Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky (until 1778)
|— City —|
|Federal subject of Russia||Ryazan Oblast|
|Urban Okrug||Ryazan Urban Okrug|
|• Type||City Council|
|• Body||City Duma|
|• Mayor||Vitali Yevgenyevich Artyomov|
|• Total||223.7 km2 (86.4 sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+4)|
|OKATO Code||61 401|
Ryazan (Russian: Рязань, IPA: [rʲɪˈzanʲ]) is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia. It is located on the Oka River 196 kilometres (122 mi) southeast of Moscow. Population: 525,100 (2010 Census); 521,560 (2002 Census); 514,638 (1989 Census). The strategic bomber base Dyagilevo is just west of the city, and the air base of Aleksandrovo is to the southeast as is the Ryazan Turlatovo Airport. Major industries in the city include electronics and oil refining.
It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory previously populated by Finnic peoples. Initially it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the kremlin dates back to the 12th century.
However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky, dates to 1095. At that time the city was part of the independent Ryazan Principality, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Svyatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom (cities of Kievan Rus'). The city kept the name of Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky until 1778, when it was changed to Ryazan.
The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but particularly the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal. By the end of XII the capital of orincipality was burnt couple of times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan. On December 21, 1237 it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 km to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan (Old Ryazan), close to Spassk-Ryazansky.
In the 1380 during the Battle of Kulikovo the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai, a strongman of the Tartar Golden Horde, and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow.
The principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521.
In September 1999, Ryazan was one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode, though did not actually experience a successful bomb attack.
The city of Ryazan is divided into four administrative districts: Moskovsky, Oktyabrsky, Sovetsky, and Zheleznodorozhny.
An economically important educational institution in the city is the State Radiotechnical University. The Higher Paratrooper Command Academy used to be Russia's only military school training officers for the airborne forces, giving Ryazan the reputation as "paratroopers capital". However, in 2010 the institution discontinued enrollment to its paratrooper program, and now focuses on training professional sergeants for the armed forces.
Ryazan has a reputation of being one Russia's electronics hubs. Around a quarter of the city's population is affected by the electronics industry. The most notable company in this sector is Plazma (company), which produces plasma screens for products including tanks and locomotives. In 1994, the company created a 50-50 research and development joint-venture with the South Korean company Orion PDP. Plazma's expertise helped Orion PDP become one of the world's leading manufacturers of plasma television panels. In addition to plasma technology, Plazma produces LCD screens, industrial gas lasers and medical lasers. The company exports its products to foreign countries, including to the United States, China and Israel.
Another key industry in the city is oil refining. The Ryazan Oil Refinery, owned by TNK-BP, is one of the city's largest employers. The plant can refine 17 million metric tons of oil per year.
The economy of Ryazan benefits from a large number of skilled engineers graduating from the State Radiotechnical University, and from the city's close proximity to Moscow, which can be reached in 90 minutes by car.
Sights of Ryazan
- Ryazan Kremlin
- Pavlov Museum
- Architectural Museum
- Art Museum
- Art Gallery "At The Old Crossroad" are situated in the historical and cultural monument of the 18 century "Gostiniy Dvor"
- Drama Theater
- Puppet Theater
- Children's Circus
- Pyaniy Park ("Drunk" Park)
- Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov, Russian Soviet composer; wrote the music for the national anthem of the Soviet Union, which, in 2001, became the anthem of Russia (with new lyrics)
- Alexander Pirogov, a Russian bass opera singer
- Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, a Russian and Soviet novelist and dramatist
- Andrey Markov, the mathematician who pioneered work on Markov chains
- Erast Garin, one of the leading comic actors of the Soviet cinema
- Irina Meleshina, a Russian long jumper
- Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, a practitioner selectionist
- Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, the famous psychologist and founder of classical conditioning
- Kirill Sosunov, a Russian long jumper
- Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky, the Russian Soviet writer nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature in 1965
- Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, one of the inventors of the space rocket
- Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin, a major Russian satirist of the 19th century (Deputy Governor of Ryazan in 1858-1860)
- Sergei Yesenin, a poet, for whom the Ryazan State University is named
- Yakov Petrovich Polonsky, a Russian poet and writer
Twin towns — Sister cities
Ryazan is twinned with:
- Bressuire, France
- Kruševac, Serbia
- Lovech, Bulgaria
- Münster, Germany
- New Athos, Abkhazia
- Omiš, Croatia
- Ostrów Mazowiecka, Poland
- Xuzhou, China
- ^ "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ^ a b c d Anatoly Medetsky (26 Jun 2011). "Ryazan: Plasma Screens and Pavlov's Dogs". The Moscow Times. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/beyond_moscow/ryazan.html.
- (Russian) Ryazan Portal
- (English) Photos of Ryazan
- (Russian) Photos of Ryazan
- The Uspensky cathedral (inside the Ryazan kremlin)
- Konstantinovo (motherland of the Sergei Yesenin) and other photos.
- Photos of historical part of Ryazan
Template:Cities and towns in Ryazan Oblast
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Ryazan. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|