
|[[Wisconsin]]
  +
|{{IPA|/wɪsˈkɒns<s>ɪ</s>n/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Wisconsin|State of Wisconsin]]
 
| align=center | WI
+
|align=center|WI
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Wisconsin.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18480529</span>[[Wikipedia:1848-05-29|1848-05-29]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1848|5|29}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">0</span>5,556,506
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|169,639|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Madison, Wisconsin|Madison]]
 
  +
|align=right|5,686,986
| [[Wikipedia:Milwaukee, Wisconsin|Milwaukee]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Wisconsin.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Madison, Wisconsin|Madison]]
  +
|[[Milwaukee]]
  +
|[[Wisconsin Territory]], formed from the [[Northwest Territory]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Wyoming|Wyoming]]
+
|[[Wyoming]]
  +
|{{IPA|/waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/}}
| [[Wikipedia:State of Wyoming|State of Wyoming]]
 
| align=center | WY
+
|align=center|WY
  +
|align=center|[[File:Flag of Wyoming.svg|border|54x36px]]
| <span style="display:none">18900710</span>[[Wikipedia:1890-07-10|1890-07-10]]
 
  +
|{{dts|1890|7|10}}
| align=right | <span style="display:none">00,</span>515,004
 
  +
|align=right|{{convert|253,348|km2|abbr=on|sortable=on|disp=flip}}
| [[Wikipedia:Cheyenne, Wyoming|Cheyenne]]
 
  +
|align=right|563,626
| [[Wikipedia:Cheyenne, Wyoming|Cheyenne]]
 
| [[Image:Flag of Wyoming.svg|45px]]
+
|[[Cheyenne, Wyoming|Cheyenne]]
  +
|[[Cheyenne, Wyoming|Cheyenne]]
  +
|[[Wyoming Territory]]
 
|}
 
|}
  +
<!-- THE PRECEDING TABLE CONTAINS DATA FROM THE UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. DO NOT ALTER U.S. CENSUS DATA. -->
   
  +
==Federal power==
<!--
 
  +
{{or|section|date=June 2011|reason=}}
== Legal relationship ==
 
  +
The [[Supreme Court of the United States]] has interpreted the [[Commerce Clause]] of the [[Constitution of the United States]] which has expanded the scope of [[federal power]]. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States says, "On the whole, especially after the mid-1880s, the Court construed the Commerce Clause in favor of increased federal power."<ref>{{cite book|author=Stanley Lewis Engerman|title=The Cambridge economic history of the United States: the colonial era|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=6sDXBGMbrWkC|year=2000|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521553070|page=[http://books.google.com/books?id=6sDXBGMbrWkC&pg=PA464 464]}}</ref> In ''[[Wickard v. Filburn]]'' {{ussc|317|111|1942}}, the court expanded federal power to regulate the economy by holding that federal authority under the commerce clause extends to activities which are local in character.<ref>{{cite book|author=David Shultz|title=Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=I_f6Oo9H3YsC|year=2005|publisher=Infobase Publishing|isbn=9780816050864|page=[http://books.google.com/books?id=I_f6Oo9H3YsC&pg=PA522 522]}}</ref> For example, Congress can regulate railway traffic across state lines, but it may also regulate rail traffic solely within a state, based on the theory that wholly intrastate traffic can still have an impact on interstate commerce. In recent years, the Court has tried to place limits on the Commerce Clause in cases like [[United States v. Lopez]] and [[United States v. Morrison]].{{Clarify|limiting the FEDERAL government, I presume. Shouldn't this say this?|date=June 2011}}
=== Union as a single nation ===
 
Upon the adoption of the {{subst:#ifexist:Articles of Confederation|[[Articles of Confederation|Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union]]|[[Wikipedia:Articles of Confederation|Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union]]}}, the states became a {{subst:#ifexist:confederation|[[confederation|]]|[[Wikipedia:confederation|]]}}, a single sovereign political entity as defined by {{subst:#ifexist:international law|[[international law|]]|[[Wikipedia:international law|]]}} &mdash; empowered to levy war and to conduct {{subst:#ifexist:international relations|[[international relations|]]|[[Wikipedia:international relations|]]}} &mdash; albeit with a very loosely structured and inefficient {{subst:#ifexist:central government|[[central government|]]|[[Wikipedia:central government|]]}}. After the failure of the union under the Articles of Confederation, the {{subst:#ifexist:Thirteen Colonies|[[Thirteen Colonies|thirteen states]]|[[Wikipedia:Thirteen Colonies|thirteen states]]}} joined the modern union via the process of ratifying the {{subst:#ifexist:United States Constitution|[[United States Constitution|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Constitution|]]}}, which took effect in [[1789]].
 
   
  +
Another source of Congressional power is its spending power—the ability of Congress to impose uniform{{Clarify|date=June 2011}}{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}<!--assertion re uniformity constraints on power of congress to tax needs clarification and support--> taxes across the nation and then distribute the resulting revenue back to the states (subject to conditions set by Congress). A classic example of this is the system of federal-aid highways, which includes the [[Interstate Highway System]]. The system is mandated and largely funded by the federal government, but also serves the interests of the states. By threatening to withhold [[United States Numbered Highways|federal highway]] funds, as upheld in [[South Dakota v. Dole]], Congress has been able to pressure state legislatures to pass a variety of laws. Although some object that this infringes on states' rights, the Supreme Court has upheld the practice as a permissible use of the Constitution's Spending Clause.{{citation needed|all quite true but really needs a cite someplace. Fairly dramatic and may be new to somebody|date=April 2011}}
=== Relationship among the states ===
 
Under {{subst:#ifexist:Article Four of the United States Constitution|[[Article Four of the United States Constitution|Article IV of the Constitution]]|[[Wikipedia:Article Four of the United States Constitution|Article IV of the Constitution]]}}, which outlines the relationship between the states, the {{subst:#ifexist:United States Congress|[[United States Congress|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Congress|]]}} has the power to admit new states to the union. The states are required to give "{{subst:#ifexist:Full Faith and Credit Clause|[[Full Faith and Credit Clause|full faith and credit]]|[[Wikipedia:Full Faith and Credit Clause|full faith and credit]]}}" to the acts of each other's legislatures and courts, which is generally held to include the recognition of legal contracts, marriages, criminal judgments, and&mdash;at the time&mdash;slave status. States are prohibited from discriminating against citizens of other states with respect to their {{subst:#ifexist:Human rights|[[Human rights|basic rights]]|[[Wikipedia:Human rights|basic rights]]}}, under the {{subst:#ifexist:Privileges and Immunities Clause|[[Privileges and Immunities Clause|]]|[[Wikipedia:Privileges and Immunities Clause|]]}}. The states are guaranteed military and {{subst:#ifexist:civil defense|[[civil defense|]]|[[Wikipedia:civil defense|]]}} by the federal government, which is also required to ensure that the government of each state remains a republic.
 
   
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==Governments==
[[Image:US states by date of statehood_RWB.PNG|thumb|220px|U.S. states by {{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. states by date of statehood|[[List of U.S. states by date of statehood|date of statehood]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by date of statehood|date of statehood]]}}]]
 
  +
States are free to organize their [[State governments of the United States|individual government]]s any way they like, so long as they conform to the sole requirement of the U.S. Constitution that they have "a [[Republic]]an Form of Government". (This means that each State government must be a [[republic]]; it is ''not'' a reference to the [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party]], which was not founded until 1854&mdash;over 60 years after the Constitution was ratified.) In practice, each State has adopted a three-branch [[form of government|system of government]] (with legislative, executive, and judiciary branches) generally along the same lines as that of the Federal government — though this is not a requirement.
   
  +
Despite the fact that every state has chosen to follow the Federal model of government, there are significant differences in some states.
===Commerce clause===
 
The {{subst:#ifexist:SCOTUS|[[SCOTUS|Supreme Court of the United States]]|[[Wikipedia:SCOTUS|Supreme Court of the United States]]}} has interpreted the {{subst:#ifexist:Constitution of the United States|[[Constitution of the United States|]]|[[Wikipedia:Constitution of the United States|]]}} such that the {{subst:#ifexist:commerce clause|[[commerce clause|]]|[[Wikipedia:commerce clause|]]}} allows for a wide scope of {{subst:#ifexist:federal power|[[federal power|]]|[[Wikipedia:federal power|]]}}. For example, Congress can regulate railway traffic across state lines, but it may also regulate rail traffic solely within a state, on the theory that wholly intrastate traffic can still have an impact on interstate commerce.
 
   
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===Executive===
Another source of Congressional power is its "spending power" -- the ability of Congress to allocate funds, for example to the {{subst:#ifexist:Interstate Highway System|[[Interstate Highway System|Eisenhower Interstate Highway System]]|[[Wikipedia:Interstate Highway System|Eisenhower Interstate Highway System]]}}. The system is mandated and partially funded by the federal government but also serves the interests of the states. By threatening to withhold {{subst:#ifexist:Federal Highway|[[Federal Highway|federal highway]]|[[Wikipedia:Federal Highway|federal highway]]}} funds, Congress has been able to persuade state legislatures to pass a variety of laws. Although some object on the ground that this infringes on states' rights, {{subst:#ifexist:Supreme court|[[Supreme court|the Supreme Court]]|[[Wikipedia:Supreme court|the Supreme Court]]}} has upheld the practice as a permissible use of the Constitution's Spending Clause.
 
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{{see also|Governor (United States)}}
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While there is only one federal president, who then selects his own Cabinet responsible to him, most states have a "plural executive", in which various members of the [[executive (government)|executive branch]] are elected directly by the people. Thus, they serve as members of the executive branch who are not beholden to the governor and cannot be dismissed by him or her.
===Admission of states into the union===
 
<!--{{main|List of U.S. states by date of statehood}}-->
 
<!--[[Image:US states by date of statehood3.gif|thumb|The order in which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the union]] -->
 
Since the establishment of the United States, the number of states has expanded from 13 to 50. [[Wikipedia:Constitution|The Constitution]] is rather laconic on the process by which new states can be added, noting only that "New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union", and forbidding a new state to be created out of the territory of an existing state without the consent of both that state's legislature and of Congress.
 
   
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The governor may [[veto]] legislation. In forty four states, governors have [[Line-item veto in the United States|line item veto]] power.
In practice, nearly all states admitted to the union after the original thirteen have been formed from [[Wikipedia:United States territories|U.S. territories]] (that is, land under the sovereignty of the United States federal government but not part of any state) that were [[Wikipedia:Organized territory|organized]] (given a measure of [[Wikipedia:Self-governance|self-rule]] by Congress). Generally speaking, the organized government of a territory would make known the sentiment of its population in favor of statehood; Congress would then direct that government to organize a [[Wikipedia:Constitutional convention (political meeting)|constitutional convention]] to write a state constitution. Upon acceptance of that Constitution, Congress would then admit that territory as a state. The broad outlines in this process were established by the [[Wikipedia:Northwest Ordinance|Northwest Ordinance]], which actually predated the ratification of the Constitution.
 
   
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===Legislative===
However, Congress has ultimate authority over the admission of new states, and is not bound to follow this procedure. A few U.S. states outside of the original 13 have been admitted that were never organized territories of the federal government:
 
  +
{{see also|State legislature (United States)}}
  +
The legislatures of 49 of the 50 states are made up of two chambers: a lower house (termed the House of Representatives, State Assembly or House of Delegates) and a smaller upper house, always termed the Senate. The exception is the [[unicameral]] [[Nebraska Legislature]], which is composed of only a single chamber.
   
