|— Oblast —|
|Nickname(s): Одещина (Odeshchyna)|
|• Governor||Volodymyr Nemyrovsky (Batkivshchyna)|
|• Oblast council||120 seats|
|• Chairperson||Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions)|
|• Total||33,310 km2 (12,860 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 1st|
|Population (September 1, 2013)|
|• Rank||Ranked 6|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-51|
|Cities of oblast subordinance||7|
Odessa Oblast (Ukrainian: Одеська область|, Odes’ka oblast’; also Odeshchyna (Одещина)) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Its administrative center is the city of Odessa.
History[edit | edit source]
The evidence of the earliest inhabitants in this area comes from the settlements and burial grounds of the Neolithic Gumelniţa, Cucuteni-Trypillian and Usatovo cultures, as well as tumuli and hoards of the Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Europeans. In the 1st millennium B.C. the Milesian Greeks built colonies along the North Black Sea Coast, including the towns of Olbia, Tyras, Niconium, Panticapaeum, and Chersonesus. The Greeks left behind painted vessels, ceramics, sculptures, inscriptions, arts and crafts that indicate the prosperity of their ancient civilisation.
The culture of Scythian tribes inhabiting the Black Sea littoral steppes is represented by finds from settlements and burial grounds. There are weapon items, bronze cauldrons, other utensils, adornments. By the beginning of the 1st millennium A.D. the Sarmatians displaced the Scythians. In the 3rd–4th centuries A.D. the tribal alliance, represented by the items of Chernyakhov culture, was created. Since the middle of the first millennium the formation of Slavic people began. In the 9th century they were united into a state with Kiev as a centre. The Khazars, Polovtsy, Pechenegs were the Slavs' neighbours during the different times. The period of the 9th–14th centuries is reflected by the materials from the settlements and cities of Kievan Rus', Belgorod, Caffa-Theodosia, Berezan Island.
Since the modern history period it was known as the Dnieper Provice (Ozu Eyalet) ruled by the Ottoman Empire and was unofficially known as the Khanate of Ukraine. In Russian historiography it was referred to as the Ochakov Oblast. The territory of the Odessa oblast was passed to Russia during the Russian southern expansion towards the Black Sea at the end of 18th century. Since then Russians heavily colonized the area establishing new cities and ports. In less than a hundred years the city of Odessa grew from a small fortress to the biggest metropolis of the New Russia.
After the World War I and February Revolution the area became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic, but soon it was lost first to the Russian Volunteer Army and then the Russian Red Army. By 1920 the territory of Odessa Oblast was secured by the Soviet authorities and became part of the Ukrainian SSR. The oblast was created on 27 February 1932 from five districts: Odessa Okruha, Pervomaisk Okruha, Kirovohrad Okruha, Mykolaiv Okruha, and Kherson Okruha. Before the World War II in 1937 eastern portions of the Odessa Oblast were split to create the Mykolaiv Oblast. During the World War II it was occupied by Romania as the Transnistria Province. After the war it was reestablished with its pre-war borders. Odessa Oblast was expanded in 1954 by absorbing Izmail Oblast (formerly known as Budjak region of Bessarabia).
Geography[edit | edit source]
The country's largest oblast by area, it occupies an area of around 33,300 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi). It is characterised by largely flat steppes divided by the estuary of the Dniester river. Its Black Sea coast comprises numerous sandy beaches, estuaries and lagoons. The region's soils are renowned for their fertility, and intensive agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy. The southwest possesses many orchards and vineyards, while arable crops are grown throughout the region.
Points of interest[edit | edit source]
Economy[edit | edit source]
Significant branches of the oblast's economy are:
- oil refining & chemicals processing
- transportation (important sea and river ports, oil pipelines and railway);
- viticulture and other forms of agriculture, notably the growing of wheat, maize, barley, sunflowers and sugar beets.
The region's industrial capability is principally concentrated in and around Odessa.
Demographics[edit | edit source]
The oblast's population (as of 2004) is 2.4 million people, nearly 40% of whom live in the city of Odessa.
