|— City —|
|Alcázar on the left and Cathedral on the right dominate the skyline|
|Autonomous Community||Castile–La Mancha|
|• Mayor||Emiliano García-Page Sánchez (PSOE)|
|• Land||232.1 km2 (89.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||529 m (1,736 ft)|
|• Toledo, Ohio||United States|
|• Veliko Tarnovo||Bulgaria|
|• Corpus Christi||United States|
Toledo (Spanish: [toˈleðo]) is a municipality located in central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. It is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive cultural and monumental heritage and historical co-existence of Christian, Muslim and Jewish cultures.
Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles I, and as the "City of the Three Cultures", having been influenced by a historical co-existence of Christians, Muslims and Jews. In 1085, the city fell to Alfonso VI of Castile as the first major city in the Christian Reconquista. Toledo has a history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now popular souvenirs of the city.
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X and El Greco. It was also the place of important historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo. As of 2012, the city has a population of 84,019 and an area of 232.1 km2 (89.6 sq mi).
Coat of armsEdit
The town was granted arms in the 16th century, which by special royal privilege was based on the royal of arms of Spain.
The city is said to have been populated since the Bronze Age. According to Don Isaac Abrabanel, a prominent Jewish figure in Spain in the 15th century and one of the king's trusted courtiers who witnessed the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492, the city Ṭulayṭulah was named by its first Jewish inhabitants who settled there in the 5th century BCE, and which name - by way of conjecture - may have been related to its Hebrew cognate טלטול (= wandering), on account of their wandering from Jerusalem. He says, furthermore, that the original name of the city was Pirisvalle, so-called by its early pagan inhabitants.
Toledo (Latin: Toletum) is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy (ca. 59 BCE – 17 CE) as urbs parva, sed loco munita (“a small city, but fortified by location”). Conquered by the Roman general Marcus Fulvius Nobilior in 193 BCE, it became an important Roman colony and the capital of Carpentia. It grew in importance during Roman times, being a main commercial and administrative centre in the Roman province of Carthaginensis. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Toledo served as the capital city of Visigothic Spain, beginning with Liuvigild (Leovigild), till the Moors conquered the Iberian peninsula in the early years of 8th century (711-719).
Under the Caliphate of Cordoba, Toledo was the center of numerous insurrections dating from 761 to 857. The Banu Qasi gained nominal control of the city until 920 and in 932 Abd-ar-Rahman III captured the city following an extensive siege. Toledo experienced a period known as La Convivencia, i.e. the co-existence of Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Under Islamic Arab rule, Toledo was again called Ṭulayṭulah. After the fall of the caliphate, Toledo was the capital city of one of the richest Taifas of Al-Andalus. Its population was overwhelmingly Muladi, and, because of its central location in the Iberian Peninsula, Toledo took a central position in the struggles between the Muslim and Christian rulers of northern Spain. The conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI of Castile in 1085 marked the first time a major city in Al-Andalus was captured by Christian forces; it served to sharpen the religious aspect of the Christian reconquest.
On May 25, 1085, Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute, ending the medieval Taifa's Kingdom of Toledo. This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. After Castilian conquest, Toledo continued to be a major cultural centre; its Arab libraries were not pillaged, and a tag-team translation centre was established in which books in Arabic or Hebrew would be translated into Castilian by Muslim and Jewish scholars, and from Castilian into Latin by Castilian scholars, thus letting long-lost knowledge spread through Christian Europe again. For some time during the 16th century, Toledo served as the capital city of Castile, and the city flourished. However, soon enough the Spanish court was moved, first to Valladolid and then to Madrid, thus letting the city's importance dwindle until the late 20th century, when it became the capital of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. Nevertheless, the economic decline of the city helped to preserve its cultural and architectural heritage. Today, because of this rich heritage, Toledo is one of Spain's foremost cities, receiving thousands of visitors yearly. Under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toledo multiple persecutions (633, 653, 693) and stake burnings of Jews (638 CE) occurred; the Kingdom of Toledo followed up on this tradition (1368, 1391, 1449, 1486-1490 CE) including forced conversions and mass murder and the rioting and blood bath against the Jews of Toledo (1212 CE).