  +
Most states have [[Part time|part-time]] legislatures, while six of the most populated states have [[Full time|full-time]] legislatures. However, several states with high population have short legislative sessions, including Texas and Florida.<ref>[http://www.reformcal.com/citleg_historical.pdf]</ref>
*'''Vermont,''' an unrecognized but ''de facto'' [[Wikipedia:Vermont Republic|independent republic]] until its admission in 1791
 
*'''Kentucky,''' a part of Virginia until its admission in 1792
 
*'''Maine,''' a part of Massachusetts until its admission in 1820 following the [[Wikipedia:Missouri Compromise|Missouri Compromise]]
 
*'''Texas,''' a recognized independent republic until its admission in 1845
 
*'''California,''' created as a state (as part of the [[Wikipedia:Compromise of 1850|Compromise of 1850]]) out of the [[Wikipedia:unorganized territory|unorganized territory]] of the [[Wikipedia:Mexican Cession|Mexican Cession]] in 1850 without ever having been a separate organized territory itself
 
*'''West Virginia,''' created from areas of Virginia that rejoined the union in 1863, after the 1861 secession of Virginia to the [[Confederate States of America|Confederate States of America]]
 
   
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In ''[[Baker v. Carr]]'' (1962) and ''[[Reynolds v. Sims]]'' (1964), the U.S. Supreme Court held that all states are required to elect their legislatures in such a way as to afford each citizen the same degree of representation. This is the standard commonly known as "[[one person, one vote]]". In practice, most states choose to elect legislators from single-member districts, each of which has approximately the same population. Some states, like Maryland and Vermont, divide the state into single- and multi-member districts, in which case a district electing two representatives must have approximately twice the population of a district electing just one ''and so on''.
Congress is also under no obligation to admit states even in those areas whose population expresses a desire for statehood. For instance, the Republic of Texas requested annexation to the United States in 1836, but fears about the conflict with Mexico that would result delayed admission for nine years. [[Wikipedia:Utah Territory|Utah Territory]] was denied admission to the union as a state for decades because of discomfort with [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints]]' dominance in the territory, and particularly with the [[Wikipedia:Mormon|Mormon]] elite's then-current practice of [[Wikipedia:polygamy|polygamy]].
 
   
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If the governor vetoes legislation, all legislatures may override it, usually, but not always, requiring a two-thirds majority.
<!--
 
=== Secession ===
 
The Constitution is silent on the issue of the {{subst:#ifexist:secession|[[secession|]]|[[Wikipedia:secession|]]}} of a state from the union. The Articles of Confederation had stated that the earlier union of the colonies "shall be perpetual," and the {{subst:#ifexist:Preamble to the United States Constitution|[[Preamble to the United States Constitution|preamble to the Constitution]]|[[Wikipedia:Preamble to the United States Constitution|preamble to the Constitution]]}} states that Constitution was intended to "form a more perfect union." In 1860 and 1861, several states attempted to secede, but were brought back into the Union by force of arms during the {{subst:#ifexist:American Civil War|[[American Civil War|Civil War]]|[[Wikipedia:American Civil War|Civil War]]}}. Subsequently, the federal {{subst:#ifexist:Judiciary|[[Judiciary|judicial system]]|[[Wikipedia:Judiciary|judicial system]]}}, in the case of ''{{subst:#ifexist:Texas v. White|[[Texas v. White|]]|[[Wikipedia:Texas v. White|]]}},'' established that states do not have the right to secede without the consent of the other states.
 
-->
 
   
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===Judicial===
=== Naming issues: Commonwealths, republics, and states ===
 
  +
{{see also|State court (United States)|state supreme court}}
Four of the states bear the formal title of [[Commonwealth (United States)|Commonwealth]]: [[Kentucky|Kentucky]], [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]], [[Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]], and [[Virginia|Virginia]]. In these cases, this is merely a name and has no legal effect. Somewhat confusingly, two U.S. territories &mdash; [[Puerto Rico|Puerto Rico]] and the [[Wikipedia:Northern Marianas|Northern Marianas]] &mdash; are also referred to as commonwealths, and do have a [[Wikipedia:legal status|legal status]] different from the states.
 
  +
States can also organize their judicial systems differently from the [[United States federal courts|federal judiciary]], as long as they protect the constitutional right of their citizens to procedural [[due process]]. Most have a trial level court, generally called a [[District court|District Court]] or [[Superior court|Superior Court]], a first-level [[Court of Appeals|appellate court]], generally called a Court of Appeal (or Appeals), and a Supreme Court. However, Oklahoma and Texas have separate highest courts for criminal appeals. New York state is notorious for its unusual terminology, in that the trial court is called the Supreme Court. Appeals are then taken to the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, and from there to the Court of Appeals. Most states base their legal system on English [[common law]] (with substantial indigenous changes and incorporation of certain civil law innovations), with the notable exception of Louisiana, which draws large parts of its legal system from French [[Civil law (legal system)|civil law]].
   
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Also, just few states choose to have their judges on the state's courts serve for life terms. Most of the state judges, including the justices on the highest court in the state, are either elected or appointed for terms of a limited number of years, such as five years. They can often be then re-elected or reappointed if their performance has been judged to be satisfactory.
The [[Wikipedia:Republic of Texas|Republic of Texas]] was an independent nation for nine years, and the {{wp|Republic of Hawaii|Republic of Hawai{{okina}}i}}, formerly the {{wp|Kingdom of Hawaii|Kingdom of Hawai{{okina}}i}}, was also an independent nation. There is debate over whether Vermont was ever an independent nation; however it was the first future state to write its own Constitution. The so-called "[[Wikipedia:California Republic|California Republic]]" was actually a flag raised by Americans in the town of [[Wikipedia:Sonoma, California|Sonoma]] after they expelled the local Mexican official. Ten days later the [[Wikipedia:United States Army|U.S. Army]] took over.
 
   
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==Relationships==
See also [[Wikipedia:List of official names of the states of the USA|List of official names of the states of the USA]].
 
  +
Under [[Article Four of the United States Constitution]], which outlines the relationship between the states, the [[United States Congress]] has the power to admit new states to the Union. The states are required to give [[Full Faith and Credit Clause|full faith and credit]] to the acts of each other's legislatures and courts, which is generally held to include the recognition of legal contracts, marriages, criminal judgments, and before 1865 — slavery status. States are prohibited from discriminating against citizens of other states with respect to their [[human rights|basic rights]], under the [[Privileges and Immunities Clause]]. The states are guaranteed [[military]] and [[civil defense]] by the Federal government, which is also required to ensure that the government of each state remains a [[republic]].
   
  +
Four states use the official name of [[Commonwealth (U.S. state)|''commonwealth'']], rather than ''state''.<ref>a. Third Constitution of Kentucky (1850), Article 2, Section 1 ''ff.'' Other portions of the same Constitution refer to the "State of Kentucky".<br />b. Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Preamble.<br />c. Constitution of Pennsylvania, Preamble.<br />d. Constitution of Virginia (1971), Article IV, Section 1.</ref> However, this is merely a paper distinction, and the U.S. Constitution ''uniformly'' refers to all of them as "States", such as in [[Article_One_of_the_United_States_Constitution#Clause_1:_Composition_and_election_of_Members|Article One, Section 2, Clause 1]] of the Constitution, concerning the [[U.S. House of Representatives]], in which Representatives are to be elected by the people of the "States". Furthermore, [[Article_One_of_the_United_States_Constitution#Section_3:_Senate|Article One, Section 3, Clause 1]], concerning the [[U.S. Senate]], allocates to each "State" two Senators. However, each of the four above-mentioned "Commonwealths" counts as a State.
=== State governments===
 
   
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==Admission into the union==
States are free to organize their [[Wikipedia:state government|state government]]s any way they like, as long as they conform to the sole requirement of the U.S. Constitution that they have "a Republican Form of Government". In practice, each state has adopted a three branch [[Wikipedia:Form of government|system of government]] generally along the sames lines as that of the federal government—though this is not a requirement. There is nothing that could stop a state from adopting a parliamentary system—with a fusion of powers, as opposed to a separation of powers—if it so choses.
 
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{{Ref improve section|date=January 2009}}
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[[File:US states by date of statehood RWB dates.svg|thumb|220px|U.S. states by [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood|date of statehood]]
   
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{{legend|#FF0000|1776–1790}}{{legend|#FF6666|1791–1799}}{{legend|#FF9999|1800–1819}}{{legend|#FFCCCC|1820–1839}}{{legend|#CCCCCC|1840–1859}}{{legend|#CCCCFF|1860–1879}}{{legend|#9999FF|1880–1899}}{{legend|#6666FF|1900–1950}}{{legend|#0000FF|1950–}}]]
<!--
 
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[[File:US states by date of statehood3.gif|thumb|220px|The order in which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the union. (Click to see animation)]]
Despite the fact that each state has chosen to use the federal model to follow, there are some significant differences in some states. One of the most notable is that of the {{subst:#ifexist:Nebraska Legislature|[[Nebraska Legislature|Nebraska legislature]]|[[Wikipedia:Nebraska Legislature|Nebraska legislature]]}}. 49 of the 50 states' {{subst:#ifexist:state legislature|[[state legislature|legislature]]|[[Wikipedia:state legislature|legislature]]}}s are {{subst:#ifexist:bicameral|[[bicameral|]]|[[Wikipedia:bicameral|]]}}, meaning that they have two houses (one upper and one lower). Nebraska's {{subst:#ifexist:unicameral|[[unicameral|]]|[[Wikipedia:unicameral|]]}} legislature is the sole exception. Some states, such as Florida, have in effect a plural executive, with members of the {{subst:#ifexist:Executive (government)|[[Executive (government)|executive branch]]|[[Wikipedia:Executive (government)|executive branch]]}} elected directly by the people and serving as equal members of the state cabinet alongside the governor. And only a few states choose to have their judicial branch leaders—their judges on the state's courts—serve for life terms.
 
   
  +
Since the establishment of the United States, the number of states has expanded from [[Thirteen Colonies|the original thirteen]] to fifty. The [[U.S. Constitution]] is rather laconic on the process by which new states could be added, noting only that "New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union", and forbidding a new state to be created out of the territory of an existing state, or the merging of two or more states into one without the consent of both Congress and all the state legislatures involved.
The most substantial difference between states is that many rural states have {{subst:#ifexist:Part time|[[Part time|part-time]]|[[Wikipedia:Part time|part-time]]}} legislatures, while the states with the highest populations tend to have {{subst:#ifexist:Full time|[[Full time|full-time]]|[[Wikipedia:Full time|full-time]]}} legislatures. In ''{{subst:#ifexist:Baker v. Carr|[[Baker v. Carr|]]|[[Wikipedia:Baker v. Carr|]]}}'', the U.S. Supreme Court held that all states are required to have legislative districts which are proportional in terms of population.
 
