|Principality of Drutsk |
|Historical era||Middle ages|
The Duchy of Drutsk (Belarusian: Княства Друцкае) was a small appanage principality of the Principality of Polotsk and was centred in Drutsk. It was located on a three way stick between Vitebsk, Minsk and Mogilev voblasts in modern Belarus.
The appanage Principality of Drutsk was formed after the death in 1101 of the Prince of Polotsk Vseslav Bryachislavich, when the principality was split between Vseslav's and was taken over by one of his sons. The principality was located in the upper reaches of the Drut River, the right tributary of the Dnieper. The capital was Drutsk. Since later the Principality of Drutsk was ruled by the descendants of Rogvolod Vseslavich, it is assumed that he was the one who received this appanage .
In 1127, Rogvolod Vseslavich became a Prince of Polotsk, and his son, -Rogvolod Rogvolodovich, reigned in Drutsk. In 1129 he, along with other Princes of Polotsk, was expelled by the Grand Prince of Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich to Byzantium, but in 1140 he returned and received his inheritance. In 1144 he became Prince of Polotsk, and Drutsk was probably ruled by his son Gleb. In 1151, as a result of the Polotsk uprising, Rogvolod was captured by the Prince of Minsk, and his son Gleb Rostislavich remained prince of Drutsk. In 1158, the veche of Dutsk drove away Gleb Rostislavich and elected Rogvolod Borisovich as Prince of Drutsk. In response to this Drutsk was by attacked the Princes of Minsk and [[Princes of Polotsk|Polotsk], but in 1159 Rogvolod Vseslavich is reinstated as Prince of Polotsk, but in 1162 finally leaves for Drutsk. Since then, information about the rulers of Drutsk has become very scarce.
In contrast to many neighboring principalities, Drutsky still existed. Rogvolod Vseslavich died after 1171. In 1180, his son Gleb reigned in Drutsk, and in 1196 - Boris Vseslavich (probably Rogvolod's grandson). L. Wojtowicz believes that Boris Vseslavich rules Polotsk in 1215-1222 years in Polotsk and identifies him with Prince Boris Davydovich mentioned Tatishchev under the 1217 year in "The Tale of Svyatohne". After 1196,there is no information about the princes of Drutsk. At the end of the 13th century, the principality was influenced by the Principality of Minsk, and at the beginning of the fourteenth century by the Principality of Vitebsk.
Some scholars consider the late princes of Drutskys to be the descendants of Prince Rogvolod Vseslavich ref>Template:Книга:Войтович Л.: Княжеские династии Восточной Европы</ref>, but the most authoritative sources testify to their descent from Roman Daniilovich, the son of King Daniel of Halych ..
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania entered the middle of the fourteenth century and was first divided into two parts between the children of Prince Mikhail Romanovich Vasili and Semyon, and in the 15th century - by an even greater number of deeds. Andrei's grandson, the heir of the eldest branch, died in the Battle of the Vorskla River in 1399 , and Vytautas in 1411 transferred his possessions to the Vilnius diocese. The appanage princes of Drutsky still owned Drutsk in 1508, when princes Vasili, Andrei and Bogdan Drutsky from the senior branch fled from Lithuania to Moscow to serve Vasili III (from them the Moscow princes Drutsky take place).
The younger branch was divided into several genera: the Drutsky-Sokolinsky , the Konopley-Sokolinsky (their destiny was in Sokolino), the Druzky-Gorski (destiny in the Mountains), Bagrinovsky, Drutsky-Ozeretsky, Drutsky-Pryhab, Putyatin, Babichev, Drutsky-Tolochin in Tolochin ), Videnitsky, Drutsky-Lyubetsk (destiny in Lyubcha), Drutsky-Podberezki.
In the XVI century, the Principality of Drutsk ceased to exist. The descendants of the princes Drutsky turned into ordinary landowners, although they continued to bear the princely title. After the administrative and territorial reform of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1564-1565 the territory of the former Principality of Drutsk was attributed to the Orsha Povet of the Vitebsk Province.
It is believed that Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, acquired the Duchy by marriage to Maria of Vitebsk. The Duchy became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania where it existed as an autonomous principality until an administrative reform in 1565–1566, when it was included into the Orsha county of Vitebsk Voivodeship.
- ^ Алексеев Л. В.. Полоцкая земля (очерки истории северной Белоруссии) в IX — XIII вв. pp. 253.
- ^ Савелов Л. М. Родословные записи. (Опыт родословного словаря русского древнего дворянства) / Историко-родословное о-во в Москве. Вып. 1-3. СПб., 1906—1909.
- ^ Template:Книга:Дворянские роды Российской империи. Том 1. Князья