|Schlossplatz (Castle square), Top left:Staatstheater, Top right:View of Cannstatter Volksfest event in Bad Cannstatt, Middle left:Stuttgart Old Castle in Schillerplatz, Middle right:A fountain in Schlossplatz, Bottom left:Stuttgart New Palace in Schlossplatz, Bottom right:Fruchtkasten façade built and Statue of Friedrich Schiller in Schillerplatz|
|• Lord Mayor||Fritz Kuhn (Grüne)|
|• Total||207.36 km2 (80.06 sq mi)|
|Elevation||245 m (804 ft)|
|• Density||2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Stuttgart ( //; German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊtɡaɐ̯t] ( listen)) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 (December 2008) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008). The city lies at the centre of a densely populated area, surrounded by a ring of smaller towns. This area called Stuttgart Region has a population of 2.7 million. Stuttgart's urban area has a population of roughly 1.8 million, making it Germany's seventh largest. With over 5 million inhabitants, the greater Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is the fourth-biggest in Germany after the Rhine-Ruhr area, Berlin/Brandenburg and Frankfurt/Rhine-Main.
Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills (some of them vineyards), valleys and parks – unusual for a German city and often a source of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the 'cradle of the automobile'. Stuttgart has the status of Stadtkreis, a type of self-administrating urban county. It is also the seat of the state legislature, the regional parliament, local council and the Protestant State Church in Württemberg as well as one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart.
The city of Stuttgart ranked 30 globally in Mercer's 2010 liveability rankings, and 7th in Germany behind top-ranked cities such as Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Munich. For economic and social innovation the city was ranked 11 globally, 2nd in Germany after Hamburg and 7th in Europe in 2009 out of 256 cities.
The city's tourism slogan is "Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure (as part of the Stuttgart 21 project), in March 2008 the city unveiled a new logo and slogan, describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas" ("The new heart of Europe"). For business it describes itself as "Standort Zukunft", "Where business meets the future"). In 2007 the Bürgermeister marketed Stuttgart to foreign investors as "The creative power of Germany". In July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area.
Stuttgart is nicknamed the Schwabenmetropole (Swabian metropolis), because of the city's location in the centre of Swabia, and as a reference to the Swabian dialect spoken by its (autochthonous) inhabitants. In that dialect, the city's name is pronounced Schtugert or Schtuagerd. However, many non-Swabian Germans have emigrated to Stuttgart for economic reasons and 40% of Stuttgart's residents, and 64% of the population below the age of five are of foreign immigrant background.
Name and coat of armsEdit
Stuttgart's coat of arms shows a black horse on its hind legs on a yellow background. It was first used in its current format in 1938; prior to this various designs and colours had been used, often with two horses. The canting seal pictured here reflects the origin of the name 'Stuttgart'. The name in Old High German was 'stuotengarten', with 'stuoten' meaning mare, later cognate with the Old English term 'stod' (Modern English: 'stud', relating to the breeding of horses). The Old High German term 'garten' referred to the compound on the site of the original settlement. (compare English "yard") The logo of the Porsche automobile company features a modified version of Stuttgart's coat of arms at its centre.
Stuttgart lies about an hour from the Black Forest and a similar distance from the Swabian Jura. The city center lies in a lush valley, nestling between vineyards and thick woodland close by, but not on the River Neckar. Thus, the city is often described as lying "zwischen Wald und Reben", between forest and vines. In the hot summer months, local residents refer to this area as the Stuttgarter Kessel, or Stuttgart cauldron, for its hot and humid climate which is frequently warmer than the surrounding countryside of Württemberg.
Stuttgart covers an area of 207 km2 (80 sq mi). The elevation ranges from 207 m (679 ft) above sea level by the Neckar river to 549 m (1,801 ft) on Bernhartshöhe hill. As a result there are more than 400 flights of stairs around the city (called "Stäffele" in local dialect), equivalent to approximately 20 km (12 mi) of steps. Many originate from the time when vineyards lined the entire valley. Even today there are vineyards less than 500 m (1,640 ft) from the Main Station.
The city of Stuttgart is subdivided into a total of 23 city districts, 5 inner districts and 18 outer districts.
The inner districts are: Central Stuttgart (German: Stuttgart-Mitte), Stuttgart North (Stuttgart-Nord), Stuttgart East (Stuttgart-Ost), Stuttgart South (Stuttgart-Süd), and Stuttgart West (Stuttgart-West).
The outer districts are:
- Bad Cannstatt: home to Europe's second largest mineral spas, (second only to the ones in Buda, Hungary), the Cannstatter Wasen (site of the Stuttgart Spring Festival and the Cannstatter Volksfest (the world's second largest beer festival, every September/October)), Wilhelma zoo and botanical garden, the Schleyer-Halle, the Porsche Arena, the Mercedes-Benz Museum, the VfB Stuttgart Bundesliga football team and their home ground, the Mercedes-Benz Arena, and adjacent to it the Robert Schlienz Stadium. The greenhouse of Gottlieb Daimler, where he developed his cars, motorcycles and motorboats can also be found in Cannstatt, as well as the oldest remaining residential building in Stuttgart, the Klösterle ("little monastery", a Beguin residence erected in 1463). The largest city district of Stuttgart, Cannstatt was suggested as the future capital of Württemberg by Gottfried Leibniz in 1696. Cannstatt is also famous for the Pleistocene mammals preserved in the local travertine deposited by the mineral springs, some of which are on exhibit at the State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart. The leading German chocolate brand Ritter Sport was first produced in Cannstatt. In 1930 the company was relocated to Waldenbuch. Robinson Barracks- a US Military housing area in the Burgholzhof district of Bad Cannstatt.
- Degerloch: the world's first television tower, Stuttgarter Kickers football team and their home ground, the Waldaustadion (where reserve team VfB II currently play as the Cannstatt Robert Schlienz Stadium is not approved for third division matches), International School of Stuttgart- the only accredited International Baccalaureate school in Stuttgart.
