The Uí Briúin were an Irish kin-group. Their eponymous apical ancestor was Brion, son of Eochaid Mugmedon, an elder brother of Niall of the Nine Hostages. They formed part of the Connachta, along with the Uí Fiachrach and Uí Ailello, putative descendants of Eochaid Mugmedon's sons Fiachra and Ailill. The Uí Ailello were later replaced as the third of the Three Connachtas, by genealogical sleight of hand, by the Uí Maine.
Connacht was ruled in early times by the Uí Fiachrach, the Uí Briúin only becoming the dominant force in Connacht in 7th and 8th centuries.
The Uí Briúin divided into multiple septs, the major ones being:
- The Uí Briúin Ai, named for the region they controlled—Mag Ai, the lands around the presumed ancient centre of Connacht, Cruachan in modern County Roscommon. Major divisions of the Uí Briúin Ai were the Síl Muiredaig, from whom the many high medieval dynasties of Ua Conchobair (O'Connors) were descended, and the Síl Cathail.
- The Uí Briúin Bréifne, whose high medieval kingdom of Bréifne lay in modern County Cavan and County Leitrim. The O'Reilly and Ó Ruairc dynasties were among the septs of the Uí Briúin Bréifne.
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