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Svyatoslav III Vsevolodovich Rurik of Kiev, Prince of Busk, Prince of Turov and Pinsk, Prince of Novgorod-Seversky, Prince of Chernigov, Grand Prince of Kiev, Prince of Volhynia, was born circa 1123 to Vsevolod II Olgovich of Kiev (1094-1146) and Maria Mstislavna of Kiev (c1108-c1155) and died 1194 of unspecified causes. He married Mariya Vasilkovna of Polotsk (c1125-c1180) 1143 JL . Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, Belarus, the Byzantine Empire.


Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich(baptized probably Michael [1], in monasticism possibly Gabriel[2], ;. c.1123 - 25 July 1194) - Prince of Novgorod (1140) {Prince of Turov and Pinsk]] (1142, 1154-1155), Prince of Volhynia (1142-1146), Prince of Novgorod-Seversky (1157-1164), Prince of Chernigov (1164-1181), Grand Prince of Kiev (1173 , 1176-1181, 1181= 1194). He was the eldest son of Vsevolod Olgovich and Maria Mstislavna, daughter of Mstislav Vladimirovich.


Biography

See also: The internecine war in Russia (1146-1154) and The internecine war in Russia (1158-1161)

Upon the death of his father, Svyatoslav supported Izyaslav Mstislavich against Yuri Dolgoruki ( 1146 - 1154 ), then Izyaslav Davidovich against his uncle Svyatoslav II of Kiev ( 1157 - 1161 ). After the death of Svyatoslav Olgovich in the Principality of Chernigov he agreed with his cousin Oleg Svyatoslavich about the distribution of volosts, when the Principality of Chernigov was allocated to Svyatoslav, and the Principality of Novgorod-Seversky to Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and to Oleg Svyatoslavich (after Oleg Svyatoslavich's death, Novgorod-Seversky was to be inherited not by Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, but Igor Svyatoslavich). Until the death of Oleg Svyatoslavich did not concede Chernigov to his younger brother Yaroslav, even passing to the Kiev reign. In all probability, this was a condition under which Oleg Svyatoslavich had conceded the Principality of Chernigov to Svyatoslav in 1164 [3]. The dispute over the volosts arose in Svyatoslav with Oleg in 1167 after the death of Svyatoslav Vladimirovich. The chronicle says that Svyatoslav gave the best volost to his brother. Oleg conducted a march in the direction of Starodub, and Yaroslav with the Polovtsias then - in the direction of Novgorod-Seversky. With the mediation of Rostislav Mstislavich, peace was concluded, Oleg received four cities from Svyatoslav.

Svyatoslav was among the princes who did not support the campaign of Andrei of Bogolyubovo to Kiev in 1169 (Oleg Svyatoslavich and Igor Svyatoslavich participated in it). In 1173, Yaroslav Izyaslavich, having enlisted the support of the Rostislavichi brothers of Smolensk and took the reign of the Grand Principality of Kiev. Svyatoslav did not support Yaroslav's claim and made an unexpected attack on Kiev. Yaroslav had to flee to Volhynia. However, Svyatoslav was forced to return to the left bank of the Dnieper because of a conflict with Oleg (1174), who, in union with Yaroslav and the Rostislavichi, took Lutava and Moroviesk, approached Starodub. In response, Svyatoslav besieged Novgorod-Seversky, after which the peace was concluded.

Northeastern policy

See also: The internecine war in North-Eastern Russia (1174-1177) The Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, with which Chernigov barely entered into an alliance, after the death of Andrei of Bogolyubovo (1174) plunged into civil strife, temporarily lost influence beyond its borders and itself became the scene of a clash of leading princely coalitions. The main contenders for Kiev was himself Svyatoslav and Yaroslav Izyaslavich, behind which stood Smolensk Rostislavichi. The latter supported the invitees of Rostov-Suzdal boyars to the reign of Mstislav and Yaropolk Rostislavich, the grandchildren of Yury Dolgoruky. On their side passed Gleb of Ryazan, who was married to their sister, who previously acted as an ally of Andrei of Bogolyubovo. Svyatoslav supported the claims to Vladimir Mikhail Yuryevich and Yuryevich Vsevolod, for which the new cities of the south-western part of the Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal performed. In 1175 Rostislavichi were expelled, and in 1177 in the Battle of the Koloksha River Gleb Ryazansky was captured by Vsevolod.

The Northern Expedition (1180-1181)

Main article: Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich's Northern Expedition

In 1180, on the Dnieper, Svyatoslav attacked Davyd, when both were caught on two of its shores. Svyatoslav decided to expel Roman Rostislavich from the south and left Kiev for Chernigov, where he gathered his brothers and their troops. In the liberated Kiev Ryurik Rostislavich drove to help Vsevolod and Ingvar Yaroslavichi with the Lutsk and Galician troops. The main blow of the Chernigovites was planned for Smolensk, and Ryurik even sent his brother Davyd to help Roman. But in June 1180 Roman died in Smolensk and Mstislav Rostislavich the Brave in Novgorod, Vladimir Svyatoslavich became a prince of Novgorod , which opened up new opportunities for his father in the geography of the forthcoming campaign.

