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Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich of Kiev, Grand Prince of Kiev, Prince of Polotsk, Princes of Turov and Pinsk, Prince of Novgorod, was born 8 November 1050 to Izyaslav I Yaroslavich of Kiev (1024-1078) and Gertrude of Poland (c1025-1108) and died 16 April 1113 Vyshgorod of unspecified causes. He married Daughter of Bohemia (c1060-c1093) . He married Olena of Kipchak (c1070-c1125) 1094 JL . Charlemagne (747-814)/s.

Svyatopolk II
Grand Prince of Kiev

Reign 1093–1113
Predecessor Vsevolod I Yaroslavich
Successor Vladimir II Monomakh
Prince of Novgorod
Reign 1078–1088
Prince of Turov and Pinsk
Reign 1088–1093
Spouse Daughter of Bohemia (c1060-c1093)
Olena of Kipchak (c1070-c1125)
Issue
Out of wedlock: Mstislav

With the first: Anna
Zbyslava
Predslava
Yaroslav With the second: Bryachislav Svyatopolkovich of Turov (1104-1127)

Full name
Svyatopolk Izyaslavovich (Mikhail)
Dynasty Rurikid
Father Izyaslav I

Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich (1050 – April 16, 1113), Prince of Polotsk (1069-1071), Novgorod (1078-1088), Turov (1088-1093), Grand Prince of Kiev (1093—1113) was supreme ruler of the Kievan Rus' for 20 years, from 1093 to 1113. He was not a popular prince, and his reign was marked by incessant rivalry with his cousin Vladimir Monomakh. Upon his death the Kievan citizens raised a rebellion against the Jewish merchants and Varangian officials who speculated in grain and salt.

Early life

Svyatopolk was the son of Izyaslav Yaroslavich by his concubine. Svyatopolk's Christian name was Michael. During his brother Yaropolk's life, Svyatopolk was not regarded as a potential claimant to the Kievan throne. In 1069 he was sent to Polotsk, a city briefly taken by his father from the local ruler Vseslav, and then he spent ten years (1078–88) ruling Novgorod. Upon his brother's death he succeeded him in Turov, which would remain in possession of his descendants until the 17th century.

Reign

Mosaic of St. Demetrius was installed by Svyatopolk in the Kievan St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery to glorify the patron saint of his father.

When Vsevolod Iaroslavich died in 1093, Svyatopolk was acknowledged by other princes as the senior son of the Veliki Knyaz and permitted to ascend the Kievan throne. Although he participated in the princely congresses organized by Vladimir Monomakh, he is sometimes charged with encouraging internecine wars among Rurikid princes. For instance, he sided with his cousin David Igorevich of Volhynia and his son-in-law Bolesław III Wrymouth in capturing and blinding one of the Galician princes.[1] He also sided with Vladimir Monomakh in several campaigns against the Kypchaks but was defeated in the Battle of the Stugna River (1093) (1093).[2] Later that year, Sviatopolk would face the Kypchaks again, and again be defeated.[2] Whereupon the Kypchaks destroyed Torchesk, an Oghuz Turk settlement.[2] In 1096, in an attempt to force Oleg I of Chernigov into a Rus compact, Svyatopolk left his lands undefended.[3] His father-in-law, Tugorkhan raided Pereyaslavl, while Bonyak raided as far as Kiev, destroying Berestovo and sacking the three monasteries of Klov, Vydubichi, and the Caves.[3] Tugorkhan would be killed during his raid on Pereyaslavl, consequently Svyatopolk would have him buried in Kiev.[4]

Svyatopolk's Christian name was Michael, so he encouraged the embellishment of St Michael's Abbey in Kiev, which has been known as the Golden-Roofed up to the present. The history now known as the Primary Chronicle was compiled by the Nestor the Chronicler during Svyatopolk's reign.

Marriage and children

Svyatopolk first married a Bohemian princess of the (Přemyslid dynasty), probably a daughter of Duke Spytihněv II. They had four children:

  1. Anna
  2. Zbyslava, married to king Boleslaw III of Poland on November 15, 1102.
  3. Predslava, married to Prince Álmos of Hungary on August 21, 1104. Her fate is less known.
  4. Yaroslav (died 1123), Prince of Volhynia and Turov was married three times - to Hungarian, Polish Sophia (daughter of Władysław I Herman and his second wife Judith of Swabia), and Kievan princesses. Due to Yaroslav's early death, his descendants forfeited any right to the Kievan throne and had to content themselves with Turov and Pinsk.

