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Simeon Ivanovich the Proud Rurik of Moscow was born 7 November 1316 in Moscow, Russia to Ivan I Danilovich Kalita of Moscow (1288-1340) and Elena and died 27 April 1353 Moscow of plague. He married Aigusta of Lithuania (c1320-1345) 1333 JL . He married Eupraxia of Smolensk . He married Maria Aleksandrovna of Tver (c1326-1399) 1347 JL . Alfred the Great (849-899)/s, Charlemagne (747-814)/s.

Simeon Ivanovich Gordyi (the Proud) (Семён Иванович Гордый in Russian) (7 November 1316 – 27 April 1353) was Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir. Simeon continued his father's policies of supporting the Golden Horde and acting as its leading enforcer in Russia. Simeon's rule was marked by regular military and political standoffs against Novgorod Republic and Lithuania. His relationships with neighboring Russian principalities remained peaceful if not passive: Simeon stayed aside from conflicts between subordinate princes.[1] He had recourse to war only when war was unavoidable.[2] A relatively quiet period for Moscow was ended by the Black Death that claimed the lives of Simeon and his sons in 1353.

Biography

In 1340 Simeon, the eldest son of Ivan Kalita, was stationed in Nizhny Novgorod. Upon receiving news of his father death, Simeon and his brothers Andrey and Ivan left for the Golden Horde to seek Uzbeg Khan's patent (yarlyk) for taking over the title of Grand Prince. Rivals Konstantin of Tver and Konstantin of Suzdal also paid their homage to the Khan, claiming seniority over Moscow princes.[3] Simeon won the patent through bribing the Khan's retinue;[4] princes of Tver and Suzdal had to agree to his seniority; Uzbeq also extended his benevolence to Simeon's issue.[3] He was also granted the ceremonial title epi trapezes offikios (Greek: ό επί τραπέζης όφφίκιος) by the Byzantine Empire,[5] which can be loosely translated as seneschal or stolnik.

In the same 1340 Simeon engaged in his first military standoff with Veliky Novgorod. Simeon claimed his right to collect taxes in the Novgorodian town of Torzhok. Torzhok boyars locked up Simeon's tax collectors and called for help from Novgorod. Simeon and metropolitan Theognostus hastily organized a coalition of princes against Novgorod, claiming that "They [Novgorodians] make war and peace with whomever they please, consulting no one. Novgorod regards not all Russia, and will not obey her Grand Prince", referring to Novgorod incursions into Ustyuzhna and Beloe Ozero.[6] As the coalition forces approached Novgorodian lands, the people of Torzhok revolted against the boyars and sided with Muscovite troops. Novgorod Republic accepted the fact and ceded all taxes from Torzhok area, estimated at 1,000 roubled in silver annually, to Simeon who agreed to honor the existing civic charter.[4]

In 1341, shortly after the dismissal of muscovite coalition army, Algirdas (then prince of Vitebsk, allied with prince of Smolensk) besieged Mozhaysk. News of the death of Gediminas forced Algirdas to quit the campaign before Simeon could arrange a military response.[7] Uzbeg Khan, Simeon's sovereign, died soon afterwards; his successor, Jani Beg, secured the control of the Horde through killing his brothers. Simeon and Theognostus had to travel to the Horde again. Jani Beg reassured Simeon in his rights and let him go, but kept Theognostus hostage to extort money from the church; eventually, Theognostus was released for 600 roubles.[8]

Simeon married Aigusta, sister of Algirdas. After her death in 1345, Simeon married Eupraxia of Smolensk, but soon sent her back to her family, claiming that Eupraxia was cursed since wedding and "appears to be dead each night". Eupraxia re-married Prince Fominsky, and Simeon married Maria of Tver; their four sons died in infancy.[1]