- Möhringen: musical theatres, Kelley Barracks, headquarters of US AFRICOM.
- Plieningen: campus of University of Hohenheim, Schloß Hohenheim (castle).
- Stammheim: location of high-security Stammheim Prison and court (see Red Army Faction terrorists).
- Untertürkheim: Daimler AG headquarters and original Mercedes-Benz plant, the Württemberg mountain, eponymous to the historic territory of Württemberg, site of the Württemberg Mausoleum.
- Vaihingen: not to be confused with nearby Vaihingen (Enz), home to one of two University of Stuttgart campuses and Patch Barracks, headquarters of US EUCOM.
- Zuffenhausen: Porsche headquarters and museum. Kennel name adopted by UK Dobermann enthusiasts
- Feuerbach: home of the original Bosch plant and Behr.
- as well as Birkach, Botnang, Hedelfingen, Mühlhausen, Münster, Obertürkheim, Sillenbuch, Wangen, and Weilimdorf.
Stuttgart agglomeration and metropolitan regionEdit
Stuttgart's agglomeration (the political entity 'Stuttgart Region') consists of the nearby towns of Ludwigsburg with its enormous baroque palace, Böblingen, the old Free Imperial City of Esslingen, Waiblingen, Göppingen and their respective homonymous rural districts (Landkreise, the exception being the Waiblingen district, called Rems-Murr-Kreis).
The Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a wider regional concept, that, in addition to the districts of the Stuttgart Region, encompasses most of North, Central, and East Württemberg, consisting of the cities of Heilbronn/Schwäbisch Hall, Reutlingen/Tübingen as well as Aalen/Schwäbisch Gmünd and their respective districts and regions, i.e. Heilbronn-Franken, Neckar-Alb and Ostwürttemberg.
Stuttgart experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb). In the summer months, the nearby Black Forest and Swabian Alb hills act as a shield from harsh weather but the city can also be subject to thunderstorms in the summer months, and periods of snow lasting several days in the winter. The center of the city, referred to by locals as the "Kessel" (kettle) experiences more severe heat in the summer and less snow in the winter than the suburbs. Lying as it does at the center of the European continent, the temperature range between day and night or summer and winter can be extreme. On average Stuttgart enjoys 1693 hours of sunshine per year.
Winters last from December to March. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last several weeks at a time as recently as 2010. The summers are warm with an average temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) in the hottest months of July and August. The summers last from May until September.
|Climate data for Stuttgart|
|Average high °C (°F)||3|
|Average low °C (°F)||−3|
|Precipitation cm (inches)||4.8|
|Source: Weatherbase |
Up to the 19th centuryEdit
The first known settlement of Stuttgart was around the end of the 1st century AD with the establishment of a Roman fort in the modern district of Cannstatt on the banks of the river Neckar. Early in the 3rd century the Romans were pushed by the Alamanni back past the Rhine and the Danube. Although nothing is known about Cannstatt during the period of Barbarian Invasion it is believed that the area remained inhabited as it is mentioned in Abbey of St. Gall archives dating back to 700 AD.
Stuttgart itself was probably founded around 950 AD shortly before the Battle of Lechfeld by Duke Liudolf of Swabia, one of the sons of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great. The town was used for breeding cavalry horses in fertile meadows at the very centre of today's city, although recent archaeological excavations indicate that this area was already home to Merovingian farmers.
A gift registry from Hirsau Abbey dated around 1160 mentioned 'Hugo de Stuokarten', confirmation of the existence of the Stuttgart of today.
Around 1300, Stuttgart became the residence of the Counts of Württemberg, who expanded the growing settlement into the capital of their territory (Territorialstaat). Stuttgart was elevated to the status of city in 1321 when it became the official royal residence. The territory around Stuttgart was known as the County of Württemberg before the counts were elevated to dukes by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1495, when Stuttgart became the Duchy capital and Ducal residence.
The name Württemberg originates from a steep hill in Stuttgart, formerly known as Wirtemberg.
In the 18th century, Stuttgart temporarily surrendered its residence status after Eberhard Ludwig founded Ludwigsburg to the north of the city. In 1775, Karl Eugen requested a return to Stuttgart, ordering the construction of the New Castle.
19th and early 20th centuriesEdit
In 1803, Stuttgart was proclaimed capital of the Electorate of Württemberg until Napoleon Bonaparte's break-up of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805 when Stuttgart became capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg. The royal residence was expanded under Frederick I of Württemberg although many of Stuttgart's most important buildings, including the Wilhelm Palace, Katharina Hospital, the State Gallery, the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were built under the reign of King Wilhelm I. The jubilee column (erected between 1841 and 1846) on the Schlossplatz is located on the orthodromic distance line from the church of St. Michael in Roeselare over the Kokino observatory to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Stuttgart's development as a city was impeded in the 19th century by its location. It was not until the opening of the Main Station in 1846 that the city underwent an economic revival. The population at the time was around 50,000.
During the revolution of 1848/1849, a democratic pan-German national parliament (Frankfurt Parliament) was formed in Frankfurt to overcome the division of Germany. After long discussions, the parliament decided to offer the title of the German emperor to King Frederick William IV of Prussia. As the democratic movement became weaker, the German princes regained control of their independent states. Finally, the Prussian king declined the revolutionaries' offer. The members of parliament were driven out of Frankfurt and the most radical members (who wanted to establish a republic) fled to Stuttgart. A short while later, this rump parliament was dissolved by the Württemberg military.
At the end of the First World War the Württemberg monarchy broke down: William II of Württemberg refused the crown – but also refused to abdicate – under pressure from revolutionaries who stormed the Wilhelm Palace. The Free State of Württemberg was established, as a part of the Weimar Republic. Stuttgart was proclaimed the capital.
In 1920 Stuttgart became the seat of the German National Government (after the administration fled from Berlin, see Kapp Putsch).