Toledo's Alcázar (Arabicized Latin word for palace-castle) became renowned in the 19th and 20th centuries as a military academy. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, its garrison was famously besieged by Republican forces.
Toledo has a semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk) with the same Mediterranean characteristics as found across most of Spain. Winters are mild while summers are hot and dry. Precipitation is low and mainly concentrated in winter and early spring. The highest temperature ever recorded in Toledo was 43.1 °C (109.58 °F) on 10 August 2012; the lowest was −9.1 °C (15.6 °F) on 27 January 2005.
|Record high °C (°F)||22.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||11.5|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.6|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||26|
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5||5||4||6||6||3||1||2||3||7||6||6||54|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||151||172||228||249||286||337||382||351||260||210||157||126||2,922|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia|
The metal-working industry has historically been Toledo's economic base, with a great tradition in the manufacturing of swords and knives and a significant production of razor blades, medical devices and electrical products. Soap and toothpaste industries, flour milling, glass and ceramics have also been important. (The Toledo Blade, the American newspaper in Toledo's Ohio namesake city, is named in honor of that sword-making tradition.)
According to the Statistical Institute of Castilla-La Mancha, in 2007 the distribution of employment by sectors of occupation was as follows: 86.5% of the population engaged in the services, 6.6% in construction, 5.4% in industry and 1.5% in agriculture and livestock.
The manufacture of swords in the city of Toledo goes back to Roman times, but it was under Moorish rule and during the Reconquista that Toledo and its guild of sword-makers played a key role. Between the 15th and 17th centuries the Toledo sword-making industry enjoyed a great boom, to the point where its products came to be regarded as the best in Europe. Swords and daggers were made by individual craftsmen, although the sword-makers guild oversaw their quality. In the late 17th and early 18th century production began to decline, prompting the creation of the Royal Arms Factory in 1761 by order of King Carlos III. The Royal Factory brought together all the sword-makers guilds of the city and it was located in the former mint. In 1777, recognizing the need to expand the space, Carlos III commissioned the architect Sabatini to construct a new building on the outskirts of the city. This was the beginning of several phases of expansion. Its importance was such that it eventually developed into a city within the city of Toledo.
In the 20th century, the production of knives and swords for the army was reduced to cavalry weapons only, and after the Spanish Civil War, to the supply of swords to the officers and NCOs of the various military units. Following the closure of the factory in the 1980s, the building was renovated to house the campus of the Technological University of Castilla-La Mancha in Toledo.
In the last decade, unemployment in absolute terms has remained fairly stable in the city of Toledo, but in 2009 this figure increased significantly: nearly 62% compared to 2008, with the number of unemployed rising from 2,515 to 4,074 (figures at 31 March each year), according to the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla La Mancha. Of this 62%, one third of the increase took place in the first quarter.
According to other statistics from the same source, almost half the unemployed in the city of Toledo (1,970 persons) are among those whose education does not go beyond the compulsory secondary level. However, there are groups whose level of studies is such that they have not been registered as unemployed, such as those who have completed class 1 professional training, or those with virtually nonexistent unemployment rates (less than 0.1%), which is the case of unemployed with high school degrees or professional expertise.
The largest group among the unemployed is that of those who have no qualifications (27.27%).
Toledo has a 25-member City Council, elected by closed lists every four years. The 2011 election saw a pact made between the 11 members of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and the 2 members of the United Left, to retain the position of the PSOE's Emiliano García-Page Sánchez as mayor, which he has been since 2007.
The old city is located on a mountaintop with a 150 degree view, surrounded on three sides by a bend in the Tagus River, and contains many historical sites, including the Alcázar, the cathedral (the primate church of Spain), and the Zocodover, a central market place.
From the 4th century to the 16th century about thirty synods were held at Toledo. The earliest, directed against Priscillian, assembled in 400. At the synod of 589 the Visigothic King Reccared declared his conversion from Arianism to Catholicism; the synod of 633 decreed uniformity of catholic liturgy throughout the Visigothic kingdom and took stringent measures against baptized Jews who had relapsed into their former faith. Other councils forbade circumcision, Jewish rites and observance of the Sabbath and festivals. Throughout the seventh century, Jews were flogged, executed, had their property confiscated, were subjected to ruinous taxes, forbidden to trade and, at times, dragged to the baptismal font. The council of 681 assured to the archbishop of Toledo the primacy of Spain. At Guadamur, very close to Toledo, was dug in 1858 the Treasure of Guarrazar, the best example of Visigothic art in Spain.