   
  +
In practice, most of the states admitted to the union after the original thirteen have been formed from [[Territories of the United States]] (that is, land under the sovereignty of the Federal government but not part of any state) that were [[organized territory|organized]] (given a measure of [[self-governance|self-rule]] by the Congress subject to the Congress’ plenary powers under the [[territorial clause]] of Article IV, sec. 3, of the U.S. Constitution).<ref>U.S. Const. art. IV, § 3, cl. 2 ("The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States...").</ref>
Also, states can organize their judicial systems differently from the {{subst:#ifexist:United States federal courts|[[United States federal courts|federal judiciary]]|[[Wikipedia:United States federal courts|federal judiciary]]}}, as long as {{subst:#ifexist:due process|[[due process|]]|[[Wikipedia:due process|]]}} is protected. See {{subst:#ifexist:state court|[[state court|]]|[[Wikipedia:state court|]]}} and {{subst:#ifexist:state supreme court|[[state supreme court|]]|[[Wikipedia:state supreme court|]]}} for more information. Most have a trial level court, generally called a {{subst:#ifexist:District court|[[District court|District Court]]|[[Wikipedia:District court|District Court]]}} or {{subst:#ifexist:Superior court|[[Superior court|Superior Court]]|[[Wikipedia:Superior court|Superior Court]]}}, a first-level {{subst:#ifexist:Court of Appeals|[[Court of Appeals|appellate court]]|[[Wikipedia:Court of Appeals|appellate court]]}}, generally called a Court of Appeal (or Appeals), and a Supreme Court. However, {{subst:#ifexist:Texas|[[Texas|]]|[[Wikipedia:Texas|]]}} has a separate highest court for criminal appeals. {{subst:#ifexist:New York|[[New York|]]|[[Wikipedia:New York|]]}} is notorious for its unusual terminology, in that the trial court is called the Supreme Court. Appeals are then taken to the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, and from there to the Court of Appeals. Most states base their legal system on British {{subst:#ifexist:Common law|[[Common law|]]|[[Wikipedia:Common law|]]}}, with the notable exception of {{subst:#ifexist:Louisiana|[[Louisiana|]]|[[Wikipedia:Louisiana|]]}} which is based partially on the French {{subst:#ifexist:Civil law|[[Civil law|]]|[[Wikipedia:Civil law|]]}}.
 
-->
 
   
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Generally speaking, the organized government of a territory made known the sentiment of its population in favor of statehood. Congress then directed that government to organize a [[constitutional convention (political meeting)|constitutional convention]] to write a State Constitution. Upon acceptance of that Constitution, Congress has always admitted that territory as a state. The broad outlines in this process were established by the [[Northwest Ordinance]] (1787), which predated the ratification of the Constitution.
<!--
 
=== New states on the horizon? ===
 
   
  +
However, Congress has ultimate authority over the admission of new states, and is not bound to follow this procedure. A few U.S. states (outside of the original 13) that were never organized territories of the federal government have been admitted:
:''See also: {{subst:#ifexist:51st state|[[51st state|]]|[[Wikipedia:51st state|]]}}''
 
  +
* '''[[Vermont]]''', an unrecognized but de facto [[Vermont Republic|independent republic]] until its admission in 1791
  +
* '''[[Kentucky]]''', a part of Virginia until its admission in 1792
  +
* '''[[Maine]]''', a part of Massachusetts until its admission in 1820 following the [[Missouri Compromise]]
  +
* '''[[Texas]]''', a recognized independent republic until its admission in 1845
  +
* '''[[California]]''', created as a state (as part of the [[Compromise of 1850]]) out of the [[unorganized territory]] of the [[Mexican Cession]] in 1850 without ever having been a separate organized territory itself
  +
* '''[[West Virginia]]''', created from areas of Virginia that rejoined the union in 1863, after the 1861 secession of Virginia to the [[Confederate States of America]]
   
  +
Congress is also under no obligation to admit states even in those areas whose population expresses a desire for statehood. For instance, the Republic of Texas requested annexation to the United States in 1837, but fears about the conflict with Mexico that would result delayed admission for nine years.<ref>{{cite book|author=Richard Bruce Winders|title=Crisis in the Southwest: the United States, Mexico, and the struggle over Texas|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=mcc9EciebFYC|year=2002|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=9780842028011|pages=[http://books.google.com/books?id=mcc9EciebFYC&pg=PA82 82], [http://books.google.com/books?id=mcc9EciebFYC&pg=PA92 92]}}</ref> Once established, state borders have been largely stable. There have been exceptions, such as the cession by Maryland and Virginia of land to create the [[District of Columbia]] (Virginia's portion was later [[District of Columbia retrocession|returned]]) and the creation of states from other states, including the creation of Kentucky and West Virginia from Virginia, Maine from Massachusetts, and Tennessee from North Carolina.
Today, there are very few U.S. territories left that might potentially become new states. In light of recent events, the most likely candidate may be {{subst:#ifexist:Puerto Rico|[[Puerto Rico|]]|[[Wikipedia:Puerto Rico|]]}}. The commonwealth's government has organized several {{subst:#ifexist:referendum|[[referendum|referenda]]|[[Wikipedia:referendum|referenda]]}} on the question of status over the past several decades, though Congress has not recognized these as binding; all shown resulted in narrow victories for the {{subst:#ifexist:status quo|[[status quo|]]|[[Wikipedia:status quo|]]}} over statehood, with independence supported by only a small number of voters. In {{subst:#ifexist:December 2005|[[December 2005|]]|[[Wikipedia:December 2005|]]}}, a presidential task force proposed a new set of referenda on the issue; if Congress votes in line with the task force's recommendation, it would pave the way for the first Congressionally mandated votes on status in the island, and, potentially, statehood, by 2010.
 
   
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===Possible new states===
The intention of the {{subst:#ifexist:Founding Fathers|[[Founding Fathers|]]|[[Wikipedia:Founding Fathers|]]}} was that the United States capital should be at a neutral site, not giving favor to any existing state; as a result, the {{subst:#ifexist:District of Columbia|[[District of Columbia|]]|[[Wikipedia:District of Columbia|]]}} was created in 1800 to serve as the {{subst:#ifexist:seat of government|[[seat of government|]]|[[Wikipedia:seat of government|]]}}. The inhabitants of the District do not have {{subst:#ifexist:Proportional representation|[[Proportional representation|full representation]]|[[Wikipedia:Proportional representation|full representation]]}} in Congress or a sovereign elected government (they were allotted presidential electors by the {{subst:#ifexist:Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution|[[Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution|23rd amendment]]|[[Wikipedia:Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution|23rd amendment]]}}, and have a {{subst:#ifexist:Delegate (United States Congress)|[[Delegate (United States Congress)|non-voting delegate]]|[[Wikipedia:Delegate (United States Congress)|non-voting delegate]]}} in {{subst:#ifexist:U.S. Congress|[[U.S. Congress|Congress]]|[[Wikipedia:U.S. Congress|Congress]]}}). Some residents of the District support statehood of some form for that jurisdiction—either statehood for the whole district or for the inhabited part, with the remainder remaining under {{subst:#ifexist:federal jurisdiction|[[federal jurisdiction|]]|[[Wikipedia:federal jurisdiction|]]}}. While statehood is always a live {{subst:#ifexist:political question|[[political question|]]|[[Wikipedia:political question|]]}} in the District, the prospects for any movement in that direction in the immediate future seem dim. Instead, an emphasis on continuing {{subst:#ifexist:Devolution|[[Devolution|Home Rule]]|[[Wikipedia:Devolution|Home Rule]]}} in the District while also giving the District a vote in Congress is gaining support. :''See also: {{subst:#ifexist:District of Columbia voting rights|[[District of Columbia voting rights|]]|[[Wikipedia:District of Columbia voting rights|]]}}''
 
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{{See also|51st state|Politics of Puerto Rico|Political status of Puerto Rico|District of Columbia voting rights}}
  +
Today, there are several U.S. territories left that might potentially become new states.
   
  +
====Puerto Rico====
For the remaining permanently inhabited U.S. non-state jurisdictions—the {{subst:#ifexist:United States Virgin Islands|[[United States Virgin Islands|]]|[[Wikipedia:United States Virgin Islands|]]}}, {{subst:#ifexist:Guam|[[Guam|]]|[[Wikipedia:Guam|]]}}, the {{subst:#ifexist:Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands|[[Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands|]]|[[Wikipedia:Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands|]]}}, and {{subst:#ifexist:American Samoa|[[American Samoa|]]|[[Wikipedia:American Samoa|]]}}—the prospects of statehood are remote. All have relatively small populations—Guam, with the most inhabitants, has a population less than 35 percent that of Wyoming, the least populous state—and have governments that are heavily reliant on federal funding.
 
  +
The most likely candidate for statehood might be [[Puerto Rico]]. Puerto Rico called itself the "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" in the English version of its constitution, and as "Estado Libre Asociado" in the Spanish version. The island’s ultimate status has not been determined {{as of|2011|lc=on}}.
   
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As with any non-state territory of the United States, its residents do not have voting representation in the United States government. Puerto Rico has limited representation in the [[U.S. Congress]] in the form of a [[Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico|Resident Commissioner]], a nonvoting delegate.<ref name="rhg">{{cite web|url=http://www.rules.house.gov/ruleprec/110th.pdf |title=Rules of the House of Representatives|format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref>
Constitutionally, a state may only be divided into more states with the approval both of Congress and of the state's legislature, as was the case when {{subst:#ifexist:Maine|[[Maine|]]|[[Wikipedia:Maine|]]}} was split off from {{subst:#ifexist:Massachusetts|[[Massachusetts|]]|[[Wikipedia:Massachusetts|]]}}. The idea that a Congressional joint resolution from [[1845]] might serve as a sort of advanced Congressional approval for a move to divide Texas today seems unlikely to pass muster. In fact, the clause in question was almost certainly intended to give Texas the option of ''entering'' the union as more than one state. As there is no organized movement today to divide Texas into multiple states, the point is largely academic.
 
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=====History=====
== Origin of states' names ==
 
  +
Puerto Rico has been under U.S. sovereignty for over a century. Puerto Ricans have been U.S. citizens since 1917.
<!--[[Image:US State Name Etymologies3.png|thumb|{{subst:#ifexist:list of U.S. state name etymologies|[[list of U.S. state name etymologies|U.S. state name etymologies]]|[[Wikipedia:list of U.S. state name etymologies|U.S. state name etymologies]]}}]] -->
 
State names speak to the circumstances of their creation. (See the lists of [[Wikipedia:list of U.S. state name etymologies|U.S. state name etymologies]] and [[Wikipedia:lists of U.S. county name etymologies|U.S. county name etymologies]] for more detail.)
 
   
  +
The U.S. Congress directed the Puerto Rican government to organize a [[constitutional convention (political meeting)|constitutional convention]] to write the [[Puerto Rico Constitution]] in 1951. Like the U.S. States, Puerto Rico has a republican form of government organized pursuant to a constitution adopted by its people and a bill of rights. The Approval of that constitution by Puerto Rico's electorate, the U.S. Congress, and the U.S. President occurred in 1952. The rights, privileges and immunities attendant to the United States Citizens are "respected in Puerto Rico to the same extent as though Puerto Rico were a state of the union" through the express extension by the U.S. Congress in 1948 of the [[Privileges and Immunities Clause]] of the U.S. Constitution.<ref>{{usc|48|737}}, Privileges and immunities.</ref>
===British===
 
: Southeastern states on the [[Atlantic Ocean|Atlantic]] coast originated as [[Wikipedia:British Empire|British colonies]] named after [[Wikipedia:British monarch|British monarch]]s: [[Georgia (U.S. state)|Georgia]], [[Wikipedia:the Carolinas|the Carolinas]], [[Virginia|Virginia]], and [[Maryland|Maryland]]. Some northeastern states, also former British colonies, take their names from places in the [[British Isles|British Isles]]: [[New Hampshire|New Hampshire]], [[New Jersey|New Jersey]], and [[New York|New York]]. [[Pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]], meaning "Penn's woods," in Latin, takes its name from the father of its founder, [[Wikipedia:William Penn|William Penn]]. [[Delaware|Delaware]] is named after [[Wikipedia:Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr|Thomas West, Lord De La Warr]], an early colonist and governor of the [[Wikipedia:Jamestown Colony|Jamestown Colony]].
 
