Predslava Vladimirovna or Gremislava-Predislava  (circa 983  - after 1018 ) is an Old Russian princess, one of the eldest daughters of the Grand Duke Vladimir the Great. Known as a participant in the internecine struggle of Vladimir's brothers in 1015-1019, in which she acted on the side of Yaroslav the Wise.
Predslava is mentioned three times in the Tale of Bygone Years , the Chronicle of Titmar of Merseburg , "The Life of the Monk Moses Ugrin ", Chronicle of Gallo Anonymous, and others, NM Karamzin , VN Tatishchev , BD Grekov , A. V. Nazarenko and others. Such an interest in the person of the princess testifies to the extraordinary nature of her personality.
The year of Predslava's birth is unknown. Researchers agree that this happened in the early 980s, before 987 (as this year the mother of Predslava, Rogneda , committed an attempt on her husband and was exiled). L.E. Morozova in the book "Great and Unknown Women of Ancient Rus" writes that she could have been born in 982 or 983 . Predslava was an educated girl, since later she will be known for her letters. She lived and grew up with her mother, and then sisters in the village of Predslavin , named after her. Nestor the Chronicler points out that the village was on the bank of the Lybid River .
In 1015 the Grand Duke Vladimir Svyatoslavich died, which marked the beginning of a struggle for power between his sons - Svyatopolk, Yaroslav , Boris , Gleb , Svyatoslav and others. Predslava immediately wrote a letter to Prince Yaroslav, in Novgorod, informing him that Kiev passed under the authority of Svyatopolk.
According to the official and most widespread version, in 1015 Svyatopolk killed the brothers Boris and Gleb, who threatened his position in Kiev (about the alternative version accusing these murders of Yaroslav - see the Saga of Eimund ). Anyway, Predslava found out about Boris's death. According to NM Karamzin, this was told to her by the close friend of Boris Moses Ugrin , who was hiding from Predslava  . It is after this that Predslava sends Yaroslav a letter in which he accuses Svyatopolk of killing Boris and the forthcoming murder of Gleb. The text of this letter leads to PVL :
This letter made Yaroslav act decisively - he collected Novgorod and hired Scandinavian squads and opposed Svyatopolk. The latter was forced to flee to Poland to his father-in-law, King Boleslaw. In 1016, Yaroslav entered Kiev and was greeted by his sister with joy.
Nevertheless, in 1018 Svyatopolk, with the help of Boleslaw the Brave returned Kiev and drove Yaroslav. The PVL is not mentioned on the participation Predslava events in 1018, but in later and a number of foreign sources mentioned that Boleslaw the Brave made Predslava his concubine and took power in Poland  . After that, predslava is not mentioned in the chronicles.
According to the assumption of the Polish historian G. Lyabuda, in Poland the captured daughters of Vladimir the Great (several of her sisters were captured simultaneously with Predslava) lived in a palace on the Lednice Island. Here, too, was the church, where Anastas Korsounian served.
Relations with Boleslaw the Brave
A separate chapter in the life of the princess became her relationship with the Polish king Boleslaw the Brave. The researchers put forward various reasons why Boleslaw the Brave in 1018 so treated himself with Predslava. There were political reasons, for example, Boleslaw the Brave's desire to offend Yaroslav, making his beloved sister a concubine, but most historians agree that Boleslaw the Brave's behavior is explained by personal reasons - some time ago the king was already wooing the princess, but was refused.
Titmar of Merseburg , describing this, says that Predslava refused to respond to Boleslav's proposal, because he became "fat and prone to adultery" (quotes from Titmara put in his work Karamzin)  . In the Polish chronicler Martin Gallus, Karamzin finds that Predslava was exceptionally intelligent, well-mannered and handsome, because Boleslav started to ask for it .
Modern historians have tried to determine the date when Boleslaw the Brave could get married to Predslava. Based on the information V. N. Tatischeva (based on chronicles Thietmar and Gallus Anonymous ) the arrival in 1014 in Kiev the Polish, Czech and Hungarian embassies, concluded that it was then Boleslaw the Brave could send messengers to the Princess  . Another point of view was held by the historian-Slavist VD Korolyuk, who believed that the Polish king could have wedded to Predslava no earlier than 1017, after the death of his wife Emnilda. Perhaps he could have wooed Predslava during that very campaign of 1018, but, having been refused, took her by force. The historian AV Nazarenko says that there is no exact date for Emnilda's death in the sources, therefore he writes that the matchmaking could take place between 1013 and 1018 years.
Titmar's statement looks interesting, according to which the wedding of Boleslaw and Predslava took place in Kiev, but this can hardly be true, since the chronicler mentions that the wedding took place in the St. Sophia Cathedral , which at that time had not yet been built. There is a version that Boleslaw the Brave Predslava wanted to return home, exchanging it for the daughter of the kidnapped (he conducted correspondence with Jaroslav prisoner exchange), but Yaroslav refused, not wanting to strengthen Svyatopolk's position .
- ^ Родословная книга Всероссiйскаго дворянства. // Составилъ В. Дурасов. — Ч. I. — Градъ Св. Петра, 1906.
- ^ a b c d Великие и неизвестные женщины Древней Руси
- ^ a b Карамзин Н. М. История государства Российского. М., 1991. Т. 2-3. С. 193, 195, 197—198.
- ^ Повесть временных лет Script error: No such module "webarchive".
- ^ The same night the news came from Kiev from his Predslava's sister: "Your father is dead, and Svyatopolk is in Kiev, he killed Boris and sent for Gleb, beware of him very much“.
- ^ Древняя Русь в свете зарубежных источников: Хрестоматия/ Под ред. Т. Н. Джаксон, И. Г. Коноваловой и А. В. Подосинова. Том IV. Сост., пер. и коммент. А. В. Назаренко. М., 2010. С. 328.
- ^ Карамзин. p.198