|Principality of Rostov|
|Historical era||Middle ages|
The Principality of Rostov is a Russian principality within the Grand Principality of Vladimir with a center in the city of Rostov , which existed from 1207 to 1474 .
The Principality of Rostov in the 11th century included an area between Oka, Northern Dvina and Volga. Important castles were Belozersk, Suzdal and Yaroslavl. In the 13th century Uglich and Ustyug were added.
For 862 Rostov was first mentioned. In 911 it was named as one of the five important castles of Kievan Rus' under Oleg., The Principality of Rostov was formed around 988 when Vladimir the Great divided the Kievan Rus' among his sons. Yaroslav the Wise became the first Prince of Rostov. By 1010, his half-brother Boris became his successor when Yaroslav became prince of Novgorod. Boris was murdered in 1015, during the power struggle for the succession Vladimir the Great. The Principality of Rostov was incorporated into the Novgorod Republic.
In 1094, after the death of Grand Prince of Kiev, Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Davyd Svyatoslavich was appointed Prince of Novgorod, replacing Mstislav Vladimirovich who was forced to retreat to Rostov, reinstating the Principality of Rostov. The new principality was short-lived because after the capture of Chernigov by Davyd Svyatoslavich's brother Oleg, in 1094, Davyd Svyatoslavich came to Smolensk, and in his absence, the Novgorodians reinstated Mstislav Vladimirovich who reincorporated Rostov into the Novgorod Republic.
The Council of Lyubech (1097) finally allocated the territory of Rostov and Suzdal to Vladimir Monomakh and his descendants, creating the Principality of Rostov-Suzdal. Since that time an independent prince Yuri Dolgoruky appears in the principality. In 1125 he transferred the capital of his possessions to the city of Suzdal, and his heir, the son Andrei of Bogolyubovo to Vladimir. Since then, Rostov's political role has waned.
1113 (or 1096?) Was Yuri Dolgoruki was Prince of Rostov. Vladimir Monomakh himself did not go there, but sent his sons. For a while, Rostov-Suzdal land was the arena of discord between Izyaslav Vladimirovich and Oleg Svyatoslavich of Chernigov.  In 1125 he moved the capital to Suzdal .
1207 to 1474
In 1207, Rostov was singled out for a special reign to the eldest son of Vsdevolod Yuryevich Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal Konstantin Vsevolodich, who initiated the dynasty of Rostov princes. Also in his possession were Beloozersk, Uglich, Ustyug, Yaroslavl. With it, churches were built, Rostov Rostov chronicler was compiled in Rostov , which later became part of the Laurentian Chronicle. His younger brother Yuri after the death of his father in 1212, the grand prince was given to hang, which was a violation of the established order. Between Yuri and Constantine began a long internecine struggle, culminating in the Yuri's defeat in the Battle of the Lipitsa River (1216). Constantine took Vladimir. After the death of Konstantin Vsevolodich (1218), the great reign was repeatedly (already legally) received by Yuri, and the Rostov principality was divided into three parts between the sons of Konstantin Vsevolodich: Vasilko tool the Principality of Rostov and Principality of Beloozero, Vsevolod the Principality of Yaroslavl, and Vladimir the Principality of Uglich.
During the Tatar-Mongol invasion, Rostov was captured and ruined. In 1238 Rostov was heavily devastated by the invasion of the Golden Horde, The squad of the Rostov prince Vasilko, as part of the united Vladimir-Suzdal troops led by the Grand Duke, took part in the Battle of the River Sit with the army of Burundai. Russian troops were completely defeated, Vasilko was taken prisoner and killed. One of the largest anti-Tatar revolts in Rostov occurred in 1262. The Tatars and their henchmen were then also killed in Ustyug who belonged to Rostov. Associated with the census of the population to collect the Horde, the rebellion has occurred in other cities of North-Eastern Russia. The punitive expedition was prevented by the Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal Alexander Nevsky, who had gone to the Golden Horde.
Rostov land was multinational. Along with the Finno-Ugric people assimilated in the course of the colonization by its Krivichi, the Komi people lived here, with whom and with the peoples of Siberia, merchants of Great Ustyug traded mutually. In Rostov there was the only prototype of modern universities founded in pre-Mongolian times - the Grigorievsky Gate, various Greek schools, the teachers of which were masters from the multiethnic Byzantium, icon painters, scholars, including philologists, who wanted to create written by the Komi-Zyryans Stefan Velikopermsky. Icons, books, art objects differ from everything found in other parts of Russia and show that they were created by Byzantines and/or their pupils - that is, there was a large Byzantine colony here. 
