|Principality of Suzdal |
Russian principalities in the 14th century
|-||Grand Principality of Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal ceated||1341|
Suzdal Principality 1216 - 1218 1238 - 1341
The Suzdal Principality is a territorial-administrative formation of the times of feudal fragmentation of medieval Rus with the center in the city of Suzdal .
Formation of the Principality[edit | edit source]
Suzdal was first mentioned in the annals under the year 1024 . The first century of its existence Suzdal was the center of the Volost first Kiev princes, then Peresyaslav ; The princes did not live in it and left governors for management . After the division of Russia between Vladimir Monomakh's sons (1125) Suzdal was received by Yury Vladimirovich Dolgoruky and made him the capital of the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal .. Yury's son Andrei Yuryevich Bogolyubsky transferred the capital of the principality to Vladimir, who became during his reign a great principalityh. Released the winner of the struggle for power after the death of Andrew, his younger brother Vsevolod Yuryevich Big Nest built in Suzdal fortress and several churches. After the death of Vsevolod Suzdal went to his son Yuri, for a while ( 1216 - 1218 ) was the center of a special principality, and then again became a part of Vladimirsky. In the first days of February 1238 Suzdal was burned by Batu, its surroundings were devastated.
Since 1238 the Suzdal Principality was ruled by Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, who in 1246 took the Vladimir throne after the death of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich . After the death of Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich ( 1252 ), Alexander Nevsky gave Suzdal his brother Andrew , the hereditary possession of the descendants of which became the principality. In 1257, the Mongols conducted a census in Suzdal and put Basques in it to collect taxes, which triggered the 1262 uprising . After the death of Andrei Yaroslavich ( 1264 ) in Suzdal, his sons ruled.
Grand Principality of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorody[edit | edit source]
Main article: Grand Principality of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod
After the death of Ivan Kalita, Uzbek Khan in 1341 gives Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets and Unzh to the possession of the Suzdal prince Konstantin Vasilyevich , the younger brother of the former Vladimir prince Alexander.
Prince Konstantin Vasilyevich in 1350 transferred his residence to Nizhny Novgorod, subordinated to his power a significant part of the Mordovian lands, settled them by Russian settlers and in general very significantly expanded the boundaries of his principality.
The last, which included the cities of Nizhny Novgorod, Suzdal, Gorodets, Bereezhets, Yurievets and Shuyu , was called the Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal principality, which lasted only 42 years.
In 1392 Nizhny Novgorod was taken by the Grand Prince of Moscow; At the same time, his last prince, Simeon Dmitrievich , who died in Vyatka in 1402 , was also expelled from Suzdal . Since then, Moscow governors governed Nizhny Novgorod and Suzdal, and the descendants of the Suzdal princes partly served at the court of the Moscow prince, part of them were in the horde. During the struggle of Vasily Vasilyevich Dark with Yuri Dmitrievich and his sons, great-grandsons of Dmitry Konstantinovich, Vasily and Fedor Yurevich, they managed to re-establish themselves in Suzdal on the rights of independent princes, but not for long: after defeating Dmitry Shemyaka ( 1446)) Vasily Vasilyevich demanded that they completely subordinate their power and deprived them of the right to communicate with the horde, as a result of which Konstantinovich permanently left Suzdal.
See also[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- «Историческое собрание о богоспасаемом граде Суздале» Анания Фёдорова («Временник Московск. общ. истории и древностей рос.», т. XXII);
- Протопопов, «Исторический очерк гор. С.» («Владимирские губ. ведомости», 1839, № 25—37);
- Кисленской, «История С. и его древности» (СПб., 1848);
- гр. М. В. Толстой, «Путевые заметки из древней суздальской области» (СПб., 1869); Тихонравов,
- «Археологические заметки о городах С. и Шуе» («Записки Русского археологического общ. по отд. русско-славянской археологии», т. I, СПб., 1851).
- Пудалов Б. М. К вопросу о происхождении суздальских князей //Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики. 2004. № 4 (18). С. 46–53.
- История Суздаля — ряд статей, охватывающих период от создания Суздаля до наших дней.