As nearly one hundred early canons of Toledo found a place in the Decretum Gratiani, they exerted an important influence on the development of ecclesiastical law. The synod of 1565–1566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of the Council of Trent; and the last council held at Toledo, 1582–1583, was guided in detail by Philip II.
Toledo was famed for religious tolerance and had large communities of Muslims and Jews until they were expelled from Spain in 1492 (Jews) and 1502 (Mudejars). Today's city contains the religious monuments the Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca, the Synagogue of El Transito, Mosque of Cristo de la Luz and the church of San Sebastián dating from before the expulsion, still maintained in good condition. Among Ladino-speaking Sephardi Jews, in their various diasporas, the family name Toledano is still prevalent—indicating an ancestry traced back to this city (the name is also attested among non-Jews in various Spanish-speaking countries).
In the 13th century, Toledo was a major cultural center under the guidance of Alfonso X, called "El Sabio" ("the Wise") for his love of learning. The Toledo School of Translators, that had commenced under Archbishop Raymond of Toledo, continued to bring vast stores of knowledge to Europe by rendering great academic and philosophical works in Arabic into Latin. The Palacio de Galiana, built in the Mudéjar style, is one of the monuments that remain from that period.
The Cathedral of Toledo (Catedral de Toledo) was built between 1226–1493 and modeled after the Bourges Cathedral, though it also combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar style. It is remarkable for its incorporation of light and features the Baroque altar called El Transparente, several stories high, with fantastic figures of stucco, paintings, bronze castings, and multiple colors of marble, a masterpiece of medieval mixed media by Narciso Tomé topped by the daily effect for just a few minutes of a shaft of light from which this feature of the cathedral derives its name. Two notable bridges secured access to Toledo across the Tajo, the Alcántara bridge and the later built San Martín bridge.
Toledo was home to El Greco for the latter part of his life, and is the subject of some of his most famous paintings, including The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, exhibited in the Church of Santo Tomé.
Toledo has been a traditional sword-making, steel-working center since about 500 BC, and came to the attention of Rome when used by Hannibal in the Punic Wars. Soon, it became a standard source of weaponry for Roman Legions.
Toledo's cuisine is grouped with that of Castile–La Mancha, well-set in its traditions and closely linked to hunting and grazing. A good number of recipes are the result of a combination of Moorish and Christian influences.
Some of its specialties include lamb roast or stew, cochifrito, alubias con perdiz (beans with partridge) and perdiz estofoda (partridge stew), carcamusa, migas, gachas manchegas, and tortilla a la magra. Two of the city's most famous food productions are Manchego cheese and marzipan, which has a Protected Geographical Indication (mazapán de Toledo).
- Virgen del Valle: This pilgrimage is celebrated on May 1 at the Ermita de la Virgen del Valle, with a concentration popular holiday in that place.
- Easter: Declared of National Tourist Interest, is held in spring with various processions, highlighting those that take place on Good Friday, and religious and cultural events. Since the Civil War, most of the steps were burned or destroyed, so it had to create new steps or using images from other churches and convents Toledo. Being a city Toledo Castile, Holy Week is characterized as austere and introspective, as well as beauty, due in part to the beautiful framework in which it takes place: Toledo. Many people take advantage of the Easter break to visit the monastery churches that are only open to the general public at this time of year. 
- Corpus Christi: Feast declared International Tourist Interest. Its origins lie in the thirteenth century and is probably the most beautiful Corpus Christi there. The processional cortege travels around two kilometers of streets and richly decorated awnings. In recent years, following the transfer of the traditional holiday Thursday present Sunday, was chosen to conduct two processions, one each of these days, with certain differences in members and protocol between them. 
- Virgen del Sagrario: On August 15 they celebrate the festival in honor of the Virgen del Sagrario. Procession is held inside the Cathedral and drinking water of the Virgin in jars.