However, in the same year Vsevolod Yuryevich (the Big Nest) broke off his alliance with Svyatoslav and opposed Roman Glebovich of Ryazan (married to Svyatoslav's daughter) under the pretext of defending his younger brothers. Svyatoslav sent his son Gleb to [[Kolomna] to help Roman, but Vsevolod Yuryevich did not stop before breaking off relations with Svyatoslav, took Gleb into captivity, and decided the Ryazan quarrel in his favor.

Then Svyatoslav began his campaign with a total length of about 2 thousand km. At the same time in Chernigov, there were always secondary forces of Princes of Chernigov-Severny and half of the allied Polovtsian troops in case of an attack from Rurik. Svyatoslav with the main forces and Polovtsians moved to Vsevolod, moving slightly north of the shortest path to Vladimir to connect with the speakers from Novgorod and Torzhok son Vladimir and nephew Vsevolod Yaropolk. On the side of Vsevolod Yuryevich was supported by the people of the principalities of Ryazan and Principality of Murom. The troops met along the two banks of the Velya River. Vsevolod Yuryevich took a defensive position on the mountains and kept his troops from attacking. There was no general battle, and Svyatoslav had to leave with nothing because of the approach of spring, he only burned the city of Dmitrov.

The second goal was the town of Drutsk, under which Svyatoslav came with the Novgorodians from the north, part of the forces of the Olgovichi and the Polovtsians from the south, and the Polotsk princes from the west. In Drutsk, Davyd Rostislavich siege with the Smolensk troops. Davyd tried to impose parts of the opponents of the battle before Svyatoslav came from the north, but they used the river as a natural obstacle. After the arrival of Svyatoslav, Davyd escaped from Drutsk and left for Smolensk.

Then Svyatoslav returned to the south, took Kiev unhindered and sent part of the forces with the Polovtsians against Ryurik, who retreated to Belgorod. Allies were defeated in the Battle of the Chortory River (1180). Thanks to this victory, Ryurik retained his possessions on the territory of the Grand Principality of Kiev, giving Svyatoslav only the city of Kiev and recognizing him as Grand Prince of Kiev. Although Vladimir Svyatoslavich had to leave Novgorod and give way to Yaroslav Vladimirovich, the representative of Vsevolod Yuryevich, the peace between Chernigov and Suzdal was also concluded. In 1183 [4] Svyatoslav sent troops to help Vsevolod against the Volga Bulgarians: "Give us God, brother and son, to fight us in our time with the filthy."

The reign in Kiev

Svyatoslav inflicted a decisive defeat to Polovtsian Khan Kobyak and took him prisoner, in the Battle of the Khorol River defeated Khan Konchak (by traditional dating July 30, 1183 and March 1, 1185, the results of a comparative analysis of the chronicles Berezhkov N.G. , respectively, July 30 and March 1, 1184 [4]).

In 1185, he left for his possession on the upper Oka River, and then Igor Svyatoslavich Novgorod-Seversky undertook a separate campaign in the steppe. He achieved private success, but then suffered a catastrophic defeat from the combined forces of the Polovtsy and was captured. Svyatoslav timely sent sons Oleg and Vladimir in Kursk and Putivl, which did not allow [[Hzak ruin Posem. Then, crossing the Dnieper in Zaruba, he forced Konchak to lift the siege of Pereyaslavl and return to the steppe. In 1187 Svyatoslav and Ryurik organized a new expedition to the steppe, but the Polovtsians evaded the collision.

After the death of Yaroslav Osmomysl in Halych, Svyatoslav intervened in the struggle for power. On the daughter of Svyatoslav, Vladimir Yaroslavich was married, deprived of his father's inheritance and taken prisoner by the Hungarians. Bela III invited Gleb Svyatoslavich to Halych. Learning about this, Ryurik Rostislavich reminded Svyatoslav of the need for unity of action. Since Ryurik II Rostislavich of Kiev (c1137-1212) Ryurik rejected Svyatoslav's offer to win Halych for Ryurik II Rostislavich of Kiev (c1137-1212) Ryurik in exchange for transferring to Svyatoslav all his possessions on the territory of the Grand Principality of Kiev, the plan for the joint campaign was upset. As a result, with the help of the German emperor Vladimir became Prince of Halych-Volhynia who recognized the seniority of his maternal uncle, Vsevolod Yuryevich.