World War IIEdit
Under the Nazi regime, Stuttgart began the deportation of its Jewish inhabitants in 1939. Around sixty percent of the German Jewish population had fled by the time restrictions on their movement were imposed on 1 October 1941, at which point Jews living in Württemberg were forced to live in 'Jewish apartments' before being 'concentrated' on the former Trade Fair grounds in Killesberg. On 1 December 1941 the first deportation trains were organised to Riga. Only 180 Jews from Württemberg held in concentration camps survived.
During World War II, the centre of Stuttgart was almost completely destroyed in Allied air raids. Some of the most severe bombing took place in 1944 carried out by Anglo-American bombers. The heaviest raid took place on 12 September 1944 when the Royal Air Force bombed the old town of Stuttgart dropping over 184,000 bombs including 75 blockbusters. More than 1000 people perished in the resulting firestorm. In total Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in the destruction of 68% of all buildings and the deaths of 4477 people.
The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Stuttgart in April 1945. The French 5th Armored Division, French 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division and French 3rd Algerian Infantry Division, began their drive on Stuttgart on 18 April 1945. Two days later, the French forces coordinated with the US Seventh Army for the employment of US VI Corps heavy artillery to barrage the city. The French 5th Armored Division then captured Stuttgart on 21 April 1945, encountering little resistance. The French army occupied Stuttgart until the city was transferred to the American military occupation zone in 1946.
An early concept of the Marshall Plan aimed at supporting reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was presented during a speech given by US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes at the Stuttgart Opera House. His speech led directly to the unification of the British and American occupation zones, resulting in the 'bi-zone' (later the 'tri-zone' including the French). When the Federal Republic of Germany was founded on 23 May 1949, Stuttgart, like Frankfurt, was a serious contender to become the federal capital, but finally Bonn succeeded.
In the late 1970s, the district of Stammheim was centre stage to one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history during the trial of Red Army Faction members at Stammheim high-security court. After the trial, Ulrike Meinhof, Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe committed suicide in Stammheim. Several attempts were made to free the terrorists by force or blackmail during the 'German Autumn' of 1977, culminating in the abduction and murder of the German industrialist and President of the German Employers' Association Hanns Martin Schleyer as well as the hijacking of Lufthansa flight LH181.
In 1978 Stuttgart's suburban railway came into operation.
US Military in StuttgartEdit
Since shortly after the end of World War II there has been a US military presence in Stuttgart that remains to this day. At the height of the Cold War over 45,000 Americans were stationed across over 40 installations in and around the city. Today about 10,000 Americans are stationed on 4 installations representing all branches of service, unlike the mostly Army presence of the Occupation and Cold War. Further downsizing by the U.S. military may lead to the closure of the U.S. Army's Stuttgart garrison.
In March 1946 the US Army established a unit of the US Constabulary and a Headquarters at Kurmärker Kaserne (later renamed Patch Barracks) in Stuttgart. These units of soldiers retrained in patrol and policing provided the law and order in the American zone of occupied Germany until the civilian German police forces could be re-established. In 1948 the Headquarters for all Constabulary forces was moved to Stuttgart. In 2008 a memorial to the US Constabulary was installed and dedicated at Patch Barracks. The US Constabulary headquarters was disbanded in 1950 and most of the force was merged into the newly organized 7th Army. As the Cold War developed US Army VII Corps was re-formed in July 1950 and assigned to Hellenen Kaserne (renamed Kelley Barracks in 1951) where the headquarters was to remain throughout the Cold War.
In 1990 VII Corps was deployed directly from Germany to Saudi Arabia for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm to include many of the VII Corps troops stationed in and around Stuttgart. After returning from the Middle East, the bulk of VII Corps units were re-assigned to the United States or deactivated. The VII Corps Headquarters returned to Germany for a short period to close out operations and was deactivated later in the United States. The withdrawal of VII Corps caused a large reduction in the US military presence in the city and region and led to the closure of the majority of US installations in and around Stuttgart which resulted in the layoff of many local civilians who had been career employees of the US Army.
Since 1967, Patch Barracks in Stuttgart has been home to the US EUCOM. In 2007 AFRICOM was established as a cell within EUCOM and in 2008 established as the US Unified Combatant Command responsible for most of Africa headquartered at Kelley Barracks. Due to these 2 major headquarters, Stuttgart has been identified as one of the few "enduring communities" where the United States forces will continue to operate in Germany. The remaining U.S. bases around Stuttgart are organized into US Army Garrison Stuttgart and include Patch Barracks, Robinson Barracks, Panzer Kaserne and Kelley Barracks. From the end of World War II until the early 1990s these installations excepting Patch were almost exclusively Army, but have become increasingly "Purple"—as in joint service—since the end of the Cold War as they are host to United States Department of Defense Unified Commands and supporting activities.
Landmarks, sights and cultureEdit
The inner cityEdit
At the centre of Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz. As well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park which runs down to the river Neckar, Stuttgart's two central castles and major museums and residential areas to the south west. Königstraße, Stuttgart's most important shopping street which runs along the northwestern edge of Schlossplatz, claims to be the longest pedestrianised street in Germany.
Although the city centre was heavily damaged during World War II, many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city include:
- The Stiftskirche (the Collegiate Church), dates back to the 12th century, but was changed to the Late Gothic style in the 15th century and has been a Protestant church since 1534. Exterior: Romanesque/Gothic; interior: Romanesque/Gothic/Modern. Reconstructed with simplified interior after WWII.
- Altes Schloss (the Old Castle), mostly dating from the late 15th century, some parts date back to 1320. Renaissance style; reconstructed
- Alte Kanzlei (the Old Chancellery) on Schillerplatz square which backs onto the 1598 Mercury Pillar
- Neues Schloss (the New Castle), completed in 1807. Baroque/Classicism); reconstructed with modern interior, currently houses government offices. The cellars with a collection of stone fragments from the Roman times are open to visitors
- Wilhelmpalais (the King Wilhelm Palais), 1840
- Königsbau (the King's Building), 1850. Classicism; reconstructed; has been housing the "Königsbau Passagen" shopping centre since 2006.