   
  +
President [[George H. W. Bush]] issued a memorandum on November 30, 1992 to heads of executive departments and agencies establishing the current administrative relationship between the [[Federal government of the United States|federal government]] and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. This memorandum directs all federal departments, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state, insofar as doing so would not disrupt federal programs or operations.<ref>{{cite web
===Native American===
 
  +
|url=http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32933_20090804.pdf
: Many states' names are those of [[Wikipedia:Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American]] tribes or are from [[Wikipedia:Indigenous languages of the Americas|Native American languages]]: [[Alabama|Alabama]], [[Alaska|Alaska]], [[Arkansas|Arkansas]], [[Connecticut|Connecticut]], [[Wikipedia:the Dakotas|the Dakotas]], [[Illinois|Illinois]], [[Iowa|Iowa]], [[Kansas|Kansas]], [[Kentucky|Kentucky]], [[Massachusetts|Massachusetts]], [[Michigan|Michigan]], [[Minnesota|Minnesota]], [[Mississippi|Mississippi]], [[Missouri|Missouri]], [[Nebraska|Nebraska]], [[Ohio|Ohio]], [[Oklahoma|Oklahoma]], [[Tennessee|Tennessee]], [[Texas|Texas]], [[Utah|Utah]], [[Wisconsin|Wisconsin]] and others. Additionally, the name of [[Idaho|Idaho]] was presented as a Native American word by eccentric lobbyist [[Wikipedia:George M. Willing|George M. Willing]], though it was later revealed that he likely made it up. [[Indiana|Indiana]] means literally "land of Indians". [[Hawaii|Hawaii]] is a [[Wikipedia:Polynesia|Polynesia]]n name.
 
  +
|title=Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress
  +
|publisher=Congressional Research Service
  +
|accessdate=2009-12-19}}
  +
</ref>
   
  +
The commonwealth's government has organized several [[referendum|referenda]] on the question of status over the past several decades, though Congress has not recognized these as binding; all shown resulted in narrow victories for the [[status quo]] over statehood. On December 23, 2000, President [[Bill Clinton]] signed executive Order 13183, which established the [[President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status]] and the rules for its membership. Section 4 of executive Order 13183 (as amended by executive Order 13319) directs the task force to "report on its actions to the President ... on progress made in the determination of Puerto Rico’s ultimate status".<ref name="usdoj.gov">{{cite web|url=http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/documents/2007-report-by-the-president-task-force-on-puerto-rico-status.pdf |title='&#39;Report By the President's Task Force On Puerto Rico's Status (December 2007)'&#39; |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref>
===Spanish===
 
: Because they are on territories previously controlled by [[Spain|Spain]] or [[Mexico|Mexico]], many states in the southeast and southwest have [[Spanish language|Spanish]] names. They include [[Colorado|Colorado]], [[Florida|Florida]], [[Nevada|Nevada]], [[Montana|Montana]], and, ultimately of Native American origin, [[New Mexico|New Mexico]]. [[California|California]] is also believed to be of Spanish origin, though this is not entirely clear (see [[Wikipedia:Origin of the name California|Origin of the name California]]).
 
   
  +
President [[George W. Bush]] signed an additional amendment to Executive Order 13183 on December 3, 2003, which established the current co-chairs and instructed the task force to issue reports as needed, but no less than once every two years. In December 2005, the presidential task force proposed a new set of referendums on the issue; if Congress votes in line with the task force's recommendation, it would pave the way for the first congressionally mandated votes on status in the island, and (potentially) statehood by 2012. The task force's December 2007 status report reiterated and confirmed the proposals made in 2005.<ref name="usdoj.gov"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://charma.uprm.edu/~angel/Puerto_Rico/reporte_status.pdf |title=Report By the President's Task Force On Puerto Rico's Status (December 2005)|format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref><ref>[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/D?d111:170:./temp/~bdadu6::|/bss/d111query.html H.R. 2499]&nbsp;– [[Puerto Rico Democracy Act of 2009]] H.R. 2499</ref>
===French===
 
: Because it was previously a [[France|French]] colony, [[Louisiana|Louisiana]] is named after [[Wikipedia:Louis XIV of France|Louis XIV]] (the [[Wikipedia:List of French monarchs|King of France]] at the time). [[Maine|Maine]] may also be named after the historical French [[Wikipedia:Maine (province)|province of Maine]], although another theory derives "Maine" from "mainland," differentiating it from the [[Wikipedia:Outlying Islands|outlying islands]]. [[Vermont|Vermont]] is derived from the French term for "green mountains", a reference to its mountainous but forested terrain.
 
   
  +
President [[Barack Obama]] appointed a new Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status.<ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/executive-order-amending-executive-orders-13183-and-13494 AMENDMENTS TO EXECUTIVE ORDERS 13183]</ref> In March 2011, it recommended that all relevant parties—the President, Congress, and the leadership and people of Puerto Rico—work to ensure that Puerto Ricans are able to express their will about status options and have that will acted upon by the end of 2012 or soon thereafter.<ref name="President Task Force Status Report 2011">[http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/Puerto_Rico_Task_Force_Report.pdf REPORT BY THE PRESIDENT’S TASK FORCE ON PUERTO RICO’S STATUS March 2011], Page 23, Recommendation No. 1</ref>
===Other===
 
  +
The report further recommends, "... if efforts on the Island do not provide a clear result in the short term, the President should support, and Congress should enact, self-executing legislation that specifies in advance for the people of Puerto Rico a set of acceptable status options, including the Statehood, that the United States is politically committed to fulfilling.
: Formally referred to as the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, [[Rhode Island|Rhode Island]] likely gained its name through the supposed similarity of [[Wikipedia:Aquidneck Island|Aquidneck Island]] (the body of land known as Rhode Island, which contains the city of [[Wikipedia:Newport, Rhode Island|Newport]] and the towns of [[Wikipedia:Portsmouth, Rhode Island|Portsmouth]] and [[Wikipedia:Middletown, Rhode Island|Middletown]]) to the [[Greece|Greek]] Isle of [[Wikipedia:Rhodes|Rhodes]]. [[Wikipedia:Providence Plantations|Providence Plantations]], which makes reference to the mainland that surrounds [[Wikipedia:Narragansett Bay|Narragansett Bay]], was named by its religious founders for God's [[Wikipedia:divine providence|divine providence]]. The state of [[Washington|Washington]] was named after [[George Washington|George Washington]]. [[Arizona|Arizona]] may come from a [[Wikipedia:Basque language|Basque]] term, or it may be of Native American origin.
 
  +
This legislation should commit the United States to honor the choice of the people of Puerto Rico (provided it is one of the status options specified in the legislation) and should specify the means by which such a choice would be made. The Task Force recommends that, by the end of 2012, the Administration develop, draft, and work with Congress to enact the proposed legislation."<ref name="President Task Force Status Report 2011"/>
   
===Origin Unknown===
+
====Washington D.C.====
  +
The intention of the [[Founding Fathers of the United States|Founding Fathers]] was that the United States capital should be at a neutral site, not giving favor to any existing state; as a result, the [[District of Columbia]] was created in 1800 to serve as the [[seat of government]]. The inhabitants of the District do not have [[Proportional representation|full representation]] in Congress or a sovereign elected government (they were allotted presidential electors by the [[Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution|23rd amendment]], and have a [[Delegate (United States Congress)|non-voting delegate]] in [[U.S. Congress|Congress]]). Some residents of the District support [[D.C. statehood movement#History|statehood]] of some form for that jurisdiction—either statehood for the whole district or for the inhabited part, with the remainder remaining under [[federal jurisdiction (United States)|federal jurisdiction]]. While statehood is always a live [[political question]] in the District, the prospects for any movement in that direction in the immediate future seem dim.
: The origin of [[Oregon|Oregon]] is not certain, although various theories exist, but is most likely to be of Native American origin.
 
   
  +
According to Article IV, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution, "New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articleiv.html#section3 |title=Article IV &#124; LII / Legal Information Institute |publisher=Law.cornell.edu |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref> This was the case when Maine was split off from Massachusetts; and when West Virginia was split from Virginia during the Civil War. When [[Texas]] was admitted to the union in 1845, it was much larger than any other state and was specifically granted the right to divide itself into as many as five separate states.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.snopes.com/history/american/texas.asp |title=Texas Dividing into Five States |publisher=snopes.com |date= |accessdate=2010-07-25}}</ref>
==Grouping of the states in regions==
 
[[Image:Map of USA showing regions.png|thumb|250px|right|U.S. Census Bureau regions:<br />[[Wikipedia:U.S. West|The West]], [[Wikipedia:Midwest|The Midwest]], [[Wikipedia:U.S. Southern States|The South]] and [[Wikipedia:U.S. Northeast|The Northeast]]. Note that Alaska and Hawaii are shown at different scales, and that the [[Wikipedia:Aleutian Islands|Aleutian Islands]] and the [[Wikipedia:uninhabited island|uninhabited]] [[Wikipedia:Northwestern Hawaiian Islands|Northwestern Hawaiian Islands]] are omitted from this map.]]
 
   
  +
===Unrecognized entities===
States may be grouped in regions; there are endless variations and possible groupings, as most states are not defined by obvious geographic or cultural borders. For further discussion of regions of the U.S., see the [[Wikipedia:list of regions of the United States|list of regions of the United States]].
 
  +
: ''See also: [[Historical regions of the United States#Unrecognized or self-declared entities|Historical regions of the United States]]''
   
  +
* The [[State of Franklin]] existed for four years not long after the end of the American Revolution, but was never recognized by the union, which ultimately recognized [[North Carolina]]'s claim of sovereignty over the area. A majority of the states were willing to recognize Franklin, but the number of states in favor fell short of the two-thirds majority required to admit a territory to statehood under the [[Articles of Confederation]]. The territory comprising Franklin later became part of the state of Tennessee.
== State lists ==
 
  +
* State of Jefferson
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state capitals|List of U.S. state capitals]]
 
  +
** On July 24, 1859, voters defeated the formation of the proposed [[Jefferson (Mountain state)|State of Jefferson]] in the Southern Rocky Mountains. On October 24, 1859, voters instead approved the formation of the [[Jefferson Territory]], which was superseded by the [[Territory of Colorado]] on February 28, 1861.
*[[Wikipedia:List of current and former capital cities within U.S. states|List of current and former capital cities within U.S. states]]
 
  +
** In 1915, a second [[Jefferson (South state)|State of Jefferson]] was proposed for the northern third of [[Texas]] but failed to obtain majority approval by Congress.
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states' largest cities|List of U.S. states' largest cities]]
 
  +
** In 1941, a third [[Jefferson (Pacific state)|State of Jefferson]] was proposed in the mostly rural area of southern [[Oregon]] and northern [[California]], but was cancelled as a result of the Japanese [[attack on Pearl Harbor]]. This proposal has been raised several times since.
  +
* State of Lincoln
  +
** [[Lincoln (Northwest state)|Lincoln]] is another state that has been proposed multiple times. It generally consists of the eastern portion of [[Washington (U.S. state)|Washington]] state and the panhandle or northern portion of [[Idaho]]. It was originally proposed by Idaho in 1864 to include just the panhandle of Idaho, and again in 1901 to include eastern Washington. Proposals have come up in 1996, 1999, and 2005.
  +
** [[Lincoln (South state)|Lincoln]] is also the name of a failed state proposal after the [[American Civil War|U.S. Civil War]] in 1869. It consisted of the area south and west of [[Texas]]' [[Colorado River (Texas)|Colorado River]].
  +
* [[Superior (proposed state)|State of Superior]]
  +
** A proposed state formed out of the [[Upper Peninsula of Michigan|Upper Peninsula]] of [[Michigan]]. Several prominent legislators including local politician Dominic Jacobetti formally attempted this legislation in the 1970s, with no success. As a state, it would have had, by far, the smallest population, and remaining so through the present day. Its 320,000 residents would equal only 60% of Wyoming's population, and less than 50% of Alaska's population.
   