Apart from these festivals should be noted that patterns of Toledo are:
- San Ildefonso, Toledo Visigoth bishop whose feast day is January 23.
- Santa Leocadia, virgin and martyr of Roman Hispania, which falls on December 9.
|Historic City of Toledo*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
Old city of Toledo
|Criteria||i, ii, iii, iv|
|Inscription||1986 (10th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
The city of Toledo was declared a Historic-Artistic Site in 1940, UNESCO later given the title of World Heritage in 1987. Sights include:
- Tomb of Saint Beatrice of Silva, founder of the Order of the Immaculate Conception, at the Conceptionist Monastery of Toledo.
- Castillo de San Servando, medieval castle near the banks of the Tagus river and the Infantry Academy.
- The Gothic Cathedral, dating from the thirteenth century. Inside there is the Clear from Narciso Tome, in Baroque.
- Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes, in Elizabethan Gothic style (15th century).
- The Renaissance Museo-Hospital de Santa Cruz (16th century).
- Museo de El Greco. House-museum designed as a recreation of the artist's home, which was lost centuries ago. It houses several important paintings.
- Santa María la Blanca, the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing, now owned by the Catholic Church.
- Synagogue of El Transito, in the Jewish Quarter. It is home to the Sephardic Museum.
- Hospital de Tavera Museum Duque de Lerma. Renaissance style, dates from the sixteenth century. Influenced the layout of El Escorial.
- Church of Santiago del Arrabal, in Mudéjar style.
- Iglesia de Santo Tome. Mudejar style, the fourteenth century, houses the famous Burial of Count Orgaz, by El Greco.
- El Cristo de la Luz, a small mosque-oratory built in 999, later extended with Mudejar apse for conversion into a church.
- Galiana Palace (13th century), in Mudejar style.
- Tornerías Mosque (11th century).
- Alcazar fortress (16th century), located in the highest part of town, overlooking the city. From 2009 it houses the collection of the Army Museum.
- Puerta de Bisagra Nueva. The main entrance and face of Toledo.
- Puerta de Bisagra The main entrance to the city in Andalusian times.
- Puerta del Sol. Mudejar style and built by the Knights Hospitallers in the fourteenth century.
- Puerta Bab al-Mardum, the oldest city gate of Toledo.
- New Gate of Hinge, by Alonso de Covarrubias (16th century, based on Arabic structures).
- Old door hinge or Puerta de Alfonso VI.
- Cambrón gate, of Muslim-16th century origin.
- San Román (Museum of the Councils and Visigoth culture).
- Ermita del Cristo de la Vega, in Mudéjar style (11th century).
- Alcántara bridge, Roman bridge across the Tagus.
- Puente de San Martin, medieval bridge across the Tagus.
To mark the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of Don Quixote, the Council of Communities of Castile–La Mancha designed a series of routes through the region crossing the various points cited in the novel. Known as the Route of Don Quixote, two of the pathways designated, sections 1 and 8, are based in Toledo; those linking the city with La Mancha Castile and Montes de Toledo exploit the natural route which passes through the Cigarrales and heads to Cobisa, Nambroca Burguillos of Toledo, where it takes the Camino Real from Sevilla to suddenly turn towards Mascaraque Almonacid de Toledo, deep into their surroundings, near Mora, in La Mancha.
This stretch, Mascaraque-Toledo, of the Route of Don Quixote has recently been included in an official way on the Camino de Santiago in Levantine branch with origins in Cartagena, Alicante and Valencia, as both routes are declared a European Cultural Route on this stretch.
Toledo has long been an obligatory stop in the center of the peninsula. The roads leading to historic Toledo are still used and in many cases have provided the basis to existing roads leading into the city.
From Toledo part of N-400, which links this city with Cuenca by Ocaña and Tarancón. It is currently in the process of transformation in the future A-40 motorway Castilla La Mancha, which will link Maqueda (where it joins the motorway Extremadura), Toledo, Ocaña (where it attaches to the Motorway of Andalusia), Tarancón (where connects with the motorway Levante), Cuenca and Teruel.