- The Großes Haus of Stuttgart National Theatre, 1909–1912
- Markthalle Market Hall, 1910. (Art Nouveau)
- The Hauptbahnhof (Main Railway Station) was designed in 1920; its stark, functional lines are typical of the artistic trend 'Neue Sachlichkeit' (New Objectivity)
- The Württembergische Landesbibliothek state library, rebuilt in 1970.
- Friedrichsbau Varieté (Friedrich Building), rebuilt in 1994 on the site of the former art nouveau building
Architecture in other districtsEdit
A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. These include:
- Castle Solitude, 1700–1800. Baroque/Rococo)
- Ludwigsburg Palace, 1704–1758. Baroque, with its enormous baroque garden.
- Castle Hohenheim, 1771–1793
Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart include (see also museums below):
- Castle Rosenstein (1822–1830). Classical
- Württemberg Mausoleum (1824) which holds the remains of Catherine Pavlovna of Russia and King William I of Württemberg
- Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Gardens (1853)
- Weissenhof Estate (1927), (International Style)
- The TV Tower (1950), the world's first concrete TV tower
- Stuttgart Airport Terminal Building, 2000. In neighbouring Leinfelden-Echterdingen
- The Observation Tower of Burgholzhof an 1891 brick observation tower constructed by the Cannstatt municipal architect Friedrich Keppler on behalf of the Verschönerungsverein Cannstatt e. V. ("Society for the Beautification of Cannstatt"), in the style of a Roman tower.
Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interestEdit
At the center of Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular with families and cyclists. Because of its shape on a map, the locals refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in 1350. The modern park stretches down to the river Neckar and is divided into the upper garden (bordering the Old Castle, the Main Station, the State Theater and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower gardens – a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium.
At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the larger Rosensteinpark which borders Stuttgart's Wilhelma zoo and botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg, it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garden in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.
Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park, Killesbergpark or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich garden show of 1939 (and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps). The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the 1950s, including the Bundesgartenschau and 1993 International Gardening Show, and runs miniature trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower (Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart.
On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark is the famous 'Wilhelma', Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg. It currently houses around 8000 animals and some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in Europe.
Other parks in Stuttgart include the historic Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim and Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg at Castle Hohenheim (which date back to 1776 and are still used to catalogue and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the city centre, Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five hectare park in the Bopser area of Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a 'tea house' and the 'marble room' and offers a relaxing view across the city centre), the Birkenkopf a Schuttberg (at 511 metres (1,677 ft) the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many ruins were laid to commemorate the Second World War), and the Eichenhain park in Sillenbuch (declared a nature reserve in 1958 and home to 200 oak trees, many 300–400 years old).
There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See which was created in 1935 by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve. It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar near Mühlhausen. There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most frequented lakes form a 3 km (1.9 mi) trio made up of the Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.
In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two 'Feuersee's (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the Johanneskirche (St.Johns) church across the lake, surrounded by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen.
Cemeteries in Stuttgart include:
- The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Central Stuttgart, the oldest remaining cemetery which dates back to 1626, an infirmary graveyard last used in 1951
- The Waldfriedhof, the 1913 forest cemetery that is connected to Südheimer Platz by funicular railway
- The Pragfriedhof, with its Art Nouveau crematorium. Established in 1873 it was extended to include Jewish graves in 1874 and also now houses the Russian Orthodox Church of Alexander Nevsky
- The Uff-Kirchhof cemetery in Bad Cannstatt which stands at the crossroads of two ancient Roman roads and Cannstatter Hauptfriedhof, the largest graveyard in Stuttgart which has been used as a Muslim burial ground since 1985.
Culture and eventsEdit
Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre (Staatstheater) and State Gallery (Staatsgalerie). The Staatstheater is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. The Staatstheater was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland 'Theatre of the year' in 2006; the Stuttgart Opera has won the 'Opera of the year' award six times. Stuttgart Ballet is connected to names like John Cranko and Marcia Haydée.
Stuttgart is also home to one of Germany's most prestigious symphony orchestras, the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, with famous English conductor Sir Roger Norrington, who developed a distinct sound of that orchestra, known as the Stuttgart Sound. They mostly perform in the Liederhalle concert hall.
The city offers two broadway-style musical theatres, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats). Ludwigsburg Palace in the nearby town of Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a venue for concerts and cultural events.
The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.
Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the area since the 17th century and are now famous throughout Germany and beyond. For example, Gaisburger Marsch is a stew that was invented in Stuttgart's Gaisburg area of Stuttgart East.
In October 2009 the Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that the European Union was to officially recognise the pasta dish Maultaschen as a "regional speciality", thus marking its significance to the cultural heritage of Baden-Württemberg.
In 1993 Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Show in the suburb of Killesberg. In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the Football World Cup. In 2007, Stuttgart hosted the 2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships. In 2008 it was host to the World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships.
Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:
- The world-famous annual 'Volksfest', originally a traditional agricultural fair which now also hosts beer tents and a French village and is second in size only to the Oktoberfest in Munich. There is also a Spring festival on the same grounds in April of each year.
- With more than 3.6 million visitors in 2007 and more than 200 stands, Stuttgart's Christmas Market is the largest and one of the oldest and most beautiful traditional Christmas markets in Europe. It is especially renowned for its abundant decorations and takes place in the four weeks leading up to Christmas.
- The Fish Market (Hamburger Fischmarkt, late July) with fresh fish, other food and beer from Hamburg.
- The Summer Festival (Stuttgart Sommerfest, usually in early August) with shows, music, children's entertainment and local cuisine in Schlossplatz, Stuttgart and adjacent parks
- The Lantern Festival (Lichterfest, early July) in Killesberg park with its famous firework display and fairground attractions
- The Wine Village (Weindorf, late August/early September) – vintages are sold at this event held at Schlossplatz and Upper Palace Garden
Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in Baden-Württemberg. The foremost of these is the Old State Gallery (opened in 1843, extended in 1984) which holds art dating from the 14th to 19th century including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet, Renoir, Cézanne and Beuys. Next door to the Old State Gallery is the New State Gallery (1980) with its controversial modern architecture. Among others, this gallery houses works from Max Beckmann, Dalí, Matisse, Miró, Picasso, Klee, Chagall and Kandinsky.