Throughout the 1340s Lithuanian and Swedish military campaigns and internal political disarray decreased the influence of the Novgorod Republic. Simeon, whose title of Grand Prince obliged him to protect Novgorod, was reluctant to do so, as if expecting the weakened republic to collapse for his own benefit. In 1347, when Novgorodians called for help against the Swedes, Simeon dispatched his brother Ivan and Constantine of Rostov; the envoys refused to fight for the Novgorodians.[9] Simeon himself was busy with offsetting the Lithuanians' influence in the Horde, meanwhile harboring two renegade Lithuanian princes as potential claimants to the Lithuanian crown.[10] He manipulated Jani Beg into believing that increasing Lithuanian influence became the most important threat to the Horde.[2] Jani Beg eventually concurred with Simeon's envoys (of Mongolian ethnicity)[2] and extradited Lithuanian envoys to Simeon's mercy. Simeon preferred to sign a truce with Algirdas, releasing the prisoners and securing marriages between Lithuanian princes and Russian brides. The marriage of pagan Algirdas to Orthodox Uliana of Tver, unlawful from the viewpoint of the church, was nevertheless approved by Theognostus; it gave birth to Jogaila.[11]

In 1351–1352 Simeon raised arms against Algirdas over control of small towns in Smolensk area. This conflict, again, did not develop into an open war as Algirdas preferred negotiations to fighting. Although the first round of talks was broken by Lithuanians, Simeon secured the disputed towns for Moscow. This campaign was his last act of Simeon's life.[12]

The Black Death was recorded in present-day southern Russia and Ukraine as early as 1346. It hit Scandinavia in 1349, Pskov in the beginning of 1352 and Novgorod in August of 1352; by the end of the year two thirds of Pskov were reported dead. The same pattern repeated in Lithuania and north-eastern Russia.[13] In 1353 plague arrived in Moscow, killing Theognostus, Simeon, his two sons and his brother Andrey who survived Simeon for six weeks.[1]

Before his death in 1353, Simeon took monastic vows and took the name of Sozont. He installed Alexis as Metropolitan of Moscow, successor to the late Theognostus, and secured a profitable estate for Maria.[1] Simeon’s will is considered to be the first usage of paper in Russia, as parchment was used previously.

Simeon is buried in the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.



Children



Offspring of Simeon of Moscow (Семён Иванович Гордый) and Aigusta of Lithuania (c1320-1345)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vasili (1336-1337)
Konstantin (1340-1340)
Vasilisa




Offspring of Simeon of Moscow (Семён Иванович Гордый) and Maria Aleksandrovna of Tver (c1326-1399)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Daniel (1347-?)
Mikhail (1348-1348)
Ivan (1349-1353)
Simeon (1351-1353)








Siblings

Residences

  



See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Karamzin, 1353
  2. ^ a b c Curtin, p. 339
  3. ^ a b Curtin, p. 336
  4. ^ a b Karamzin, 1340
  5. ^ Anton Kartashev. History of the Russian church
  6. ^ Curtin, p. 337
  7. ^ Karamzin, 1341
  8. ^ Karamzin, 1342
  9. ^ Karamzin, 1347
  10. ^ Curtin, p. 338
  11. ^ Karamzin, 1349
  12. ^ Curtin, p. 340
  13. ^ Karamzin, 1352

References

  • Curtin, Jeremiah (2002). The Mongols in Russia. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1402100302, 9781402100307. 
  • Karamzin, N. M. (1815). Istoria gosudarstva rossiyskogo (История государства российского), volume 4 chapter 10.  [1]
  • Mouravieff, A. N. (2004). A History of the Church of Russia. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417912502, 9781417912506. 
Simeon Ivanovich
Born: 1316 Died: 1353
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ivan I
Prince of Moscow
1340–1353
Succeeded by
Ivan II
Preceded by
Ivan I
Grand Prince of Vladimir
1340–1353
Succeeded by
Ivan II of Moscow
Russian royaltyWp globe tiny.gif
Preceded by
Ivan I
Heir to the Russian Throne
1325–1340
Succeeded by
Ivan II

Template:Lists of Russians

Persondata
NAME Moscow, Simeon Of
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION
DATE OF BIRTH 7 November 1316
PLACE OF BIRTH Moscow
DATE OF DEATH 27 April 1353
PLACE OF DEATH Moscow


Footnotes (including sources)

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