The old National Road 401 Madrid-Toledo-Ciudad Real was transformed in the late 1980s in the current A-42 as a result of splitting and deleting the path that the various crossings counted (Illescas, Yuncos, etc.. ).
The split path can take 7 kilometres (4 miles) south of Toledo, in effect Ciudad Real, where it continues as conventional road. At this point, the A-42 connects with the Highway of the Vineyard that reaches Tomelloso. It is planned to extend the A-42, by a toll road, to Ciudad Real and Jaén.
In the early twenty-first century was built, in order to decongest the access of Madrid, the toll motorway AP-41.
Another way of State Highway Network that Toledo is part of the N-403, Toledo-Maqueda - Ávila - Adanero. Part of the route of this road will be replaced by that of the aforementioned Highway of Castilla La Mancha.
In addition to these roads, from Toledo depart several regional and provincial-level linking the capital with the regions of Montes de Toledo, La Jara and La Mancha.
In the mid-nineteenth century Toledo was one of the first Spanish cities to receive rail service, being attached to the Madrid - Aranjuez line which was inaugurated by Isabella II on June 12 of 1858. The current station is in Neo-Mudéjar style, and was inaugurated on April 24 of 1919. It is a remarkably beautiful building, especially the paneling in the main hall of the same.
With several ups and downs in terms of technical equipment and services this is the line that served the city until the early twenty-first century: on July 2 of 2003 the last conventional train service between the two capitals ended and work began on the high-speed link, Madrid - Toledo, which entered service on November 16 of 2005, thanks to which travel time to Madrid has been reduced to just under 30 minutes.
In the early 1960s began the construction of the Residence Health Social Security "Virgen de la Salud". The original building still remains in use, although successive extensions were added (maternity, outpatient clinics, operating rooms, etc.). Into the existing complex. The complex was also extended to move the clinic to a new nearby building, now converted into Specialty Center San Ildefonso.
On October 6, 1974 inaugurated the National Hospital of Paraplegics who becomes the center of reference, both nationally and internationally, in the treatment of these lesions. Also carries out a major work of social integration of their patients.
The transfer of powers from the state health at the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla La Mancha will give new impetus to the health infrastructure, manifested in 2007 with the commencement of construction of the new General Hospital of Toledo in the Santa Mary Benquerencia. Also have been provided to the different parts of the relevant health centers.
In the Toledo Hospital Complex  is also integrated Geriatric Hospital Virgen del Valle, a result of reform and modernization of old tuberculosis hospital built in the mid twentieth century. The center is located outside the city, near the Parador Nacional de Turismo Conde de Orgaz.
With regard to private health, at present the city of Toledo has several centers: Hospital de las Tres Culturas, Clínica Nuestra Señora del Rosario, and so on.
Toledo suffered from a shortage of sports facilities. Much of this problem was resolved when the Central School of Physical Education of the Army moved its headquarters to the premises of the Academy of Infantry. In the 1990s, the city council took over the old facilities of the military centre, which now include an athletics track, Olympic swimming pool and an indoor sports hall, from the former military installations, and numerous outdoor courts built in the area of the former runway of application, having been demolished and the old gym complex pools (indoor and outdoor).
Besides these facilities, the city of Toledo has covered sports pavilions in the districts of Santa Maria de Benquerencia, Santa Barbara, San Anton (Complejo Deportivo "Leaping Horse"); outdoor pools in sugar, Palomarejos, Santa Maria de Benquerencia, Santa Barbara, Santa Teresa and indoor swimming pools in the gardens of the Alcazar (old town), Santa Maria de Benquerencia and San Antonio.
Toledo has a football team, Club Deportivo Toledo, which is currently playing in the third-tier Segunda División B. The club plays its matches in the municipal field Leaping Horse, opened in 1973. The team played for 7 seasons in the Segunda División, during which it reached the play-off final for promotion to La Liga at the end of the 1993-94 season, losing 4-1 on aggregate to Real Valladolid. Toledo players have included Abel Resino, Luis Garcia, Rufete and Casquero.