In 1194 Svyatoslav and his brothers gathered in Rogov and marched against the Princes of Ryazan because of a border dispute, while simultaneously asking permission from Vsevolod Yuryevich, but he refused, and the troops had to be deployed from Karachev.

Immediately after the Svyatoslav's death in 1194 the sharp struggle between the Olgovichi and Rostislavich resumed , on the side of which stood Vsevolod Yuryevich. If Svyatoslav addressed him brother and son, then Ryurik Rostislavich recognized the seniority of Vsevolod Yuryevich and his future heirs.

Evaluation of activities

So briefly described the great reign of Svyatoslav Professor A.E. Presnyakov:

« Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich after a fantastic attempt to take a fight with the southern Monomakh and Vsevolod Suzdal see for 13 years at the Kiev table in the honorary role of the patriarch, as he draws "The Tale of Igor's Campaign", impotent, dependent on "brother and son," as Vsevolod allows him call himself, who gave all the land of Kiev in the hands of Rostislavich, who still lives in Chernigov interests. [[5]}"

"The Lay of Igor's Host"

The character of " The Lay of Igor's Campaign ", where he is called "great" and "formidable," glorifies his victory over Kobyak; important episodes of the "Word" - the Golden word of Svyatoslav, the story of the prince's dream. The question of whether the appeal to princes in the "Word" is written on behalf of Svyatoslav or another author is debatable; more likely the latter (appeal to the princes "gentleman").

Family and children

Wife :

from 1143, Mariya Vasilkovna of Polotsk (c1125-c1180) (or Catherine ), the daughter of Vasilko Svyatoslavich of Polotsk . The name of Svyatoslav's wife is known only from the memorial of Princes of Chernigov who are members of the Lubets and Vvedensky synodics . At the same time, two different Chernigov princes, Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich and their wives, were recorded in his memory. Researchers expressed different views on what kind of record belongs to this prince [2].

Children :

Notes

  1. ^ Template:Cite book: Литвина А. Ф., Успенский Ф. Б. Выбор имени у русских князей в X-XVI вв. — С. 606.
  2. ^ a b Шеков А. В. (2016). "О ранней части помянника черниговских князей типа Любецкого": 27—34. 
  3. ^ Пресняков А. Е. Княжое право в Древней Руси. Лекции по русской истории. Киевская Русь. — М.: Наука, 1993.
  4. ^ a b Бережков Н. Г. Хронология русского летописания. М. 1963. С. 87
  5. ^ Пресняков А. Е. Княжое право в древней Руси. Лекции по русской истории. Киевская Русь. — М.: Наука. — 635 с., 1993
  6. ^ Автор «Слова о полку Игореве» — женщина. И звали её Болеслава

References

  • Пресняков А. Е. Княжое право в Древней Руси. Лекции по русской истории. Киевская Русь. — М.: Наука, 1993.
  • Чугаева И. К. Фрагменты летописания Святослава Всеволодовича в Киевской летописи: происхождение и интерпретация//Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики. 2011. № 3 (45). С. 132–133.



Children


Offspring of Svyatoslav III Vsevolodovich Rurik of Kiev and Mariya Vasilkovna of Polotsk (c1125-c1180)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Oleg Svyatoslavich of Starodub (1147-1204) 1147 1204 Yefrosina Andreyevna of Yelets (c1150-c1200)

Vsevolod IV Svyatoslavich of Kiev (c1157-1212) 1157 August 1212 Chernigov Maria of Poland (1164-1194)

Vladimir Svyatoslavich of Novgorod (c1158-1200) 1158 1200 Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine Prebrana Mikhailovna of Vladimir (c1170-c1230)

Gleb Svyatoslavich of Chernigov (c1160-1217) 1160 1217 Anastasiya Ryurikovna (c1166-c1210)

Mstislav Svyatoslavich of Chernigov (c1162-1223) 1162 31 May 1223 Marfa Shvarnovna of Ossetia (c1165-c1220)

Daughter of Kiev
Boleslava Svyatoslavna of Kiev (c1165-c1220)
Daughter of Kiev

Siblings


Offspring of Vsevolod II Olgovich of Chernigov (Всеволод Ольгович) and Maria Mstislavna of Kiev (c1108-c1155)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Svyatoslav III Vsevolodovich of Kiev (c1123-1194) 1123 1194 Mariya Vasilkovna of Polotsk (c1125-c1180)

Yaroslav Vsevolodovich of Chernigov (1139-1198) 1139 1198 Irina NN

Anna Vsevolodovna of Chernigov (c1124-c1180) 1180 Ivan Vasilkovich of Terebovl (c1090-1141)

Zvenislava Vsevolodovna of Chernigov (c1126-c1157) 1157 Bolesław I the Tall of Poland (1127-1201)

Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

Ω Birth
  • year of birth from brother
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