Secondly, in 1094 Svyatopolk married a daughter of Tugorkhan of the Kypchaks, Olena.[5] They had four children:

  1. Mariya, married Piotr Włostowic (c1080-1153), castellan of Wroclaw and Polish palatine.
  2. Bryachislav (1104–1127), possibly dethroned Yaroslav as Prince of Turov and Pinsk (1118–1123) in 1118.
  3. Izyaslav (died 1127), possibly the Prince of Turov in 1123.

Genealogical reference books mention the daughter of Svyatopolk, Anna [6] married to Svyatoslav Davydovich from Chernigov who turned into a monk after her death and later became Saint Nikolai Svyatosha. Svyatoslav Davydovich really had a wife, Anna, but it is nowhere else mentioned that she was the daughter of Svyatopolk Izyaslavich [7][8].

Some sources claim that Svyatopolk married for third time a certain Barbara Komnena daughter of byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos. This assumption has been considered fictitious by most historians[9]

Some sources claim that Svyatopolk used to have a son out of wedlock son Mstislav who ruled Novhorod-Siversky in 1095–1097 and later Volhynia (1097–1099). It seems that he later was murdered in Vladimir-Volynsky.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Vernadsky 1976, p. 90.
  2. ^ a b c Franklin & Shepard 2013, p. 272.
  3. ^ a b Franklin & Shepard 2013, p. 272-273.
  4. ^ Raffensperger 2012, p. 78-79.
  5. ^ Dmytryshyn 2000, p. 61.
  6. ^ {{Войтович Л. - Княжеские династии Восточной Европы Ізяславичі. Турово-Пінські князі. Четвертинські. Сокольські}}
  7. ^ Назаренко А. В. (2009). Мoscow: Русский Фонд Содействия Образованию и Науке. pp. 152. 
  8. ^ Литвина А. Ф., Успенский Ф. Б. (2012). "Внутридинастические браки между троюродными братьями и сестрами в домонгольской Руси". Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики (3 (49)): 45—68. 
  9. ^ Vernadsky 1976, p. 351.

References

  • Dmytryshyn, Basil (2000). Medieval Russia: A Source Book, 850-1700. Academic International Press. 
  • Franklin, Simon; Shepard, Jonathan (2013). The Emergence of Rus 750-1200. Routledge. 
  • Raffensperger, Christian (2012). Reimagining Europe. Harvard University Press. 
  • Vernadsky, George (1976). Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. 

External links



Children



Offspring of Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich of Kiev and Daughter of Bohemia (c1060-c1093)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Anna Svyatopolkovna of Kiev (c1082-1136) Svyatoslav Davydovich of Chernigov (c1080-1143)
Predslava Svyatopolkovna of Kiev (c1085-aft1110) 1085 1110 Álmos of Hungary (c1070-1127)
Zbyslava Svyatopolkovna of Kiev (c1087-c1112) 1087 1112 Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland (1086-1138)
Yaroslav Svyatopolchich of Volhynia (c1091-1123) 1091 May 1123 Vladimir-Volynsky, Volodymyr-Volynskyi Rayon, Volyn Oblast, Ukraine Daughter of Hungary (c1083-c1130) Sophia of Poland (c1089-c1112) Daughter of Hungary (c1083-c1130) Sophia of Poland (c1089-c1112) Rogneda Mstislavna of Kiev (c1112-c1159)



Offspring of Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich of Kiev and Olena of Kipchak (c1070-c1125)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mariya Svyatopolkovna of Kiev (c1102-c1150)
Bryachislav Svyatopolkovich of Turov (1104-1123) 1104 28 March 1123
Izyaslav Svyatopolkovich of Turov (c1106-1127) 1106 Kiev, Ukraine 23 December 1127



Offspring of Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich of Kiev and Nomen nescio
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mstislav Svyatopolchich of Novgorod (c1075-1099) 1075








Siblings

Residences

  





Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich
Rurik Dynasty
Born: 8 Nov 1050 Died: 16 Apr 1113
Preceded by
Gleb Svyatoslavich
Prince of Novgorod
1078–1088
Succeeded by
Mstislav Vladimirovich
Preceded by
Yaropolk Izyaslavich
Prince of Turov and Pinsk
1088–1093
Succeeded by
Vyacheslav Yaropolkovich
Preceded by
Vseslav Bryachislavich
Prince of Polotsk
with Vseslav Bryachislavich and Mstislav Izyaslavich

1069
Succeeded by
Vseslav Bryachislavich
Svyatopolk I Izyaslavich
Preceded by
Vseslav Bryachislavich
Svyatopolk I Izyaslavich
Mstislav Izyaslavich
Prince of Polotsk with Vseslav Bryachislavich
1069-1071
Succeeded by
Vseslav Bryachislavich
Preceded by
Vsevolod I Yaroslavich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1093–1113
Succeeded by
Vladimir Monomakh



Footnotes (including sources)

Afil


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