  +
* [[State of Deseret]]
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by date of statehood|List of U.S. states by date of statehood]]
 
  +
** The State of Deseret was a provisional state of the United States, proposed in 1849 by the [[Latter-day Saint|Mormon]] settlers in [[Salt Lake City]]. The provisional state existed for slightly over two years and was never accepted by the [[United States Congress]]. Its name was derived from the [[Deseret (Book of Mormon)|word for "honeybee"]] in the [[Book of Mormon]].
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states that were never territories|List of U.S. states that were never territories]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state name etymologies|List of U.S. state name etymologies]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of state legislatures in the United States|List of state legislatures in the United States]]
 
   
  +
==Secession==
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by area|List of U.S. states by area]]
 
  +
The Constitution is silent on the issue of the [[secession]] of a state from the union. However, its predecessor document, the Articles of Confederation, stated that the United States of America "shall be perpetual." The question of whether or not individual states held the right to unilateral secession remained a difficult and divisive one until the American Civil War. In 1860 and 1861, eleven southern states seceded, but following their defeat in the American Civil War were brought back into the Union during the [[Reconstruction era of the United States|Reconstruction Era]]. The federal government never recognized the secession of any of the rebellious states. Following the [[American Civil War|Civil War]], the United States Supreme Court, in ''[[Texas v. White]]'', held that states did not have the right to secede and that any act of secession was legally void. Drawing on the [[Preamble to the United States Constitution|Preamble to the Constitution]], which states that the Constitution was intended to "form a more perfect union" and speaks of the people of the United States of America in effect as a single body politic, as well as the language of the Articles of Confederation, the Supreme Court maintained that states did not have a right to secede. However, the court's reference in the same decision to the possibility of such changes occurring "through revolution, or through consent of the States," essentially means that this decision holds that no state has a right to unilaterally decide to leave the Union.<ref name="books.google.com"/><ref name="Texas v. White"/>
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by elevation|List of U.S. states by elevation]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by GDP (nominal)|List of U.S. states by GDP]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal)|List of U.S. states by GDP per capita]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by population|List of U.S. states by population]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by population density|List of U.S. states by population density]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by time zone|List of U.S. states by time zone]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. states by unemployment rate|List of U.S. states by unemployment rate]]
 
   
  +
==Commonwealths==
*[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state residents names|List of U.S. state residents names]]
 
  +
{{Main|Commonwealth (U.S. state)}}
   
  +
Four of the states bear the formal title of [[Commonwealth (U.S. state)|commonwealth]]: Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. In these cases, this is merely a historically-based name and it has no legal effect. Somewhat confusingly, the U.S. territories of the [[Northern Marianas]] and [[Puerto Rico]] are also referred to as [[Commonwealth (U.S. insular area)|commonwealths]], and that designation does have a [[legal status]] different from that of the 50 states. Both of these commonwealths are [[unincorporated territories]] of the United States.
*[[List of U.S. states by traditional abbreviation|List of U.S. states by traditional abbreviation]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:U.S. postal abbreviations|U.S. postal abbreviations]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:U.S. state temperature extremes|U.S. state temperature extremes]]
 
*Codes: [[FIPS state code|FIPS state code]], [[Wikipedia:ISO 3166-2:US|ISO 3166-2:US]]
 
   
  +
==Origin of states' names==
*[[Wikipedia:Lists of U.S. state insignia|Lists of U.S. state insignia]]
 
  +
State names speak to the circumstances of their creation. See the lists of [[list of U.S. state name etymologies|U.S. state name etymologies]] and [[lists of U.S. county name etymologies|U.S. county name etymologies]].
<!--**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state amphibians|[[List of U.S. state amphibians|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state amphibians|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state beverages|[[List of U.S. state beverages|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state beverages|]]}}
 
  +
==Regional grouping==
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state birds|[[List of U.S. state birds|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state birds|]]}}
 
  +
[[File:Map of USA showing regions.png|thumb|340px|right|U.S. Census Bureau regions:<br />[[Western United States|The West]], [[Midwestern United States|The Midwest]], [[Southern United States|The South]] and [[Northeastern United States|The Northeast]]. <!--- Alaska is shown at a different scale. The [[Aleutian Islands]] and the [[uninhabited island|uninhabited]] [[Northwestern Hawaiian Islands]] are omitted from this map. --->]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state butterflies|[[List of U.S. state butterflies|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state butterflies|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state colors|[[List of U.S. state colors|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state colors|]]}}
 
  +
States may be grouped in regions; there are endless variations and possible groupings, as most states are not defined by obvious geographic or cultural borders. For further discussion of regions of the U.S., see the [[list of regions of the United States]].
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state dances|[[List of U.S. state dances|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state dances|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state dinosaurs|[[List of U.S. state dinosaurs|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state dinosaurs|]]}}
 
  +
==Borders==
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state fish|[[List of U.S. state fish|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state fish|]]}}
 
  +
The northern and southern borders of the [[Thirteen Colonies]] on the East Coast were largely determined by colonial charters and anchoring coastal settlements. The western boundaries were determined by the limits of transportation, the infeasibility of settling areas dominated by Native Americans and foreign powers, and the decision to create new states out of western territories.
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state flags|[[List of U.S. state flags|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state flags|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state flowers|[[List of U.S. state flowers|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state flowers|]]}}
 
  +
[[List of river borders of U.S. states|River borders between states]] are common. At various times, national borders with territories formerly controlled by other countries (namely the British colonies of [[Canada]], [[New France]], [[New Spain]] including [[Spanish Florida]], and [[Russian North America]]) became institutionalized as the borders of U.S. states. [[Alaska]] was formerly the colony of [[Russian America]].
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state foods|[[List of U.S. state foods|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state foods|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state fossils|[[List of U.S. state fossils|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state fossils|]]}}
 
  +
Most borders beyond the Thirteen Colonies were created by Congress as it created territories, divided them, and turned them into states as they became more populated. Territorial and new state lines followed various geographic features, economic units, and the pattern of settlement. In the West, relatively arbitrary straight lines following latitude and longitude often prevail, due to the sparseness of settlement west of the Mississippi River. Faster transportation also meant that larger states were more feasible to govern from a single capital. [[Vermont]], [[California]], and [[Texas]] were each briefly independent nations, as was [[Hawaii]]. Some states were previously part of other states, including [[Maine]], [[West Virginia]], [[Kentucky]], and [[Tennessee]]. Occasionally the [[United States Congress]] or the [[United States Supreme Court]] have settled state border disputes.
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state grasses|[[List of U.S. state grasses|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state grasses|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state insects|[[List of U.S. state insects|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state insects|]]}}
 
  +
{{clear}}
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state license plates|[[List of U.S. state license plates|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state license plates|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state mammals|[[List of U.S. state mammals|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state mammals|]]}}
 
  +
==Lists==
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones|[[List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones|]]}}
 
  +
{{United States Labelled Map|float=right}}
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state mottos|[[List of U.S. state mottos|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state mottos|]]}}
 
  +
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state nicknames|[[List of U.S. state nicknames|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state nicknames|]]}}
 
  +
* [[List of capitals in the United States]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state reptiles|[[List of U.S. state reptiles|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state reptiles|]]}}
 
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state seals|[[List of U.S. state seals|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state seals|]]}}
+
* [[List of U.S. state constitutions]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state slogans|[[List of U.S. state slogans|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state slogans|]]}}
+
* [[List of state legislatures in the United States|List of U.S. state legislatures]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state soils|[[List of U.S. state soils|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state soils|]]}}
+
* [[List of U.S. state name etymologies]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state songs|[[List of U.S. state songs|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state songs|]]}}
+
* [[List of U.S. state residents names]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state sports|[[List of U.S. state sports|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state sports|]]}}
+
* [[State tax levels in the United States|List of U.S. state tax levels]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by area]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state tartans|[[List of U.S. state tartans|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state tartans|]]}}
 
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by coastline]]
**{{subst:#ifexist:List of U.S. state trees|[[List of U.S. state trees|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of U.S. state trees|]]}}
 
*{{subst:#ifexist:List of fictional U.S. states|[[List of fictional U.S. states|]]|[[Wikipedia:List of fictional U.S. states|]]}}
+
* [[List of U.S. states by date of statehood]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by elevation]]
-->
 
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by fertility rate]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by GDP (nominal)]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by GDP per capita (nominal)]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by income equality]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by population]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by population density]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by time zone]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by traditional abbreviation]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states by unemployment rate]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states that were never territories]]
  +
* [[List of U.S. states' largest cities]]
  +
* [[U.S. postal abbreviations]]
  +
* [[U.S. state temperature extremes]]
  +
* Codes: [[FIPS state code]], [[ISO 3166-2:US]]
  +
* [[Lists of U.S. state insignia]]:
  +
** [[List of U.S. state amphibians]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state beverages]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state birds]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state butterflies]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state colors]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state crustaceans]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state dances]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state demonyms]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state dinosaurs]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state fish]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state flags]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state flowers]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state foods]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state fossils]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state grasses]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state insects]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state instruments]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state license plates]]
  +
** [[List of U.S. state mammals]]
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** [[List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones]]
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** [[List of U.S. state mottos]]
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** [[List of U.S. state nicknames]]
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** [[List of U.S. state poems]]
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** [[List of U.S. state Poet Laureates]]
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** [[List of U.S. state reptiles]]
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** [[List of U.S. state seals]]
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** [[List of U.S. state shells]]
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** [[List of U.S. state ships]]
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** [[List of U.S. state slogans]]
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** [[List of U.S. state soils]]
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** [[List of U.S. state songs]]
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** [[List of U.S. state sports]]
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** [[List of U.S. state tartans]]
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** [[List of U.S. state toys]]
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** [[List of U.S. state trees]]
   
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==References==
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* Stein, Mark, ''How the States Got Their Shapes'', New York : Smithsonian Books/Collins, 2008. ISBN 9780061431388
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==External links==
 
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* [http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/st/allstate.htm Information about All States] from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
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* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/states/ State Resource Guides, from the Library of Congress]
 
* [http://factfinder.census.gov/bf/_lang=en_vt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US9S_geo_id=01000US.html Tables with areas, populations, densities and more (in order of population)]
 
* [http://factfinder.census.gov/bf/_lang=en_vt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US9S_geo_id=01000US.html Tables with areas, populations, densities and more (in order of population)]
 
* [http://factfinder.census.gov/bf/_lang=en_vt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1_US9_geo_id=01000US.html Tables with areas, populations, densities and more (alphabetical)]
 
* [http://factfinder.census.gov/bf/_lang=en_vt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1_US9_geo_id=01000US.html Tables with areas, populations, densities and more (alphabetical)]
* [http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0854966.html Origin of State Names]
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* [http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/State_and_Territories.shtml State and Territorial Governments on USA.gov]
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* [http://www.statemaster.com/index.php StateMaster&nbsp;– statistical database for US States.]
* [http://search.godonthe.net Rick's Search Assistant] - Web links & addresses for many state agencies, e.g., [[Wikipedia:Motor vehicle|Motor Vehicles]], Corporate Records, Attorneys General
 
* [http://www.usps.com/ United States Postal Service]
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* [http://www.top50states.com/ U.S. States: Comparisons, rankings, demographics]
* [http://www.firstgov.gov/Agencies/State_and_Territories.shtml State and Territorial Governments on FirstGov.gov]
 
* [http://www.statemaster.com/index.php StateMaster - statistical database for US States.]
 