In the 1260s, in Rostov, according to DS Likhachev , the so-called "arch of Princess Mary" is being created, which is currently associated with the entourage of Prince Gleb Vasilkovich. In 1283 the Rostovites again drove the Horde from the city. Despite this, from all Russian principalities Rostov had, according to A.N. Nasonov, the closest relationship with the Horde - in the city there were always numerous Tatars, the Rostov prince Konstantin Vasilyevich was married to the Horde. Peter, nephew of Berke Khan converted in Rostov to Christianity and founded in the second half of the 13th century Peter's monastery. In 1322, when the Horde army of envoy Ahmyl and Ivan Kalita wanted to burn Rostov, only the requests and gifts of the numerous Tatars living in Rostov rescued the city from death. Before that, during the internecine struggle of the Rostov princes among themselves, as well as the battles for the Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Rostov went bankrupt in 1281, 1282, 1289, 1293, 1315, 1319 and 1320.
The principality of Vasili Konstantinovich was divided between his sons: Boris received Rostov, and Gleb - Beloozero. After the death of Boris in Rostov, apart from nephews Gleb sat down, having united the two lots again (for one year) - Rostov and Beloozero; the latter he singled out before death a special lot for his son Mikhail. After the death of Gleb (1278), the sons of Boris, Dmitri and Konstantin, reigned in Rostov , who were taken from Mikhail Beloozero (however, for a short while). After the accession (in 1285) to Rostov Uglich the increased principality of the brothers Borisovich divided among themselves by lot, and Uglich went to Dmitri, and Rostov to Konstantin (however, they soon exchanged their possessions). On the death of Dmitri (1294) Konstantin took Rostov, and in the allocated Uglich installed his son Aleksander. After Konstantin and his son Vasili's death in 1316, Prince Konstantin's grandson, Prince of Uglitsk Yuri Aleksandrovich, became the prince, of whom Vasily's children - Fedor and [[Constantine[[ were the successors. They once again divided the principality among themselves (in 1328) and moreover, so that the city of Rostov itself is divided into two "parts" - Sretenskaya (Ustretenskaya) and Borisoglebskaya; First took himself Fyodor, the second - Constantine. It is not known, however, how long this division lasted. In any case, with the death in 1331 of Fyodor Vasilyevich, his young son disappears from the annals for a long time, and Rostov governs Konstantin Vasilyevich, married to the daughter of Ivan Kalita. In 1360 he supported the Prince of Suzdal, Dmitri Konstantinovich, who was awarded the Grand Duke in the Horde, and becomes an opponent of the 9-year-old Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow, and tries to subordinate the Rostov principality to himself and his descendants, bypassing relatives and Moscow. As a result nephew Andrey Fedorovichwith the support of the Moscow army captures the city. In 1365, defeated Constantine dies in Rostov, but his children, along with Andrei Fedorovich continue to rule and even mint their own coin, on each side of which the names of co-rulers of the principality are indicated. In the sources there is not a single mention of the fragmentation of the Rostov principality in this period and the existence in it of fortunes. However, apparently, for the support of Andrei Fedorovich Dmitry Donskoy.received a number of territories, including the Svyatoslav-Karash parish. Judging by the chronicle texts of 1397-1398. Ustyug Rostov princes manage already as governors of the Grand Prince of Moscow, however, the very process of turning Rostov into Moscow possession is not illuminated by sources. In any case, in 1433, the Moscow governor Pyotr Konstantinovich Dobrynsky was already in the capital of the principality. The princes retain a part of the political rights to government, probably receiving some of the trade and judicial duties from the territory of the principality.
In 1474, the Grand Prince Ivan III , who had bought the last half of the princes from the last Rostov princes, transferred them to the structure of his mother's inheritance, Maria Yaroslavna.
- ^ ВТ-ЭСБЕ -|Ростовское княжество
- ^ Общие сведения о Ростовском княжестве и его месте в русском мире накануне рождения преподобного Сергия и в первые годы его жизни. Из Т. Крючков. Преподобный Сергий Радонежский и его окружение. Исторический очерк. Издательство Московской Патриархии Русской Православной Церкви. Москва 2012 //Сайт Свято-Троицкой Сергиевой лавры
- Ростовские и Белозерские удельные князья // Русский биографический словарь: В 25 т. / под наблюдением А. А. Половцова. 1896—1918.
- Кучкин В. А. «Формирование государственной территории северо-восточной Руси в X—XIV вв.»
Княжество Ростовское. Генеалогия русской знати
- Экземплярский А. В., Ростовские владетельные князья на сайте «Руниверс»
Coins of the Rostov principality
Stand out princedoms and inheritance
The Principality of Uglich (1216-1591) The Principality of Yaroslavl (1218-1463) The Principality of Beloozero (1238-1485) The Principality of Ustyug (1364-1474) The Principality of Bochtüz (1364-1434)