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  • Duke of the Franks
  • Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia
  • Mayor of the Palace of Neustria
  • Mayor of the Palace of Burdundy

Biography

Pepin Arnulfing of Herstal was born 635 in Herstal to Ansegisel (c606-bef679) and Saint Begga (615-693) and died 16 December 714 of unspecified causes. He married Plectrude of Neustria (c640-718) circa 670 JL . Ancestors are from Belgium, Germany.


Pepin II (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death. He took the title Duke and Prince of the Franks upon his conquest of all the Frankish realms.

The son of the powerful Frankish statesman Ansegisel, Pepin worked to establish his family, the Pippinids, as the strongest in Francia. He was able to realise his dreams by becoming Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia in 680. Pepin subsequently embarked on several wars to expand his power. He united all the Frankish realms by the conquests of Neustria and Burgundy in 687. In foreign conflicts, Pepin increased the power of the Franks by his subjugation of the Alemanni, the Frisians, and the Franconians. He also began the process of evangelisation in Germany.

Pepin's statesmanship was notable for the further diminution of Merovingian royal authority, and for the acceptance of the undisputed right to rule for his family. Therefore, Pepin was able to name as heir his grandson Theudoald. But this was not accepted by his powerful son Charles Martel, leading to a civil war after his death in which the latter emerged victorious.

Background

Pepin, sometimes called Pepin II and Pepin the Middle, was the grandson and namesake of Pepin I the Elder through the marriage of Pepin I's daughter Begga to Ansegisel.[1] He was also the grandfather of Pepin the Short and great-grandfather of Charlemagne. That marriage united the two houses of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings which created what would be called the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin II was probably born in Herstal (Héristal), modern Belgium (where his centre of power lay), whence his byname (sometimes "of Heristal").

Rise to power

Clovis III and Pepin of Herstal

King Clovis III and Pepin of Herstal (right side)

As mayor of Austrasia, Pepin and Martin, the duke of Laon, fought the Neustrian mayor Ebroin, who had designs on all Francia. Ebroin defeated the Austrasians at Lucofao (Bois-du-Fay, near Laon) and came close to uniting all the Franks under his rule; however, he was assassinated in 681, the victim of a combined attack by his numerous enemies. Pepin immediately made peace with his successor, Waratton.

However, Waratton's successor, Berthar, and the Neustrian king Theuderic III, who, since 679, was nominal king of all the Franks, made war on Austrasia. The king and his mayor were decisively defeated at the Battle of Tertry (Textrice) in the Vermandois in 687. Berthar and Theuderic withdrew themselves to Paris, where Pepin followed and eventually forced on them a peace treaty with the condition that Berthar leave his office. Pepin was created mayor in all three Frankish kingdoms (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy) and began calling himself Duke and Prince of the Franks (dux et princeps Francorum).[2] In the ensuing quarrels, Berthar killed his mother-in-law Ansfled and fled. His wife Anstrude married Pepin's eldest son Drogo, Duke of Champagne, and Pepin's place in Neustria was secured.

Duke and Prince of the Franks

The Neustrians barely tolerated an Austrasian overlord, but Pepin preferred to put these local resistances aside to deal with Germany. Over the next several years, Pepin subdued the Alemanni, Frisians, and Franconians, bringing them within the Frankish sphere of influence. Between 690 and 692, Utrecht fell. This gave the Franks control of important trade routes on the Rhine to the North Sea. He also supported the missionary work of Willibrord.[3] In 695, he placed Drogo in the Burgundian mayorship and his other son, Grimoald, in the Neustrian one.


Death and succession

Just before Pepin's death, Plectrude convinced him to disinherit the sons he had with his second wife Alpaida in favour of his grandson, Theudoald (the son of Pepin and Plectrude's son Grimoald), who was still a young child (and amenable to Plectrude's control). Pepin died suddenly at the age of 79 on 16 December 714, at Jupille (in modern Belgium). His grandchildren through Plectrude claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and, with the help of Plectrude, tried to maintain the position of mayor of the palace after Pepin's death. However, Charles (son of Pepin and Alpaida) had gained favour among the Austrasians, primarily for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her child's rival by imprisoning him, he became the sole mayor of the palace—and de facto ruler of Francia—after a civil war which lasted for more than three years after Pepin's death.


Marriage and Family

1st Marriage: Plectrude

Around 670, Pepin had married Plectrude of Neustria (c640-718), who had inherited substantial estates in the Moselle region. She was the mother of Drogo of Champagne and Grimoald II, both of whom died before their father.

2nd Marriage: Alpaida

However, Pepin also had a mistress (or possibly, a second wife) named Alpaida (c640-714) (or Chalpaida) who bore him two more sons: Charles Martel and Childebrand.




Children


Offspring of Pepin of Herstal and Plectrude of Neustria (c640-718)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Drogo de Champagne (670-780)
Grimoald II of Neustria (-714)

Offspring of Pepin of Herstal and Alpaida (c640-714)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Charles Martel (686-741) 23 August 686 Herstal, Belgium 22 October 741 Quierzy-sur-Oise, France Rotrude of Treves (690-724)
Swanachild of Agilolfings (c700-)
Roudhaid (c700-)

Childebrand I de Bourgogne (678-751) 678 Herstal 751

Siblings


Offspring of Ansegisel and Saint Begga (615-693)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Pepin of Herstal (635-714) 635 Herstal 16 December 714 Plectrude of Neustria (c640-718)
Alpaida (c640-714)

Clotilda of Heristal (650-699) 650 699 Theoderik III (bef650-691)

Martin of Laon (c640-)




Sources

References

  1. ^ "Vita Sanctae Geretrudis (The Life of Saint Geretrud) and the Additamentum Nivialense de Fuilano (the Nivelles supplement to the Vita Fursei concerning Foillan)". Late Merovingian France: history and hagiography, 640-720. Manchester medieval sources series. Paul Fouracre, Richard A. Gerberding (eds.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1996. p. 311. doi:10.7765/MMSO.47909.8.301. ISBN 978-0-7190-4790-9. 
  2. ^ "Pépin de Herstal (687 à 714)", Histoire-fr.com
  3. ^ Butler, Alban. "Willibrord", Butler's Lives of the Saints, Volume 11, Liturgical Press, 1995, ISBN 9780814623879


Pepin of Herstal (635-714)
Arnulfing Dynasty
Born: 635 Died: 714
Preceded by
Wulfoald
Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia
680–714
Succeeded by
Theudoald
Preceded by
Berthar
Mayor of the Palace of Neustria
688–695
Succeeded by
Grimoald the Younger
Mayor of the Palace of Burgundy
688–695
Succeeded by
Drogo
Preceded by
New title
Duke of the Franks
687–714
Succeeded by
Charles Martel


Footnotes (including sources)

‡ General