   
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Revision as of 00:52, 19 June 2011

U.S. state
Category Federated state
Location United States
Number 50
Government State government

A U.S. state (abbreviation of United States state) is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile.[1] Four states use the official title of commonwealth rather than state. State citizenship is flexible and no government approval is required to move between states (with the exception of convicts on parole).

The United States Constitution allocates power between these two levels of government. By ratifying the Constitution, the people transferred certain limited sovereign powers to the federal government from their states. Under the Tenth Amendment, all powers not delegated to the U.S. government nor prohibited to the states are retained by the states or the people. Historically, the tasks of public safety (in the sense of controlling crime), public education, public health, transportation, and infrastructure have generally been considered primarily state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well (based largely upon the Commerce Clause, the Taxing and Spending Clause, and the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution).

Over time, the Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a continuing debate over states' rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states' powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government as well as the rights of individual persons.

Congress may admit new states on an equal footing with existing ones; this last happened in 1959 with the admission of Alaska and Hawaii. The Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to unilaterally leave, or secede from, the Union, but the Supreme Court has ruled[2][3] secession to be unconstitutional, a position driven in part by the outcome of the American Civil War.

List of states

AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDelawareMarylandNew HampshireNew JerseyMassachusettsConnecticutWest VirginiaVermontRhode Island
About this image


The following table lists each of the 50 states of the United States with the following information:

  1. The state name
  2. The preferred pronunciation of the common state name as transcribed with the International Phonetic Alphabet (see Help:IPA for English for a key)
  3. The United States Postal Service (USPS) two-character state abbreviation[4]
    (also used as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 3166-2 country subdivision code)
  4. An image of the official state flag
  5. The date the state ratified the United States Constitution or was admitted to the Union
  6. The total land and water area of the state
  7. The United States Census 2010 of state population as of 02010-04-01April 1, 2010[5]
  8. The state capital
  9. The most populous incorporated place or Census Designated Place within the state as of 02008-07-01July 1, 2008, as estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau[6]
  10. Preceding entity of the state, in which it does not account for the Ordinance of Secession during the American Civil War of 13 states, 11 of which formed the Confederate States of America, and the subsequent restoration of those states to representation in Congress (sometimes called "readmission") between 1866 and 1870, or the end of the reconstruction era of the United States.


The 50 United States of America
Name IPA USPS Flag Statehood Area (sq mi) Population (2010) Capital Most populous city Preceding entity
Alabama /ˌæləˈbæmə/ AL Flag of Alabama.svg 01819-12-14December 14, 1819 &000000000013576500000052,419 sq mi (135,765 km2) 4,779,736 Montgomery Birmingham Alabama Territory
Alaska /əˈlæskə/ AK Flag of Alaska.svg 01959-01-03January 3, 1959 &0000000001717854000000663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km2) 710,231 Juneau Anchorage Alaska Territory
Arizona /ˌærɪˈzoʊnə/ AZ Flag of Arizona.svg 01912-02-14February 14, 1912 &0000000000295254000000113,998 sq mi (295,254 km2) 6,392,017 Phoenix Phoenix Arizona Territory
Arkansas /ˈɑrkənsɔː/ AR Flag of Arkansas.svg 01836-06-15June 15, 1836 &000000000013700200000052,897 sq mi (137,002 km2) 2,915,918 Little Rock Little Rock Arkansas Territory
California /ˌkælɪˈfɔrnjə/ CA Flag of California.svg 01850-09-09September 9, 1850 &0000000000423970000000163,700 sq mi (423,970 km2) 37,253,956 Sacramento Los Angeles Directly admitted from Mexican Cession
Colorado /ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ/ CO Flag of Colorado.svg 01876-08-01August 1, 1876 &0000000000269837000000104,185 sq mi (269,837 km2) 5,029,196 Denver Denver Colorado Territory
Connecticut /kəˈnɛtɪkət/ CT Flag of Connecticut.svg 01788-01-09January 9, 1788 &00000000000143560000005,543 sq mi (14,356 km2) 3,574,097 Hartford Bridgeport[7] Connecticut Colony, then sovereign state in Confederation
Delaware /ˈdɛləwɛər/ DE Flag of Delaware.svg 01787-12-07December 7, 1787 &00000000000064520000002,491 sq mi (6,452 km2) 897,934 Dover Wilmington Lower Counties on Delaware, then sovereign state in Confederation
Florida /ˈflɒrɪdə/ FL Flag of Florida.svg 01845-03-03March 3, 1845 &000000000017030400000065,755 sq mi (170,304 km2) 18,801,310 Tallahassee Jacksonville[8] Florida Territory
Georgia /ˈdʒɔrdʒə/ GA Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg 01788-01-02January 2, 1788 &000000000015390900000059,425 sq mi (153,909 km2) 9,687,653 Atlanta Atlanta Province of Georgia, then sovereign state in Confederation
Hawaii /həˈwaɪ.iː/ HI Flag of Hawaii.svg 01959-08-21August 21, 1959 &000000000002831100000010,931 sq mi (28,311 km2) 1,360,301 Honolulu Honolulu Territory of Hawaii
Idaho /ˈaɪdəhoʊ/ ID Flag of Idaho.svg 01890-07-03July 3, 1890 &000000000021663200000083,642 sq mi (216,632 km2) 1,567,582 Boise Boise Idaho Territory
Illinois /ɪlɪˈnɔɪ/ IL Flag of Illinois.svg 01818-12-03December 3, 1818 &000000000014199800000054,826 sq mi (141,998 km2) 12,830,632 Springfield Chicago Illinois Territory, formed from the Northwest Territory
Indiana /ˌɪndiˈænə/ IN Flag of Indiana.svg 01816-12-11December 11, 1816 &000000000009432100000036,418 sq mi (94,321 km2) 6,483,802 Indianapolis Indianapolis Indiana Territory, formed from the Northwest Territory
Iowa /ˈaɪ.ɵwə/ IA Flag of Iowa.svg 01846-12-28December 28, 1846 &000000000014574300000056,272 sq mi (145,743 km2) 3,046,355 Des Moines Des Moines Iowa Territory
Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ KS Flag of Kansas.svg 01861-01-29January 29, 1861 &000000000021309600000082,277 sq mi (213,096 km2) 2,853,118 Topeka Wichita Kansas Territory
Kentucky[9] /kɪnˈtʌki/ KY Flag of Kentucky.svg 01792-06-01June 1, 1792 &000000000010465900000040,409 sq mi (104,659 km2) 4,339,367 Frankfort Louisville Split off from Virginia with that state's consent. The former huge Kentucky County
Louisiana /luːˌiːziˈænə/ LA Flag of Louisiana.svg 01812-04-30April 30, 1812 &000000000013538200000052,271 sq mi (135,382 km2) 4,533,372 Baton Rouge New Orleans Territory of Orleans
Maine /ˈmeɪn/ ME Flag of Maine.svg 01820-03-15March 15, 1820 &000000000009164600000035,385 sq mi (91,646 km2) 1,328,361 Augusta Portland Split off from Massachusetts with that state's consent (the former District of Maine)
Maryland /ˈmɛrələnd/ MD Flag of Maryland.svg 01788-04-28April 28, 1788 &000000000003213300000012,407 sq mi (32,133 km2) 5,773,552 Annapolis Baltimore[10] Province of Maryland, then sovereign state in Confederation
Massachusetts[9] /ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsɪts/ MA Flag of Massachusetts.svg 01788-02-06February 6, 1788 &000000000002733600000010,554 sq mi (27,336 km2) 6,547,629 Boston Boston Province of Massachusetts Bay, then sovereign state in Confederation
Michigan /ˈmɪʃɪɡən/ MI Flag of Michigan.svg 01837-01-26January 26, 1837 &000000000025379300000097,990 sq mi (253,793 km2) 9,883,640 Lansing Detroit Michigan Territory, formed from the Northwest Territory
Minnesota /ˌmɪnɪˈsoʊtə/ MN Flag of Minnesota.svg 01858-05-11May 11, 1858 &000000000022518100000086,943 sq mi (225,181 km2) 5,303,925 Saint Paul Minneapolis Minnesota Territory
Mississippi /ˌmɪsɪˈsɪpi/ MS Flag of Mississippi.svg 01817-12-10December 10, 1817 &000000000012544300000048,434 sq mi (125,443 km2) 2,967,297 Jackson Jackson Mississippi Territory, formed from land donated to the U.S. by Georgia
Missouri /mɪˈzʊəri, mɪˈzʊərə/ MO Flag of Missouri.svg 01821-08-10August 10, 1821 &000000000018053300000069,704 sq mi (180,533 km2) 5,988,927 Jefferson City Kansas City[11] Missouri Territory
Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ MT Flag of Montana.svg 01889-11-08November 8, 1889 &0000000000381156000000147,165 sq mi (381,156 km2) 989,415 Helena Billings Montana Territory
Nebraska /nəˈbræskə/ NE Flag of Nebraska.svg 01867-03-01March 1, 1867 &000000000020052000000077,420 sq mi (200,520 km2) 1,826,341 Lincoln Omaha Nebraska Territory
Nevada /nəˈvædə/ NV Flag of Nevada.svg 01864-10-31October 31, 1864 &0000000000286367000000110,567 sq mi (286,367 km2) 2,700,551 Carson City Las Vegas Nevada Territory
New Hampshire /nuː ˈhæmpʃər/ NH Flag of New Hampshire.svg 01788-06-21June 21, 1788 &00000000000242170000009,350 sq mi (24,217 km2) 1,316,470 Concord Manchester[12] Province of New Hampshire, then sovereign state in Confederation
New Jersey /nuː ˈdʒɜrzi/ NJ Flag of New Jersey.svg 01787-12-18December 18, 1787 &00000000000226080000008,729 sq mi (22,608 km2) 8,791,894 Trenton Newark[13] Province of New Jersey, then sovereign state in Confederation
New Mexico /nuː ˈmɛksɪkoʊ/ NM Flag of New Mexico.svg 01912-01-06January 6, 1912 &0000000000315194000000121,697 sq mi (315,194 km2) 2,059,179 Santa Fe Albuquerque New Mexico Territory
New York /nuː ˈjɔrk/ NY Flag of New York.svg 01788-07-26July 26, 1788 &000000000014129900000054,556 sq mi (141,299 km2) 19,378,102 Albany New York City[14] Province of New York, then sovereign state in Confederation
North Carolina /ˌnɔrθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ NC Flag of North Carolina.svg 01789-11-21November 21, 1789 &000000000013950900000053,865 sq mi (139,509 km2) 9,535,483 Raleigh Charlotte Province of North Carolina, then sovereign state in Confederation
North Dakota /ˌnɔrθ dəˈkoʊtə/ ND Flag of North Dakota.svg 01889-11-02November 2, 1889 &000000000018327200000070,762 sq mi (183,272 km2) 672,591 Bismarck Fargo Dakota Territory
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ OH Flag of Ohio.svg 01803-03-01March 1, 1803 &000000000011609600000044,825 sq mi (116,096 km2) 11,536,504 Columbus Columbus[15] Northwest Territory, land donated to the U.S. by Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New York
Oklahoma /ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə/ OK Flag of Oklahoma.svg 01907-11-16November 16, 1907 &000000000018119500000069,960 sq mi (181,195 km2) 3,751,351 Oklahoma City Oklahoma City Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory
Oregon /ˈɒrɪɡən/ OR Flag of Oregon.svg 01859-02-14February 14, 1859 &000000000025502600000098,466 sq mi (255,026 km2) 3,831,074 Salem Portland Oregon Territory
Pennsylvania[9] /ˌpɛnsɪlˈveɪnjə/ PA Flag of Pennsylvania.svg 01787-12-12December 12, 1787 &000000000011928300000046,055 sq mi (119,283 km2) 12,702,379 Harrisburg Philadelphia Province of Pennsylvania, then sovereign state in Confederation
Rhode Island[16] /rɵd ˈaɪlənd/ RI Flag of Rhode Island.svg 01790-05-29May 29, 1790 &00000000000031400000001,210 sq mi (3,140 km2) 1,052,567 Providence Providence Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, then sovereign state
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ SC Flag of South Carolina.svg 01788-05-23May 23, 1788 &000000000008293100000032,020 sq mi (82,931 km2) 4,625,364 Columbia Columbia[17] Province of South Carolina, then sovereign state in Confederation
South Dakota /ˌsaʊθ dəˈkoʊtə/ SD Flag of South Dakota.svg 01889-11-02November 2, 1889 &000000000019990500000077,184 sq mi (199,905 km2) 814,180 Pierre Sioux Falls Dakota Territory
Tennessee /ˌtɛnɪˈsiː/ TN Flag of Tennessee.svg 01796-06-01June 1, 1796 &000000000010924700000042,181 sq mi (109,247 km2) 6,346,105 Nashville Memphis[18] Formed from western land donated to the U.S. by North Carolina
Texas /ˈtɛksəs/ TX Flag of Texas.svg 01845-12-29December 29, 1845 &0000000000696241000000268,820 sq mi (696,241 km2) 25,145,561 Austin Houston[19] Republic of Texas
Utah /ˈjuːtɔː/ UT Flag of Utah.svg 01896-01-04January 4, 1896 &000000000021988700000084,899 sq mi (219,887 km2) 2,763,885 Salt Lake City Salt Lake City Utah Territory
Vermont /vərˈmɒnt/ VT Flag of Vermont.svg 01791-03-04March 4, 1791 &00000000000249230000009,623 sq mi (24,923 km2) 625,741 Montpelier Burlington Province of New York and New Hampshire Grants (ownership disputed); Vermont Republic
Virginia[9] /vərˈdʒɪnjə/ VA Flag of Virginia.svg 01788-06-25June 25, 1788 &000000000011078500000042,774 sq mi (110,785 km2) 8,001,024 Richmond Virginia Beach[20] Colony of Virginia, then sovereign state in Confederation
Washington /ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/ WA Flag of Washington.svg 01889-11-11November 11, 1889 &000000000018482700000071,362 sq mi (184,827 km2) 6,724,540 Olympia Seattle Washington Territory
West Virginia /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ WV Flag of West Virginia.svg 01863-06-20June 20, 1863 &000000000006275500000024,230 sq mi (62,755 km2) 1,852,994 Charleston Charleston Divided off from Virginia with the questionable consent of that state
Wisconsin /wɪsˈkɒnsɪn/ WI Flag of Wisconsin.svg 01848-05-29May 29, 1848 &000000000016963900000065,498 sq mi (169,639 km2) 5,686,986 Madison Milwaukee Wisconsin Territory, formed from the Northwest Territory
Wyoming /waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ WY Flag of Wyoming.svg 01890-07-10July 10, 1890 &000000000025334800000097,818 sq mi (253,348 km2) 563,626 Cheyenne Cheyenne Wyoming Territory