The Old Castle is also home to the State Museum of Württemberg which was founded in 1862 by William I of Württemberg. The museum traces the rich history of Württemberg with many artefacts from the its dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remants dating back to the stone age. On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum dedicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, former resident of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944.
Other leading museums in Stuttgart include:
- The History Museum (Haus der Geschichte, 1987), examining local history, finds, the conflict between modern society and its cultural history
- State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart (SMNS) in Park Rosenstein housed in Castle Rosenstein (with an emphasis on biology and natural history) and Löwentor Museum (paleontology and geology, home of the Steinheim Skull and many unique fossils from the triassic, jurassic and tertiary periods
- The Mercedes-Benz Museum (1936, moved in 2006), now the most visited museum in Stuttgart (440,000 visits per year. The museum traces the 125 year history of the automobile from the legendary silver arrow to the Mercedes-Benz brand of today
- Stuttgart Art Museum (Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, 2005), the number two museum in Stuttgart in terms of visitors with a strong leaning towards modern art (the foremost exhibition of Otto Dix works. The museum stands on the corner of Schlossplatz, Stuttgart in a huge glass cube, in strong contrast to the surrounding traditional architecture.
- The Porsche Museum (1976, reopened in 2008 on new premises).
- Hegel House (Hegelhaus), birthplace of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which documents his life works
- The Linden Museum, established in 1911, a leading international ethnological museum
- Stuttgart Tram Museum in Bad Cannstatt, a display of historical vehicles dating back to 1868
- Theodor Heuss House (Theodor-Heuss-Haus, 2002) in Killesbergpark, a tribute to the life and times of the former German president
- The North Station Memorial (Gedenkstätte am Nordbahnhof Stuttgart) in memory of the 2000 or so Jewish holocaust victims deported by the Nazis from the now disused North Station
Stuttgart is the seat of a Protestant bishop (Protestant State Church in Württemberg) and one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The Stuttgart-based Pentecostal Gospel Forum is the largest place of worship (megachurch) in Germany.
The population of Stuttgart declined steadily between 1960 (637,539) and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany. For the first time in decades, in 2006 there were also more births in the city than deaths. In April 2008 there were 590,720 inhabitants in the city.
More than half of the population today is not of Swabian background, as many non-Swabian Germans have moved here due to the employment situation, which is far better than in most areas of Germany. Since the 1960s, many foreigners have also immigrated to Stuttgart to work here (as part of the "Gastarbeiter" program); another wave of immigrants came as refugees from the Wars in Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Thus, 40% of the city's population is of foreign background. In 2000, 22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship, in 2006 this had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (22,025), Greeks (14,341), Italians (13,978), Croats (12,985), Serbs (11,547) followed by immigrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Portugal, Poland, Austria, and France. 39% of foreign nationals come from the European Union (mostly Italy, Greece, and Poland).
The religious landscape in Stuttgart changed in 1534 as a direct result of the Reformation. Since this time Württemberg has been predominantly Protestant. However since 1975 the number of Protestants in Stuttgart has dropped from around 300,000 to 200,000. In 2000, 33.7% of inhabitants were Protestant and 27.4% were Roman Catholic. 39% of the population fall into 'other' categories: Muslims, Jews and those who either follow no religion or follow a religion not accounted for in official statistics.
Unemployment in the Stuttgart Region is above average within Baden-Württemberg, but very low compared to other metropolitan areas in Germany. In November 2008, before the annual winter rise, unemployment in the Stuttgart Region stood at 3.8%, 0.1% lower than the rate for Baden-Württemberg, in February 2009 it was 4.7%. Unemployment in the actual city of Stuttgart during the same periods stood at 5.2% and 6.0% (8 Nov and 9 Feb respectively). By comparison: unemployment for the whole of Germany stood at 7.1% (8 Nov) and 8.5% (9 Feb).
Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In 2003, 8535 crimes were committed in Stuttgart for every 100,000 inhabitants (versus the average for all German cities of 12,751). Figures for 2006 indicate that Stuttgart ranked second behind Munich. 60% of Stuttgart crimes were solved in 2003, ranking second behind Nuremberg.
City government past and presentEdit
When Stuttgart was run as a (or within the Duchy of Württemberg), it was governed by a type of protectorate called a Vogt appointed by the Duke. After 1811 this role was fulfilled by a City Director or 'Stadtdirektor'. After 1819 the community elected its own community mayor or 'Schultheiß'. Since 1930 the title of Oberbürgermeister (the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord Mayor in English) has applied to Stuttgart and all other Württemberg towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants.
At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the independent politician Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster, a role he fulfilled without interruption until his death in 1974. Since this time Stuttgart has been governed by the CDU. The previous mayor was Manfred Rommel (son of perhaps the most famous German field marshal of World War II, Erwin Rommel).
In June 2009, for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a German city with more than 500,000 inhabitants, effectively changing the balance of power in the city council. For the first time since 1972 the CDU no longer held the most seats, toppling its absolute majority shared with the Independent Party and the FDP. According to the German newspaper Die Welt, the main reason for the Greens' victory was disgruntlement with the controversial Stuttgart 21 rail project.
