|Principality of Novgorod-Seversky|
Novgorod-Seversky on map of Kievan Rus' in 12th century
|Capital||Novhorod-Siverskyi, Novhorod-Siversky Rayon, Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
The Principality of Novgorod-Seversky (also known as the Seversk (Nothern) Principality was s Russian principality , located in the basin of the middle Desna , its tributaries Again , the Seimas and others. The capital is Novgorod-Seversky. The largest cities and centers of the principalities were Kursk, Putivl, Rylsk Trubchevsk .
The Principality of Novgorod-Seversky was formed in the Principality of Chernigov in 1097. Afteer 1164, it under the authority of a separate branch of the Rurik family. In the 14th-16th centuries it was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The principality was finally abolished in 1523 being included into the Russian state . The capital is Novgorod-Seversky .
As part of the Principality of Chernigov Edit
It was singled out in a separate principality at the Council of Lyubech (1097) in 1097 . The city of Novgorod-Seversky became the center of a large appanage principality within the Principality of Chernigov. The rights of Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich's descendants to the Principality of Novgorod-Severesky were recognized by other princes after the internecine war of the mid-1090s. The first prince of Novgorod-Seversky (1097-1115) was Oleg Svyatoslavich.
Until the middle of the 12th century, Novgorod-Seversky, as a rule, was engaged in the second most senior descendant of Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich. During the reign of Grand Prince of Kiev Vsevolod Olgovich, his younger brothers Igor and Svyatoslav reigned in Novgorod-Seversky. During the internecine strife after the death of Vsevolod Olgovich, the princedom almost came together with Chernigov under the rule of Izyaslav Davydorich. After the death of Izyaslav Davydovich in the battles for Kiev (1161) and death on the Chernigov reign of Svyatoslav Olgovich (1164) between his son Oleg Svyatoslavich and his elder nephew Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich an agreement was concluded, after which the deeds of the Principality of Novgorod-Seversky (Kurskand others) were inherited by the descendants of Svyatoslav Olgovich, the inheritance of Chernigov proper (Starodub and others) - the descendants of Vsevolod Olgovich. The old rights to Chernigov were preserved by both branches, only Vsevolodovichi to Kiev .
Under the rule of the Svyatoslavich Edit
Of the northern princes, the greatest historical role was played by Igor Svyatoslavich (reign of 1180 - 1198), who took part in the capture of Kiev by the troops of Andrei of Bogolyubovo in 1169, in the struggle against Smolensk princes in 1180 , in campaigns against the Polovtsians in 1184 and 1185 . He became the main hero of "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" and the famous opera "Prince Igor". Sons Igor, being nephew of the last Galician prince on his mother, reigned in the Galician Principality in 1206 - 1211 years, for the reprisals against the boyars, two of them were hanged after the defeat of the Hungarian and Polish troops, who supported the claims to the throne of Halych of the minor Daniil Romanovich .
According to one of the versions , at the Chernigov princely congress in 1206, the Ol'govichi (in the presence of Mstislav Romanovich Smolensky) decided to occupy the Novgorod-Seversky reign with the descendants of Vsevolod Olgovich, while the Svyatoslavich retained the Family and the first to get Galich.
After the Mongolian ruin Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky lost their former significance, the territory became part of the Bryansk principality under the power of the descendants of Roman Mikhailovich the Old , then the descendants of Gleb Rostislavich Smolensky . Southern princely centers fell into disrepair after the return of the Horde forces from the campaign against Lithuania ( 1275 ), the revolt against the Horde baskak Akhmat , bloody feuds and punitive expeditions of the Horde forces ( 1283 - 1285 ). Kursk began to be managed by the Baskak, Putivl is mentioned at the beginningXIV century among the Kiev " suburbs " (the Putivl Olgovichi, presumably, occupied at that time also the Kiev and Pereyaslav princedoms, but they were defeated by the Lithuanian prince Gedimin ).
In the composition of Lithuania Edit
Around 1355 Olgerd "fought" Briansk, after which he obeyed and many other of the destinies, which disintegrated Chernigov-northern prince. In 1362, the Northern Territory was added to Lithuania.