Federal power

The Supreme Court of the United States has interpreted the Commerce Clause of the Constitution of the United States which has expanded the scope of federal power. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States says, "On the whole, especially after the mid-1880s, the Court construed the Commerce Clause in favor of increased federal power."[21] In Wickard v. Filburn 317 U.S. 111 (1942), the court expanded federal power to regulate the economy by holding that federal authority under the commerce clause extends to activities which are local in character.[22] For example, Congress can regulate railway traffic across state lines, but it may also regulate rail traffic solely within a state, based on the theory that wholly intrastate traffic can still have an impact on interstate commerce. In recent years, the Court has tried to place limits on the Commerce Clause in cases like United States v. Lopez and United States v. Morrison.

Another source of Congressional power is its spending power—the ability of Congress to impose uniform taxes across the nation and then distribute the resulting revenue back to the states (subject to conditions set by Congress). A classic example of this is the system of federal-aid highways, which includes the Interstate Highway System. The system is mandated and largely funded by the federal government, but also serves the interests of the states. By threatening to withhold federal highway funds, as upheld in South Dakota v. Dole, Congress has been able to pressure state legislatures to pass a variety of laws. Although some object that this infringes on states' rights, the Supreme Court has upheld the practice as a permissible use of the Constitution's Spending Clause.

Governments

States are free to organize their individual governments any way they like, so long as they conform to the sole requirement of the U.S. Constitution that they have "a Republican Form of Government". (This means that each State government must be a republic; it is not a reference to the Republican Party, which was not founded until 1854—over 60 years after the Constitution was ratified.) In practice, each State has adopted a three-branch system of government (with legislative, executive, and judiciary branches) generally along the same lines as that of the Federal government — though this is not a requirement.

Despite the fact that every state has chosen to follow the Federal model of government, there are significant differences in some states.

Executive

While there is only one federal president, who then selects his own Cabinet responsible to him, most states have a "plural executive", in which various members of the executive branch are elected directly by the people. Thus, they serve as members of the executive branch who are not beholden to the governor and cannot be dismissed by him or her.

The governor may veto legislation. In forty four states, governors have line item veto power.

Legislative

The legislatures of 49 of the 50 states are made up of two chambers: a lower house (termed the House of Representatives, State Assembly or House of Delegates) and a smaller upper house, always termed the Senate. The exception is the unicameral Nebraska Legislature, which is composed of only a single chamber.

Most states have part-time legislatures, while six of the most populated states have full-time legislatures. However, several states with high population have short legislative sessions, including Texas and Florida.[23]

In Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964), the U.S. Supreme Court held that all states are required to elect their legislatures in such a way as to afford each citizen the same degree of representation. This is the standard commonly known as "one person, one vote". In practice, most states choose to elect legislators from single-member districts, each of which has approximately the same population. Some states, like Maryland and Vermont, divide the state into single- and multi-member districts, in which case a district electing two representatives must have approximately twice the population of a district electing just one and so on.

If the governor vetoes legislation, all legislatures may override it, usually, but not always, requiring a two-thirds majority.

Judicial

States can also organize their judicial systems differently from the federal judiciary, as long as they protect the constitutional right of their citizens to procedural due process. Most have a trial level court, generally called a District Court or Superior Court, a first-level appellate court, generally called a Court of Appeal (or Appeals), and a Supreme Court. However, Oklahoma and Texas have separate highest courts for criminal appeals. New York state is notorious for its unusual terminology, in that the trial court is called the Supreme Court. Appeals are then taken to the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, and from there to the Court of Appeals. Most states base their legal system on English common law (with substantial indigenous changes and incorporation of certain civil law innovations), with the notable exception of Louisiana, which draws large parts of its legal system from French civil law.

Also, just few states choose to have their judges on the state's courts serve for life terms. Most of the state judges, including the justices on the highest court in the state, are either elected or appointed for terms of a limited number of years, such as five years. They can often be then re-elected or reappointed if their performance has been judged to be satisfactory.

Relationships

Under Article Four of the United States Constitution, which outlines the relationship between the states, the United States Congress has the power to admit new states to the Union. The states are required to give full faith and credit to the acts of each other's legislatures and courts, which is generally held to include the recognition of legal contracts, marriages, criminal judgments, and before 1865 — slavery status. States are prohibited from discriminating against citizens of other states with respect to their basic rights, under the Privileges and Immunities Clause. The states are guaranteed military and civil defense by the Federal government, which is also required to ensure that the government of each state remains a republic.

Four states use the official name of commonwealth, rather than state.[24] However, this is merely a paper distinction, and the U.S. Constitution uniformly refers to all of them as "States", such as in Article One, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution, concerning the U.S. House of Representatives, in which Representatives are to be elected by the people of the "States". Furthermore, Article One, Section 3, Clause 1, concerning the U.S. Senate, allocates to each "State" two Senators. However, each of the four above-mentioned "Commonwealths" counts as a State.

Admission into the union

U.S. states by date of statehood

  1776–1790
  1791–1799
  1800–1819
  1820–1839
  1840–1859
  1860–1879
  1880–1899
  1900–1950
  1950–

The order in which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the union. (Click to see animation)

Since the establishment of the United States, the number of states has expanded from the original thirteen to fifty. The U.S. Constitution is rather laconic on the process by which new states could be added, noting only that "New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union", and forbidding a new state to be created out of the territory of an existing state, or the merging of two or more states into one without the consent of both Congress and all the state legislatures involved.

In practice, most of the states admitted to the union after the original thirteen have been formed from Territories of the United States (that is, land under the sovereignty of the Federal government but not part of any state) that were organized (given a measure of self-rule by the Congress subject to the Congress’ plenary powers under the territorial clause of Article IV, sec. 3, of the U.S. Constitution).[25]

Generally speaking, the organized government of a territory made known the sentiment of its population in favor of statehood. Congress then directed that government to organize a constitutional convention to write a State Constitution. Upon acceptance of that Constitution, Congress has always admitted that territory as a state. The broad outlines in this process were established by the Northwest Ordinance (1787), which predated the ratification of the Constitution.

However, Congress has ultimate authority over the admission of new states, and is not bound to follow this procedure. A few U.S. states (outside of the original 13) that were never organized territories of the federal government have been admitted:

Congress is also under no obligation to admit states even in those areas whose population expresses a desire for statehood. For instance, the Republic of Texas requested annexation to the United States in 1837, but fears about the conflict with Mexico that would result delayed admission for nine years.[26] Once established, state borders have been largely stable. There have been exceptions, such as the cession by Maryland and Virginia of land to create the District of Columbia (Virginia's portion was later returned) and the creation of states from other states, including the creation of Kentucky and West Virginia from Virginia, Maine from Massachusetts, and Tennessee from North Carolina.

Possible new states

Today, there are several U.S. territories left that might potentially become new states.

Puerto Rico

The most likely candidate for statehood might be Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico called itself the "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" in the English version of its constitution, and as "Estado Libre Asociado" in the Spanish version. The island’s ultimate status has not been determined as of 2011.

As with any non-state territory of the United States, its residents do not have voting representation in the United States government. Puerto Rico has limited representation in the U.S. Congress in the form of a Resident Commissioner, a nonvoting delegate.[27]

History

Puerto Rico has been under U.S. sovereignty for over a century. Puerto Ricans have been U.S. citizens since 1917.