Recent election resultsEdit
| European |
| State |
| National German parliament|
| Regional |
| European |
| City Council|
| National German parliament|
| European |
|CDU||42.5 %||42.9 %||37.1 %||35.1 %||35.6 %||37.4 %||24.2 % (15)||32.7 %||29,1%|
|SPD||24.5 %||27.6 %||36.3 %||35.7 %||24.4 %||21.2 %||17.0 % (10)||32.0 %||18,0%|
|FDP||5.5 %||6.2 %||9.2 %||8.5 %||5.3 %||7.7 %||10.9 % (7)||12.8 %||14,5%|
|Green Party||14.1 %||14.3 %||11.5 %||16.2 %||17.2 %||22.1 %||25.3 % (16)||15.0 %||25,0%|
|Independent||5.6 %||–||–||–||8.5 %||–||10.3 % (6)||–||1,2%|
|Republicans||3.6 %||3.6 %||4.7 %||1.0 %||4.0 %||3.3 %||2.5 % (1)||0.8 %||2,0%|
|The Left||–||–||–||1.4 %||1.7 %||1.9 %||4.5 % (2)||4.4 %||4,5%|
|SÖS||–||–||–||–||–||–||4.6 % (3)||–||–|
|Others||1.5 %||5.4 %||1.2%||2.1 %||3.4 %||6.5 %||0.7 % (0)||2.3 %||6,7 %|
|Election turnout||59.1 %||46.6 %||65.5 %||81.0 %||54.0 %||51.9 %||48.7 %||79.1 %||52,3%|
Source=Stuttgart election results
Mayors since 1800Edit
Until 1811 a Stadtoberamtmann reigned the town. Between 1811 and 1819 he held the title of "Stadtdirektor" and between 1819 and 1929 "Stadtschultheiß". Since 1930 the title of the mayor is called "Oberbürgermeister".
- 1799–1804: Christian Heinrich Günzler (* 1758; † 1842)
- 1805–1811: Gottfried Eberhard Hoffmann
- 1811–1813: Karl Eberhard von Wächter (* 1758; † 1829)
- 1813–1819: Karl Friedrich von Dizinger (* 1774; † 1842)
- 1820–1833: Willibald Feuerlein (* 1781; † 1850)
- 1833–1861: Georg Gottlob von Gutbrod (* 1791; † 1861)
- 1862–1872: Heinrich von Sick (* 1822; † 1881)
- 1872–1892: Theophil Friedrich von Hack (* 1843; † 1911)
- 1893–1899: Emil von Rümelin (* 1846; † 1899), independent
- 1899–1911: Heinrich von Gauß (* 1858; † 1921)
- 1911–1933: Karl Lautenschlager (* 1868; † 1952)
- 1933–1945: Karl Strölin (* 1890; † 1963), NSDAP
- 1945–1974: Arnulf Klett (* 1905; † 1974), independent
- 1974–1996: Manfred Rommel (* 1928), CDU
- 1997-2013: Wolfgang Schuster (* 1949), CDU
- Starting 2013: Fritz Kuhn (* 1955), Green Party
The Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Some of its most prominent companies include Daimler AG, Porsche, Bosch, Celesio, Hewlett-Packard and IBM – all of whom have their world or European headquarters here.
Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition centre, Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart (often termed Mittelstand), many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry. Contact Air, a regional airline and Lufthansa subsidiary, is headquartered in Stuttgart.
Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city in Germany. Its nominal GDP per capita is €57,100 and GDP purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is €55,400. Total GDP of Stuttgart is €33.9 billion, of which service sector contributes around 65.3%, industry 34.5%, and agriculture 0.2%.
The cradle of the automobileEdit
The automobile and motorcycle were invented in Stuttgart (by Karl Benz and subsequently industrialised in 1887 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft). As a result it is considered by many to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as "The cradle of the automobile". Mercedes-Benz, Porsche and Maybach are all produced in Stuttgart and nearby towns. Thus, local residents lovingly nicknamed their home city "Benztown". The very first prototypes of the VW Beetle were manufactured in Stuttgart based on a design by Ferdinand Porsche. Also automotive parts giants Bosch and Mahle are based in the city. A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are published in Stuttgart.
Science and research and developmentEdit
The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific, academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart. Almost 45% of Baden-Württemberg scientists involved in R&D are based directly in the Swabian capital. More than 11% of all German R&D costs are invested in the Stuttgart Region (approximately 4.3 billion euros per year). In addition to several universities and colleges (e.g. University of Stuttgart, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology and several Stuttgart Universities of Applied Sciences), the area is home to six Fraunhofer institutes, four institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities, two Max-Planck institutes and a major establishment of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR).
The Stuttgart Stock Exchange is the second largest in Germany (after Frankfurt). Many leading companies in the financial services sector are headquartered in Stuttgart with around 100 credit institutes in total (e.g. LBBW Bank, Wüstenrot & Württembergische, Allianz Life Assurance).
A history of wine and beerEdit
Stuttgart is the only city in Germany where wine is grown within the urban area, mainly in the districts of Rotenberg, Uhlbach and Untertürkheim.
Wine-growing in the area dates back to 1108 when, according to State archives, Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in Stuttgart as a gift from 'Monk Ulrich'. In the 17th century the city was the third largest German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire. Wine remained Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century.
Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with more than 400 hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at the centre of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg wine growing area which covers 11,522 hectares (28,500 acres) and is one of only 13 official areas captured under German Wine law. The continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every year at the annual wine festival ('Weindorf').
Education and researchEdit
Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölderlin.
The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and innovation. Stuttgart has Germany's second-highest number of institutions (six) of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society (after Dresden).
The city is not considered a traditional university city, but nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education. The most significant of them are:
- University of Stuttgart, it is the fourth biggest university in Baden-Württemberg after Heidelberg, Tübingen and Freiburg. Founded in 1829, it was a Technische Hochschule ("Technical University") until 1967, when it was renamed to "university". Its campus for social sciences and architecture is located in the city centre, near the main train station, while the natural science campus is in the southwestern city district of Vaihingen. Historically, its been especially renowned for its faculty of architecture (Stuttgarter Schule). Today, its main focus is on engineering and other technical subjects.
- University of Hohenheim, founded in 1818 as an academy for agricultural science and forestry. While these subjects are still taught there today, its other focus today is on business administration. It is located in Hohenheim quarter of the southern city district of Plieningen.
- State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart, founded in 1857, located in the city centre, next to the Neue Staatsgalerie.
- State Academy of Visual Arts Stuttgart, one of the biggest art colleges in Germany, founded in 1761, located in the Killesberg quarter of the northern city district Stuttgart-Nord.