Toledo also has teams of handball. The Toledo Handball, after 5 years in the Division de Honor B, start the 2009-2010 season as ASOBAL new club for the first time in its history. A refurbished town hall "Javier Lozano Cid ', with capacity for around 1,500 spectators, is its new headquarters. Moreover, the city has two other Division II team in the National, the Toledo Handball Lábaro-B and Club Deportivo Amibal.
Toledo has two basketball teams: the CIS Toledo, with a long history that has gone through ups and downs in both regional and in national leagues (EBA) and has just promoted to 1st Autonomic, and CB polygon, in Currently the most representative, whose team has promoted male, 7 years after leaving, to EBA League to start the 09/10 season. This club based in the Santa Maria de Benquerencua has one of the largest quarries of Castilla-La Mancha.
Toledo has been represented in athletics since 2 April 1979 by the Toledo Athletic Club, that is characterised by its actions, mainly in cross-country, where he managed a large number of medals in the championships team Spain's specialty, in addition to their combined male and female military in the late 1990s in the 1st division league national track. Among the athletes who have passed through its lanes are great athletes as Julio Rey, Roberto Parra, Chema Martinez and Julia Lobato.
Cycling, meanwhile, after the mythical victory in the Tour de France in 1959 by Federico Bahamontes, 'The Eagle of Toledo', has been one of the sports with more followers in the city, although, at present, no school despite having a velodrome in the Santa Maria de Benquerencia. Other leading professional cyclists from the city have been Nemesio Jiménez (Mexico Olympic 68) and Angel de las Heras.
The FS and Volleyball Toledo Toledo Association Toledo complete representation in the National League of First and Second Division, after a brief journey in Fantasy-, respectively, while the Toledo Rugby Club, with many noisy fans, is immersed in the League Madrid's Primera Liga.
At the individual level, the swimmer Javier Noriega and Julio Rey marathon athletes are more representative of the city, both in Athens Olympics 2004 and Beijing 2008, in recent years. Rey, Spanish current marathon record holder, with 2h.06: 52, announced his retirement in October 2009.
Various local and provincial newspapers are published in the city. In addition, national newspapers such as the daily ABC publish unique local editions. Among the local newspapers are the subscription-based La Tribuna de Toledo, and Toledo Day, as well as the free Global Castilla la Mancha and Toledo News. The general information weekly magazines Echoes and Here are also published.
There is also local media in television, radio and Internet. The regional public television headquarters, CMT, are in Toledo. In addition, there are several local television stations, as well as local fare: the diocesan Popular TV, Teletoledo, Canal Regional de Noticia and La Tribuna TV.
For radio stations, there is the dean of radio Radio Toledo (Onda Cero), as well as COPE, Cadena SER, RNE, RCM and Radio Aquí, and the local fare Onda Polígono and the diocesan station Radio Santa Maria. Within the digital and social media, Onda Toledo, Toledo Magic, Toledo Digital, and La Cerca.
Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit
Toledo is twinned with:
- Agen, France, since June 22, 1973
- Aachen, Germany, since October 13, 1984
- Corpus Christi, United States, since September 5, 1989
- Damascus, Syria, since April 19, 1994
- Guanajuato, Mexico, since October 20, 1978
- Havana, Cuba, since 2006
- Nara, Japan, since September 11, 1972
- Safed, Israel, since September 8, 1981
- Toledo, United States, since 1931
- Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, March 25, 1983
- Heraklion, Greece, since June 10, 2014
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed (1854–57). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
- ^ Abrabanel's Commentary on the First Prophets (Pirush Al Nevi'im Rishonim), end of II Kings, p. 680, Jerusalem 1955 (Hebrew). See also Shelomó ibn Verga in Shevet Yehudah, pp.6b-7a, Lemberg 1846 (Hebrew)
- ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/598552/Toledo
- ^ Roger Collins, Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000, (St. Martin's Press, 1995), 187.
- ^ Ann Christys, Christians in Al-Andalus 711-1000, (Curzon Press, 2002), 20.