The U.S. Congress directed the Puerto Rican government to organize a constitutional convention to write the Puerto Rico Constitution in 1951. Like the U.S. States, Puerto Rico has a republican form of government organized pursuant to a constitution adopted by its people and a bill of rights. The Approval of that constitution by Puerto Rico's electorate, the U.S. Congress, and the U.S. President occurred in 1952. The rights, privileges and immunities attendant to the United States Citizens are "respected in Puerto Rico to the same extent as though Puerto Rico were a state of the union" through the express extension by the U.S. Congress in 1948 of the Privileges and Immunities Clause of the U.S. Constitution.[28]

President George H. W. Bush issued a memorandum on November 30, 1992 to heads of executive departments and agencies establishing the current administrative relationship between the federal government and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. This memorandum directs all federal departments, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state, insofar as doing so would not disrupt federal programs or operations.[29]

The commonwealth's government has organized several referenda on the question of status over the past several decades, though Congress has not recognized these as binding; all shown resulted in narrow victories for the status quo over statehood. On December 23, 2000, President Bill Clinton signed executive Order 13183, which established the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status and the rules for its membership. Section 4 of executive Order 13183 (as amended by executive Order 13319) directs the task force to "report on its actions to the President ... on progress made in the determination of Puerto Rico’s ultimate status".[30]

President George W. Bush signed an additional amendment to Executive Order 13183 on December 3, 2003, which established the current co-chairs and instructed the task force to issue reports as needed, but no less than once every two years. In December 2005, the presidential task force proposed a new set of referendums on the issue; if Congress votes in line with the task force's recommendation, it would pave the way for the first congressionally mandated votes on status in the island, and (potentially) statehood by 2012. The task force's December 2007 status report reiterated and confirmed the proposals made in 2005.[30][31][32]

President Barack Obama appointed a new Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status.[33] In March 2011, it recommended that all relevant parties—the President, Congress, and the leadership and people of Puerto Rico—work to ensure that Puerto Ricans are able to express their will about status options and have that will acted upon by the end of 2012 or soon thereafter.[34] The report further recommends, "... if efforts on the Island do not provide a clear result in the short term, the President should support, and Congress should enact, self-executing legislation that specifies in advance for the people of Puerto Rico a set of acceptable status options, including the Statehood, that the United States is politically committed to fulfilling. This legislation should commit the United States to honor the choice of the people of Puerto Rico (provided it is one of the status options specified in the legislation) and should specify the means by which such a choice would be made. The Task Force recommends that, by the end of 2012, the Administration develop, draft, and work with Congress to enact the proposed legislation."[34]

Washington D.C.

The intention of the Founding Fathers was that the United States capital should be at a neutral site, not giving favor to any existing state; as a result, the District of Columbia was created in 1800 to serve as the seat of government. The inhabitants of the District do not have full representation in Congress or a sovereign elected government (they were allotted presidential electors by the 23rd amendment, and have a non-voting delegate in Congress). Some residents of the District support statehood of some form for that jurisdiction—either statehood for the whole district or for the inhabited part, with the remainder remaining under federal jurisdiction. While statehood is always a live political question in the District, the prospects for any movement in that direction in the immediate future seem dim.

According to Article IV, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution, "New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress."[35] This was the case when Maine was split off from Massachusetts; and when West Virginia was split from Virginia during the Civil War. When Texas was admitted to the union in 1845, it was much larger than any other state and was specifically granted the right to divide itself into as many as five separate states.[36]

Unrecognized entities

See also: Historical regions of the United States
  • The State of Franklin existed for four years not long after the end of the American Revolution, but was never recognized by the union, which ultimately recognized North Carolina's claim of sovereignty over the area. A majority of the states were willing to recognize Franklin, but the number of states in favor fell short of the two-thirds majority required to admit a territory to statehood under the Articles of Confederation. The territory comprising Franklin later became part of the state of Tennessee.
  • State of Jefferson
  • State of Lincoln
    • Lincoln is another state that has been proposed multiple times. It generally consists of the eastern portion of Washington state and the panhandle or northern portion of Idaho. It was originally proposed by Idaho in 1864 to include just the panhandle of Idaho, and again in 1901 to include eastern Washington. Proposals have come up in 1996, 1999, and 2005.
    • Lincoln is also the name of a failed state proposal after the U.S. Civil War in 1869. It consisted of the area south and west of Texas' Colorado River.
  • State of Superior
    • A proposed state formed out of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Several prominent legislators including local politician Dominic Jacobetti formally attempted this legislation in the 1970s, with no success. As a state, it would have had, by far, the smallest population, and remaining so through the present day. Its 320,000 residents would equal only 60% of Wyoming's population, and less than 50% of Alaska's population.

Secession

The Constitution is silent on the issue of the secession of a state from the union. However, its predecessor document, the Articles of Confederation, stated that the United States of America "shall be perpetual." The question of whether or not individual states held the right to unilateral secession remained a difficult and divisive one until the American Civil War. In 1860 and 1861, eleven southern states seceded, but following their defeat in the American Civil War were brought back into the Union during the Reconstruction Era. The federal government never recognized the secession of any of the rebellious states. Following the Civil War, the United States Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, held that states did not have the right to secede and that any act of secession was legally void. Drawing on the Preamble to the Constitution, which states that the Constitution was intended to "form a more perfect union" and speaks of the people of the United States of America in effect as a single body politic, as well as the language of the Articles of Confederation, the Supreme Court maintained that states did not have a right to secede. However, the court's reference in the same decision to the possibility of such changes occurring "through revolution, or through consent of the States," essentially means that this decision holds that no state has a right to unilaterally decide to leave the Union.[2][3]

Commonwealths

Four of the states bear the formal title of commonwealth: Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. In these cases, this is merely a historically-based name and it has no legal effect. Somewhat confusingly, the U.S. territories of the Northern Marianas and Puerto Rico are also referred to as commonwealths, and that designation does have a legal status different from that of the 50 states. Both of these commonwealths are unincorporated territories of the United States.

Origin of states' names

State names speak to the circumstances of their creation. See the lists of U.S. state name etymologies and U.S. county name etymologies.

Regional grouping

U.S. Census Bureau regions:
The West, The Midwest, The South and The Northeast.

States may be grouped in regions; there are endless variations and possible groupings, as most states are not defined by obvious geographic or cultural borders. For further discussion of regions of the U.S., see the list of regions of the United States.

Borders

The northern and southern borders of the Thirteen Colonies on the East Coast were largely determined by colonial charters and anchoring coastal settlements. The western boundaries were determined by the limits of transportation, the infeasibility of settling areas dominated by Native Americans and foreign powers, and the decision to create new states out of western territories.

River borders between states are common. At various times, national borders with territories formerly controlled by other countries (namely the British colonies of Canada, New France, New Spain including Spanish Florida, and Russian North America) became institutionalized as the borders of U.S. states. Alaska was formerly the colony of Russian America.

Most borders beyond the Thirteen Colonies were created by Congress as it created territories, divided them, and turned them into states as they became more populated. Territorial and new state lines followed various geographic features, economic units, and the pattern of settlement. In the West, relatively arbitrary straight lines following latitude and longitude often prevail, due to the sparseness of settlement west of the Mississippi River. Faster transportation also meant that larger states were more feasible to govern from a single capital. Vermont, California, and Texas were each briefly independent nations, as was Hawaii. Some states were previously part of other states, including Maine, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Occasionally the United States Congress or the United States Supreme Court have settled state border disputes.

Lists


See also

United States Administrative Divisions unnumbered.png

U.S. Census Bureau statistical areas by state, district, or territory


AS
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References

  1. ^ See the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
  2. ^ a b Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan, Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession, p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
  3. ^ a b Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868) at Cornell University Law School Supreme Court collection.
  4. ^ "Official USPS Abbreviations". United States Postal Service. 1998. http://www.usps.com/ncsc/lookups/abbreviations.html. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  5. ^ "POPULATION CHANGE DATA PROVIDED BY U.S. CENSUS 2010". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 02010-12-21December 21, 2010. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/pop_change.csv. Retrieved 02010-12-21December 21, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Resident Population Estimates of Incorporated Places Only: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 02009-07-01July 1, 2009. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/files/SUB-EST2008-IP.csv. Retrieved 02009-10-01October 1, 2009. 
  7. ^ The Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic Combined Statistical Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Connecticut.
  8. ^ The Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Miami Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Florida.
  9. ^ a b c d Officially called a 'Commonwealth'.
  10. ^ Baltimore City and the 12 Maryland counties of the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area form the most populous metropolitan region in Maryland.
  11. ^ The City of Saint Louis and the 8 Missouri counties of the St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington Combined Statistical Area form the most populous metropolitan region in Missouri.
  12. ^ The 5 southeastern New Hampshire counties of the Boston-Worcester-Manchester Combined Statistical Area form the most populous metropolitan region in New Hampshire.
  13. ^ The 13 northern New Jersey counties of the New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area form the most populous metropolitan region in New Jersey.
  14. ^ New York City is the most populous city in the United States.
  15. ^ The Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Ohio.
  16. ^ Full name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
  17. ^ The Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area is the most populous metropolitan area in South Carolina.
  18. ^ The Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Columbia Combined Statistical Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Tennessee.
  19. ^ The Dallas-Fort Worth Combined Statistical Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Texas.
  20. ^ The 10 Virginia counties and 6 Virginia cities of the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia Combined Statistical Area form the most populous metropolitan region in Virginia.
  21. ^ Stanley Lewis Engerman (2000). The Cambridge economic history of the United States: the colonial era. Cambridge University Press. p. 464. ISBN 9780521553070. http://books.google.com/books?id=6sDXBGMbrWkC. 
  22. ^ David Shultz (2005). Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court. Infobase Publishing. p. 522. ISBN 9780816050864. http://books.google.com/books?id=I_f6Oo9H3YsC. 
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ a. Third Constitution of Kentucky (1850), Article 2, Section 1 ff. Other portions of the same Constitution refer to the "State of Kentucky".
    b. Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Preamble.
    c. Constitution of Pennsylvania, Preamble.
    d. Constitution of Virginia (1971), Article IV, Section 1.
  25. ^ U.S. Const. art. IV, § 3, cl. 2 ("The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States...").
  26. ^ Richard Bruce Winders (2002). Crisis in the Southwest: the United States, Mexico, and the struggle over Texas. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 82, 92. ISBN 9780842028011. http://books.google.com/books?id=mcc9EciebFYC. 
  27. ^ "Rules of the House of Representatives" (PDF). http://www.rules.house.gov/ruleprec/110th.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  28. ^ 48 U.S.C. § 737, Privileges and immunities.
  29. ^ "Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress". Congressional Research Service. http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL32933_20090804.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-19. 
  30. ^ a b "''Report By the President's Task Force On Puerto Rico's Status (December 2007)''" (PDF). http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/documents/2007-report-by-the-president-task-force-on-puerto-rico-status.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  31. ^ "Report By the President's Task Force On Puerto Rico's Status (December 2005)" (PDF). http://charma.uprm.edu/~angel/Puerto_Rico/reporte_status.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  32. ^ H.R. 2499 – Puerto Rico Democracy Act of 2009 H.R. 2499
  33. ^ AMENDMENTS TO EXECUTIVE ORDERS 13183
  34. ^ a b REPORT BY THE PRESIDENT’S TASK FORCE ON PUERTO RICO’S STATUS March 2011, Page 23, Recommendation No. 1
  35. ^ "Article IV | LII / Legal Information Institute". Law.cornell.edu. http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articleiv.html#section3. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  36. ^ "Texas Dividing into Five States". snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/history/american/texas.asp. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 

Further reading

  • Stein, Mark, How the States Got Their Shapes, New York : Smithsonian Books/Collins, 2008. ISBN 9780061431388

External links


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