- Stuttgart Media University (Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart), founded in 2001 as a university of applied sciences, a merger of the former College of Printing and Publishing and the College of Librarianship, located in Vaihingen.
- Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart), founded in 1832 as a college for craftsmanship, university of applied sciences since 1971, located in the city centre, near the University of Stuttgart's city-centre campus.
- University of Cooperative Education Baden-Württemberg, founded in 1974, with a focus on practical experience, subjects are business, technology and social work.
Historically, an elite military academy existed in Stuttgart in the late 18th century (1770–1794), the Hohe Karlsschule, at Solitude Castle. Friedrich Schiller and the city's most famous Classicist architect, Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, were among its many esteemed alumni.
Primary and secondary educationEdit
The first Waldorf School (also known as Rudolf Steiner School) was founded here in 1919 by the director of the Waldorf Astoria tobacco factory, Emil Molt, and Austrian social thinker Rudolf Steiner, a comprehensive school following Steiner's educational principles of anthroposophy and humanistic ideals. Today, three of these schools are located in Stuttgart.
Since 1985 Stuttgart is home to the International School of Stuttgart, one of less than 100 schools worldwide that offer all three International Baccalaureate programs- the IB Primary Years (Early Learning to Grade 5), IB Middle Years (Grade 6 to 10), IB Diploma (grades 11-12). The International School of Stuttgart is accredited by both the Council of International Schools and the New England Association of Schools and Colleges.
Media and publishingEdit
One of the headquarters of the public Südwestrundfunk (SWR; Southwest Broadcasting) channels (several radio and one TV channel; regional focus on the southwestern German States of Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate) is located in Stuttgart (the other ones being Baden-Baden and Mainz). It also has a Landesmedienzentrum, a State media centre.
Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing and specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Ernst Klett Verlag (schoolbooks), Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and Motor Presse having their head offices there. The Reclam Verlag is located in nearby Ditzingen.
The newspapers Stuttgarter Zeitung (StZ; regional, with significant supra-regional, national and international sections) and Stuttgarter Nachrichten (StN; regional) are published here as well as a number of smaller, local papers such as Cannstatter Zeitung.
Following the suit of other German cities such as Berlin, Cologne and Hanover, on 1 March 2008 a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) came into effect in Stuttgart with the aim of improving air quality. This affects all vehicles entering the Stuttgart 'Environmental zone' (Umweltzone), including vehicles from abroad.
Stuttgart has a light rail system known as the Stuttgart Stadtbahn. In the city centre and densely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs underground. Stations are signposted with a 'U' symbol, which stands for Unabhängig (independent). Until 2007, Stuttgart also operated regular trams. Stuttgart also has a large bus network. Stadtbahn lines and buses are operated by the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG (SSB). The outlying suburbs of Stuttgart and nearby towns are served by a suburban railway system called the Stuttgart S-Bahn, using tracks supplied by the national Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG).
A peculiarity of Stuttgart is the Zahnradbahn, a rack railway that is powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the southern inner-city district of the city and the district of Degerloch. It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart also has a Standseilbahn, a funicular railway that operates in the Heslach area and the forest cemetery (Waldfriedhof). In Killesberg Park, on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the miniature railway run by diesel (and on weekends with steam).
Stuttgart is a hub in the InterCityExpress and InterCity networks of Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG), with through services to most other major German cities. It also operates international services to Strasbourg, Vienna, Zurich and Paris (four times a day, journey time 3 hours 40 minutes).
Long distance trains stop at Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city's main line terminus which is also used by regional DBAG RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn for services to stations in the Stuttgart metropolitan area. The local rail networks (see above) operate underneath the terminus.
Rail: The Stuttgart 21 projectEdit
After years of political debate and controversy, plans were approved in October 2007 to convert the existing above-ground main train station to an underground through station. The Stuttgart 21 project will include the rebuilding of surface and underground lines connecting the station in Stuttgart's enclosed central valley with existing railway and underground lines. Building work started in 2010 with controversial modifications to the Hauptbahnhof and should be completed in 2020.
Stuttgart is served by Stuttgart Airport (German: Flughafen Stuttgart, IATA airport code STR), an international airport approximately 13 km (8 mi) south of the city centre on land belonging mainly to neighbouring towns. It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport from the city centre using S-Bahn lines S2 or S3. Stuttgart airport is Germany's only international airport with one runway. Despite protests and local initiatives, surveys are currently underway to assess the impact of a second runway.
Stuttgart is served by Autobahn A8, that runs east-west from Karlsruhe to Munich, and Autobahn A81 that runs north-south from Würzburg to Singen. The Autobahn A831 is a short spur entering the southern side of Stuttgart.
Besides these Autobahns, Stuttgart is served by a large number of expressways, many of which are built to Autobahn standards, and were once intended to carry an A-number. Important expressways like B10, B14, B27 and B29 connect Stuttgart with its suburbs. Due to the hilly surroundings, there are many road tunnels in and around Stuttgart. There are also a number of road tunnels under intersections in the centre of Stuttgart.
As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in Stuttgart which is home to 'The Reds' and 'The Blues'. 'The Reds', VfB Stuttgart, are the most famous and popular local club. An established team in the German Bundesliga, VfB was founded in 1893 and has won five German titles since 1950, most recently in 1992 and 2007. VfB is based at the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt.
'The Blues', Stuttgarter Kickers, are the second most important football team. They currently play in the 3. Fußball-Liga (third division) at the smaller Gazi Stadium close to the TV tower in Degerloch.
Stuttgart is home to VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart, a local handball team that played in the national league from 2001 to 2006 in the Schleyerhalle. Its three-times German champion women's volleyball team, CJD Feuerbach, has now stopped playing for financial reasons but there is now Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women's team in the 2nd southern league.
Stuttgart has two American Football teams, the Stuttgart Nighthawks American football team, who play in the Western Europe Pro League and Stuttgart Scorpions, who play in Stuttgarter Kickers' Gazi Stadium.