Olgerd divided all the Chernigov-northern lands into three parts: he gave his son Dmitry Chernigov and Trubchevsk, Dmitriy-Koributu the youngest - Bryansk and Novgorod-Seversk, nephew Patrikei Narimuntovich of Starodub-Seversky.
As a result of the transfer of Dmitri's elder brother to the service of the Moscow prince in the winter of 1379/80, Chernihiv region was transferred to the possession of Koribut. After the accession of Vytautas to the Lithuanian throne in 1392, Koribut refused to swear an oath and gathered an army, went against him. The troops converged in a place called Dokudovo . The army of Koribut was defeated, the prince left for Novogrudok. Vitovt, having collected the army, went to Novogrudok and, taking the city, captured the prince with the princess and children ref>Хроника Быховца</ref>. After Koribut reconciled with Vitovt, was released and took part in his military campaigns . In 1393, Koribut re-entered Novgorod-Seversky.
A year later he refused to pay tribute to Vitautas, but he defeated the rebellious prince and took him prisoner again. Koribut was imprisoned in Vilna, but thanks to the intercession of his relatives he was released. In 1393/1394 Dmitri-Koribut was deprived of an inheritance in the Severschina and his place was taken by Fyodor Lyubartovich , a Polish-Lithuanian governor who had previously lost his possessions in Volhynia. Koribut also received from Volovtsy Volynskie cities - Braslav, Vinnitsa, Sokolets and Kremenets . .
In 1420, Svidrigailo received Novgorod-Seversky and Bryansk for rule, where he ruled for 10 years. In 1430, after Vitovt's death, the Russian party declared Svidrigailo the Grand Duke of Lithuania, which was also recognized by Jagaila. Svidrigailo behaved like an independent prince, which aroused the displeasure of Jagiły and the Polish pans. In 1435 in the Battle of the Šventoji River. Svidrigailo was defeated .
In 1392-1430 in the reign of Vitautas from the Horde authorities Kursk was liberated. Seversk lands south of the Seimas were transferred to the management of the descendants of Mamai, who transferred to the Lithuanian service.
Casimir IV in 1454 gave Novgorod-Seversky and Rylsk "in feeding" Ivan Dmitriyevich Shemyakin, who fled Moscow, his son Vasili Ivanovich, along with the principality, became a citizen of Moscow Prince Ivan III. The transfer of a number of princes from Lithuanian citizenship to Moscow provoked the war of the Moscow principality with Lithuania.
As part of the Russian state Edit
In the truce of 1503, Novgorod-Seversky moved to the Grand Duchy of Moscow . The last appanage prince of Novgorod-Seversky Vasily Ivanovich Shemyakin was accused of treason, died in imprisonment in 1523, after which the principality lost all independence.
After the annexation of the Seversky lands (Seversky principality, Chernigov, Pereslavl) in 1517-1523. to the Russian state in the title of Tsar Ivan IV Vasilyevich Grozny there was an addition of the "Northern Country of the Lord", that is, of all the Seversky lands the ruler. This possession remained in the title of Russian kings until 1917.
In 1672 in the " Titulyarnik " appeared the image of the emblem of the " Northern Country ". In 1699, in the drawing of the state press of Russia, the Austrian diplomat IG Korb painted the coat of arms "Seweia"  (Seway).
See also Edit
- ^ Л.Войтович Князівські династії Східної Європи
- ^ Докудово — деревня на реке Неман, в 15 км от города Лида, в настоящее время находится в Лидском районе Гродненской области Белоруссии
- ^ ВКЛЭ2- Нікалаеў М. - Карыбут, p.64}}
- ^ Хронос
- ^ Свидригайло Ольгердович // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона
- ^ Свидригайло // Большая энциклопедия русского народа.
- ^ Дневник путешествия в Московское государство
- Тропин Н. А. Южные территории Чернигово-Рязанского порубежья в XII-XV вв.: Автореф. дисс. …доктора ист. наук. М., 2007.
- Полехов С. В.. "«Список городов Свидригайла». Датировка и публикация". Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики.
- Шабульдо Ф. М. Земли Юго-Западной Руси в составе Великого княжества Литовского
- Северское княжество (Литвания)