Significant Bulgarian (6.1%) and Romanian (5.0%) minorities reside in the province. It has the highest proportion of Jews of any oblast in Ukraine (although smaller than the Autonomous City of Kiev) and there is a small Greek community in the city of Odessa.
|1990||1,8||33 166||2000||1,1||20 042||2010||1,6||28 690|
|1991||1,7||32 119||2001||1,1||20 423||2011||1,6||29 225|
|1992||1,6||30 155||2002||1,2||21 227||2012||1,7||30 384|
|1993||1,5||28 185||2003||1,2||22 326|
|1994||1,4||26 197||2004||1,3||23 343|
|1995||1,4||24 993||2005||1,3||23 915|
|1996||1,3||23 666||2006||1,4||25 113|
|1997||1,2||22 491||2007||1,5||26 759|
|1998||1,2||21 273||2008||1,6||28 780|
|1999||1,1||19 969||2009||1,6||28 986|
Age structure[edit | edit source]
- 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 188,937/female 179,536)
- 15-64 years: 70.7% (male 812,411/female 867,706)
- 65 years and over: 14.0% (male 116,702/female 218,808) (2013 official)
Median age[edit | edit source]
- total: 38.4 years
- male: 35.4 years
- female: 41.5 years (2013 official)
Subdivisions[edit | edit source]
The Odessa Oblast is administratively subdivided into 26 raions (districts), as well as 7 misto / mis'krada (municipalities) which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Illichivsk, Izmail, Kotovsk, Teplodar, Yuzhne, and the administrative center of the oblast, Odessa.
|In English||In Ukrainian||Administrative Centre||Area in km2||Population at
|Population at |
|Odesa misto||Одеса, місто||139||1,029,049||1,008,162|
|Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi mis'krada||Білгород-Дністровськ, Міськрада||Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi||31||58,436||57,206|
|Izmaïl misto||Ізмаїлі, місто||53||84,815||73,651|
|Illichivs'k mis'krada||Іллічівськ, Міськрада||Illichivs'k||25||63,726||71,691|
|Kotovs'k misto||Котовськ, містo||15||40,718||40,700|
|Teplodar misto||Теплодар, місто||3||8,830||10,165|
|Iuzhne misto||Южне, місто||9||23,977||30,857|
|In English||In Ukrainian||Administrative Center|
|Ananyiv Rayon||Ананьївський район
|Artsyz Rayon||Арцизький район
|Balta Rayon||Балтський район
|Berezivka Rayon||Березівський район
|Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Rayon||Білгород-Дністровський район
|Biliayivka Rayon||Біляївський район
|Bolhrad Rayon||Болградський район
|Frunzivka Rayon||Фрунзівський район
|Ivanivka Rayon||Іванівський район
|Izmail Rayon||Ізмаїльський район
|Kiliya Rayon||Кілійський район
|Kodyma Rayon||Кодимський район
|Kominternivske Rayon||Комінтернівський район
|Kotovsk Rayon||Котовський район
|Krasni Okny Rayon||Красноокнянський район
|Krasni Okny |
|Liubashivka Rayon||Любашівський район
|Mykolaivka Rayon||Миколаївський район
|Ovidiopol Rayon||Овідіопольський район
|Reni Raion||Ренійський район
|Rozdilna Rayon||Роздільнянський район
|Sarata Rayon||Саратський район
|Savran Rayon||Савранський район
|Shyriayeve Rayon||Ширяївський район
|Tarutyne Rayon||Тарутинський район
|Tatarbunary Rayon||Татарбунарський район
|Velyka Mykhailivka Rayon||Великомихайлівський район
|Velyka Mykhailivka |
Nomenclature[edit | edit source]
Most of Ukraine's oblasts are named after their capital cities, officially referred to as "oblast centers" (Ukrainian: обласний центр|, translit. oblasnyi tsentr). The name of each oblast is a relative adjective, formed by adding a feminine suffix to the name of respective center city: Odessa is the center of the Odes’ka oblast’ (Odessa Oblast). Most oblasts are also sometimes referred to in a feminine noun form, following the convention of traditional regional place names, ending with the suffix "-shchyna", as is the case with the Odessa Oblast, Odeshchyna. In Romanian, it is known as Regiunea Odesa, and in Greek, as η Οδησσός.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ a b Southeastern Ukraine gets invasion of Russian protesters, Kyiv Post (March 7, 2014)
- ^ "State Statistics Committee of Ukraine". http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- ^ Results of the 2001 All-Ukrainian population census for the Odessa oblast
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