Australian Football is practiced by the Stuttgart Emus – one of only six active teams in Germany. It participates in the Australian Football League Germany when they play their home games in the Eberhard-Bauer-Stadion
TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women's tennis team that has won the German championship four times. Another women's team is TEC Waldau Stuttgart (German champions in 2006).
HTC Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in 2005 and a European title in 2006.
Stuttgart has a reputation for staging major events, including the FIFA World Cup 1974, the UEFA Euro 1988, and the World Championships in Athletics 1993. It was also one of the twelve host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2006. Six matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and 4th place playoff, were played at the Gottlieb Daimler Stadium (today Mercedes-Benz Arena). Stuttgart was also 2007 European Capital of Sport, hosting events such as the UCI World Cycling Championships Road Race and the IAAF World Athletics Final.
Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where the annual Mercedes Cup tennis tournament is played, the Porsche Arena (hosting tennis, basketball and handball) and the Schleyerhalle (boxing, equestrianism/show jumping, gymnastics, track cycling etc.), Scharrena Stuttgart.
Twin towns and sister citiesEdit
Stuttgart also has special friendships with the following cities:
- The city district of Bad Cannstatt, which has the second largest mineral water sources in Europe, has a partnership with Újbuda, the 11th district of Budapest, Hungary, which has the largest mineral water sources in Europe.
Famous people born in or associated with Stuttgart are
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- ^ Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg
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- ^ |Spas in Stuttgart
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- ^ a b c d e f Deutsch:
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- ^ Luftschutzbunker
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- ^ http://www.eur.army.mil/organization/history.htm#post
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- ^ McLachlan, p. 245
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- ^ [http://www.germany.co.uk/Food---Drink/Gourmet/article,Culinary-A-to-Z,1501.html Famous German foods, see also German cuisine
- ^ shortnews.de, German article accessed 05-01-10.
- ^ "(German) Stuttgarter Weihnachtsmarkt". in.Stuttgart Veranstaltungsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. http://www.stuttgarter-weihnachtsmarkt.de/.
- ^ McLachlan, p. 254
- ^ a b Peters, p. 430
- ^ Official museum visitor statistics Stuttgart Statistics department (German)
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- ^ Stuttgart Journal, German article accessed 28-11-08.
- ^ Stuttgart Zeitung 27 Feb 2008, regional unemployment figures
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- ^ "City of Hamburg website" (in (German)). Fhh.hamburg.de. 4 April 2011. http://fhh.hamburg.de/stadt/Aktuell/pressemeldungen/2007/april/13/2007-04-13-bfi-pm-staedtevergleich.html. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- ^ "(German) Stuttgart 21 pulls down CDU and SPD". Die Welt. 7 June 2009. http://www.welt.de/politik/article3881313/Stuttgart-21-zieht-CDU-und-SPD-nach-unten.html. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- ^ "Wahlergebnisse in Stuttgart" (in (German)). stuttgart.de. http://stuttgart.de/item/show/305805/1/publ/15154. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- ^ Dizinger, Carl Friedrich (von)
- ^ "Contact." Contact Air. Retrieved on 21 May 2009.
- ^ McLachlan, p. 243
- ^ Stuttgart – Where Business Meets the Future. CD issued by Stuttgart Town Hall, Department for Economic Development, 2005
- ^ "Stuttgart". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/570224/Stuttgart.
- ^ http://www.international-school-stuttgart.de/pages/sitepage.cfm?page=150129
- ^ http://files.sitepages.com/stuttgart/PDFs/general/quick_facts.pdf
- ^ http://www.international-school-stuttgart.de/pages/sitepage.cfm?page=150459
- ^ Stuttgart city council FAQs (German) Umweltzone und Feinstaub-Plakette: Fragen und Antworten
- ^ PDF showing the areas of Stuttgart in the Low Emission Zone
- ^ Stuttgart S-Bahn, see
- ^ Stuttgarter Nachrichten German newspaper report on planned 2nd runway
- ^ "Lipton Trophy". Rsssf.com. 20 November 2004. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesl/lipton-trophy.html. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- ^ "European Capital of Sport 2007". Aces-europa.eu. http://www.aces-europa.eu/. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- ^ "Sister cities". Official website of Stuttgart. http://www.stuttgart.de/item/show/14673/1.
- ^ "Twin Cities". The City of Łódź Office. http://en.www.uml.lodz.pl/index.php?str=2029. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
- ^ "Brno – Partnerská města" (in Czech). 2006–2009 City of Brno. http://www.brno.cz/index.php?nav02=1985&nav01=34&nav03=1010&nav04=1016&nav05=1249&nav06=1272. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- ^ "(German) Stuttgarter Stadtporträt/Städtepartnerschaften/Internationale Partnerschaften/Besonders freundschaftliche Beziehungen". Official website of Stuttgart. http://stuttgart.de/item/show/33695.
- Published in the 19th c.
- "Stuttgart", Southern Germany and Austria (2nd ed.), Coblenz: Karl Baedeker, 1871, OCLC 4090237, http://archive.org/stream/southerngermany10firgoog#page/n30/mode/2up
- W. Pembroke Fetridge (1881), "Stuttgart", Harper's Hand-book for Travellers in Europe and the East, New York: Harper & Brothers, http://archive.org/stream/americantravell05unkngoog#page/n168/mode/2up
- Published in the 20th c.
- "Stuttgart", Guide through Germany, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, &c (9th ed.), Berlin: J.H. Herz, 1908, OCLC 36795367, http://archive.org/stream/guidethroughger00gesgoog#page/n345/mode/2up
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Stuttgart.|
- Stuttgart travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official homepage of Stuttgart
- Official Stuttgart Tourist Board
- Stuttgart Zuffenhausen Porsche Town
- Stuttgart International Airport
- International School of Stuttgart
- Stuttgart Stammheim Homepage
- Stuttgart Public Transportation System
- Stuttgart American Expatriate Spouses Group
- Geographic data related to Stuttgart at OpenStreetMap
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|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Stuttgart. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|