Main Births etc
Neuss
Town hall
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Düsseldorf
District Rhein-Kreis Neuss
Founded
First mentioned
Government
 • Mayor Reiner Breuer (SPD)
Area
 • Total 99.48 km2 (38.41 sq mi)
Elevation 40 m (130 ft)
Population (2010-12-31)[1]
 • Total 151,388
 • Density 1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 41460-41472
Dialling codes 02131, 02137 (Norf), 02182
Vehicle registration NE, GV
Website www.neuss.de

Neuss (German pronunciation: [nɔʏs]  ( listen); spelled Neuß until 1968; Limburgish: Nüss Template:IPA-li; Latin: Novaesium) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district. It is primarily known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. Neuss and Trier share the title of "Germany's oldest city"; and in 1984 Neuss celebrated the 2000th anniversary of its founding in 16 BCE.

History[edit | edit source]

Rheinbahn tram in downtown Neuss.

Saint Sebastianus church in the city of Neuss

Ancient Rome[edit | edit source]

Neuss was founded by the Romans in 16 BC as a military fortification (castrum) with the current city to the north of the castrum, at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Erft, with the name of Novaesium.

Legio XVI Gallica ("Gallic 16th Legion") of the Roman army was stationed here in 43-70 AD. It was disbanded after surrendering during the Batavian rebellion (AD 70).[2]

Later a civil settlement was founded in the area of today's centre of the town during the 1st century AD. Novaesium, together with Trier (Augusta Treverorum), is one of the three oldest Roman settlements in Germany.

Middle Ages[edit | edit source]

Neuss grew during the Middle Ages because of its prime location on several routes, by the crossing of the great Rhine valley, and with its harbour and ferry. During the 10th century, the remains of the martyr and tribune Saint Quirinus, not to be confused with the Roman god Quirinus, had been relocated to Neuss. This resulted in pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Quirinus even from countries beyond the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Neuss was first documented as a town in 1138.

One of the main events in the town's history is the siege of the town in 1474–75 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, that lasted for nearly a year. The citizens of Neuss withstood the siege and were therefore rewarded by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. The town was granted the right to mint its own coins and to carry the imperial coat of arms, the imperial eagle and the crown, in the town's own coat of arms. Neuss became a member of the Hanseatic League, although it was never accepted by the other members of the League.

Early modernity[edit | edit source]

In 1586, more than two-thirds of the city was destroyed by fire, and several wars during the reign of King Louis XIV of France resulted in worsening finances for Neuss. Its importance as a place for trading declined rapidly, and from the mid-17th century onwards, Neuss became a place only important for its agriculture.

Until the late 18th century, Neuss belonged to the Electorate of Cologne. From 1794 to 1814, Neuss was part of France during the reign of Napoleon. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, Neuss became part of the Kingdom of Prussia, and was reorganized as a district with the municipalities of Neuss, Dormagen, Nettesheim, Nievenheim, Rommerskirchen and Zons. The town had a population of 6,333 at that time. It was part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1815–22) and its successor, the Rhine Province (1822–1946).

19th century – present[edit | edit source]

Neuss regained its economic power in the 19th century, with expansion of the harbour in 1835, and increasing industrial activity. The city's boundaries were expanded in 1881. Neuss became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in 1946.

In 1968 the spelling of the name was changed from Neuß to Neuss. In 1975 the town of Neuss and the district of Grevenbroich were joined to form the district of Rhein-Kreis Neuss with a population of 440,000 and its seat of government in Neuss. Neuss is also home to Toshiba's European headquarters.

Largest groups of foreign residents[3]
Nationality Population (2018)
 Turkey 5,440
 Poland 1,775
 Greece 1,627
 Portugal 1,132
 Italy 1,088
 Serbia and Montenegro 1,072
 Syria 982
 Croatia 829

Mayors and Lord Mayors since 1849[edit | edit source]

  • 1849–1851: Heinrich Thywissen, Mayor (Bürgermeister)
  • 1851–1858: Michael Frings, Mayor
  • 1858–1882: Johann Joseph Ridder, Mayor
  • 1882–1889: Carl Wenders, Mayor
  • 1890–1902: Engelbert Tilmann, Mayor
  • 1902–1921: Franz Gielen, Lord Mayor
  • 1921–1930: Heinrich Hüpper, Lord Mayor
  • 1930–1934: Wilhelm Henrichs, Centre Party, Lord Mayor (Oberbürgermeister)
  • 1934–1938: Wilhelm Eberhard Gelberg, NSDAP, Lord Mayor
  • 1938–1945: Wilhelm Tödtmann, NSDAP, Lord Mayor
  • 1945–1946: Josef Nagel, Lord Mayor
  • 1946: Josef Schmitz, Lord Mayor
  • 1946–1961: Alfons Frings, CDU, Lord Mayor
  • 1961–1967: Peter Wilhelm Kallen, Lord Mayor
  • 1967–1982: Herbert Karrenberg, CDU, Lord Mayor
  • 1982–1987: Hermann Wilhelm Thywissen, CDU, Lord Mayor
  • 1987–1998: Bertold Mathias Reinartz, CDU, Mayor
  • 1998–2015: Herbert Napp, CDU, Mayor
  • 2015–present: Reiner Breuer, SPD, Mayor

Number of inhabitants[edit | edit source]

  • 1798: 4,423
  • 1831: 7,888
  • 1861: 10,300
  • 1885: 20,074
  • 1900: 28,472
  • 1925: 44,958
  • 1945: 51,624
  • 1965: 111,104
  • 1987: 142,178
  • 2015: 159,672

Sports[edit | edit source]

One sports club is Neusser Schlittschuh-Klub. Their sections are figure skating, ice stock sport and, as the only club in Germany, bandy. With the lack of a large ice surface, the variety rink bandy is practiced.[4] There are also two football clubs in the city of Neuss, VfR Neuss Football Club, and DJK Novesia Neuss. There is also a fieldhockey club, HTC Schwarz-Weiss Neuss, and TC Blau-Weiss Neuss, a famous tennis club where Nadal began his career. And an American Football Club, the Neuss Frogs. Besides Neuss owns an all-weather racecourse called "Galopprennbahn Neuss".

Points of interest[edit | edit source]

Notable people[edit | edit source]

Theodor Schwann 1857

Twin towns – sister cities[edit | edit source]

Neuss is twinned with:[6]

Gallery[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

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