- ^ Grosser, P.E. and E.G. Halperin. "Jewish Persecution - History of AntiSemitism - Lesser Known Highlights of Jewish International Relations In The Common Era". SimpleToRemember.com - Judaism Online. http://www.simpletoremember.com/articles/a/HistoryJewishPersecution/. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- ^ Grosser, Paul E.; Halperin, Edwin G.; foreword by St. John, Robert; preface by Littell, Franklin H. (1979). Anti-Semitism : the causes and effectos of a prejudice. Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel Press. ISBN 0806507039. https://books.google.de/books?id=w1wIAAAAIAAJ&q=Anti-Semitism:+Causes+%26+Effects+of+a+Prejudice+629&dq=Anti-Semitism:+Causes+%26+Effects+of+a+Prejudice+629+merovingian&hl=de&sa=X&ei=L8rUVN2kCtf1asjmgcgJ&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)" (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia. http://www.aemet.es/es/conocermas/publicaciones/detalles/guia_resumida_2010. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- ^ "Economía de Toledo". http://www.grupoteresa.com/modules.php?name=Guia_Turistica&file=pueblos&id=112&page=3. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- ^ "Instituto de Estadística de Castilla-La Mancha — Ficha municipal". http://www.ies.jccm.es/Fichas_municipales/Fichas/45168.pdf. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- ^ "lacerca.com - Las espadas forjadas en Toledo se remontan a la época romana". http://www.lacerca.com/noticias/las_espadas_forjadas_toledo_se_remontan_epoca_romana-21888-1.html. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- ^ "Instituto de Estadística de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha - Datos estadísticos de Toledo (Todos los Informes > Informes por Temas > Estadísticas Municipales > Mercado de Trabajo)". http://difusion.ies.jccm.es/wds/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
- ^ S. Katz, The Jews in the Visigothic Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul, (Cambridge 1937). Cited in Paul Johnson (writer), A History of the Jews, p. 177
- ^ "History of Swords from Toledo". Swords from Toledo. http://www.swordsfromtoledo.com/history.htm. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- ^ "Damascene Technique in Metal Working". http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/def_en/kap_5/advanced/t5_1_1.html#_1. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- ^ "History of the Toledo Swords". Aceros de Hispania. http://www.aceros-de-hispania.com/toledo-swords.htm. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- ^ "red2000.com - Toledo : Gastronomía". http://www.red2000.com/spain/toledo/1gastro.html. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "toledo-turismo.com - Platos Típicos". http://www.toledo-turismo.com/turismo/contenido/conociendo-la-ciudad/gastronomia/platos-tipicos.aspx. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation" (in French). Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères). http://www.cncd.fr/frontoffice/bdd-region.asp?action=getRegion&id=2#tabs3. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- "Spain: Toledo", Cities and Principal Towns of the World, Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1830, OCLC 2665202, http://www.archive.org/stream/citiesprincipalt00lond#page/316/mode/2up
- Hannah Lynch (1898), Toledo, Mediaeval Towns, London: J.M. Dent & Co., OCLC 150311124, http://archive.org/stream/toledostoryanol00lyncgoog#page/n9/mode/2up
- "Toledo". Spain and Portugal (3rd ed.). Leipsic: Karl Baedeker. 1908. OCLC 1581249. https://archive.org/stream/spainportugalhan00karlrich#page/126/mode/1up.
- Francis Whiting Halsey, ed (1914). "Toledo". Spain and Portugal. Seeing Europe with Famous Authors. 9. Funk & Wagnalls Company. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/003345383.
- Trudy Ring, ed (1995). "Toledo". Southern Europe. International Dictionary of Historic Places. 3. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1884964028. http://books.google.com/books?id=fYH7AQAAQBAJ&pg=PA716.
- David Gilmour (2012). "Toledo". Cities of Spain. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4481-3833-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=ht1XQQELuqwC&pg=PP10.
- Exhibit on Toledo, Ohio Sister City Agreement
- Photography of Toledo by Antony Marsh
- http://lahistoriadefermosa.com "La Historia de Fermosa" Abraham S. Marrache, Hebraica Ediciones 2009, a historical novel in Spanish about the love affair in 1179 between King Alfonso VIII of Castile and the young Toledan Jewess, Fermosa.
- Sunset in Toledo, Eretz Acheret Magazine
- Legends of Toledo
- Free Audio Guide of Toledo ES/EN
- Spain's official website - Info about Toledo
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