|— City —|
|City of Muskegon|
|Nickname(s): Lumbertown, Port City, Lumber Queen of the World, Skeetown|
|Muskegon County, Michigan|
|• Mayor||Stephen J. Gawron |
|• City Manager||Frank Peterson|
|• City||18.12 sq mi (46.93 km2)|
|• Land||14.21 sq mi (36.80 km2)|
|• Water||3.91 sq mi (10.13 km2)|
|Elevation||617 ft (191.4 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||37,046|
|• Density||2,702.4/sq mi (1,043.4/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1620963|
Muskegon (mus-kēg'n) is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan, on the shore of Lake Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the city population is 38,401. The city is the county seat of Muskegon County. It is located at the southwest corner of Muskegon Township, but is administratively autonomous.
Muskegon is the larger of the two cities in the Muskegon-Norton Shores Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 172,188 as of 2010. It is further included in the larger Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland Combined Statistical Area (CSA) with a population of 1,321,557.
Muskegon is the largest city on the eastern shores of Lake Michigan.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture and recreation
- 8 Media
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Sister cities
- 11 Notable people
- 12 References
- 13 External links
History[edit | edit source]
Human occupation of the Muskegon area goes back seven or eight thousand years to the nomadic Paleo-Indian hunters who occupied the area following the retreat of the Wisconsonian glaciations. The Paleo-Indians were succeeded by several stages of Woodland Indian developments, the most notable of whom were the Hopewellian type-tradition, which occupied this area, perhaps two thousand years ago.
During historic times, the Muskegon area was inhabited by various bands of the Ottawa and Pottawatomi Indian tribes. Perhaps the best remembered of the Indian inhabitants of the area was Ottawa Indian Chief, Pendalouan. A leading participant in the French-inspired annihilation of the Fox Indians of Illinois in the 1730s, he and his people lived in the Muskegon vicinity during the 1730s and 1740s until induced by the French to move the settlement to the Traverse Bay area in 1742.
The name "Muskegon" is derived from the Ottawa Indian term "Masquigon" meaning "marshy river or swamp". The "Masquigon" River was identified on French maps dating from the late seventeenth century, suggesting that French explorers had reached Michigan's western coast by that time.
Father Jacques Marquette traveled northward through the area on his fateful trip to St. Ignace in 1675 and a party of French soldiers under La Salle's lieutenant, Henry de Tonty, passed through the area in 1679.
The earliest known Euro-American resident of the county was Edward Fitzgerald, a fur trader and trapper who first came to the Muskegon area in 1748 and who died there, reportedly being buried in the vicinity of White Lake. Sometime between 1790 and 1800, a French-Canadian trader named Joseph La Framboise established a fur trading post at the mouth of Duck Lake. Between 1810 and 1820, several French Canadian fur traders, including Lamar Andie, Jean Baptiste Recollect and Pierre Constant had established fur trading posts around Muskegon Lake.
Euro-American settlement of Muskegon began in earnest in 1837, which coincided with the beginning of the exploitation of the area's extensive timber resources. The commencement of the lumber industry in 1837 inaugurated what some regard as the most romantic era in the history of the region.
Some neighborhoods of Muskegon began as separate villages. Bluffton was founded as a lumbering village in 1862 in Laketon Township. It had its own post office from 1868 until 1892. It was annexed by Muskegon in 1889.
Geography and climate[edit | edit source]
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.12 square miles (46.93 km2), of which, 14.21 square miles (36.80 km2) is land and 3.91 square miles (10.13 km2) is water. The city is adjacent to two bodies of water: Lake Michigan to the west and Muskegon Lake to the north. The Muskegon River empties into Muskegon Lake at the city's northeast end.
|Climate data for Muskegon, Michigan|
|Record high °F (°C)||63
|Average high °F (°C)||30.8
|Average low °F (°C)||19.1
|Record low °F (°C)||−21
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.00
|Snowfall inches (cm)||29.7
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||15.7||12.2||11.2||12.1||10.7||9.0||9.5||9.0||10.1||11.9||14.1||15.7||141.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||15.3||11.0||6.1||1.7||0||0||0||0||0||0.3||4.0||12.9||51.4|
|Source #1: NOAA (normals 1981−2010),|
|Source #2: ThreadEx (extremes 1892−2012) |
Geographic features[edit | edit source]
Demographics[edit | edit source]
2010 census[edit | edit source]
As of the census of 2010, there were 38,401 people, 13,967 households, and 7,895 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,702.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,043.4 /km2). There were 16,105 housing units at an average density of 1,133.4 per square mile (437.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 57.0% White, 34.5% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.6% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.2% of the population.
There were 13,967 households of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.9% were married couples living together, 22.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.5% were non-families. 36.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.09.
The median age in the city was 34.1 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 12.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.8% were from 25 to 44; 24.1% were from 45 to 64; and 11.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 52.1% male and 47.9% female.
2000 census[edit | edit source]
As of the census of 2000, there were 40,105 people, 14,569 households, and 8,537 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,794.5 per square mile (1,079.1/km²). There were 15,999 housing units at an average density of 1,114.8 per square mile (430.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 57.9% White, 31.7% African American, 2.3% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.69% from other races, and 3.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any origins were 6.4% of the population.
There were 14,569 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.2% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.4% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.13.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,929, and the median income for a family was $32,640. Males had a median income of $29,114 versus $22,197 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,283. About 16.8% of families and 20.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over.
Economy[edit | edit source]
- Major employers
- Alcoa-Howmet Castings (Whitehall, MI, formerly Misco) - Aerospace components manufacturing<
- L3 Communications (formerly Teledyne) - Armored vehicle manufacturing
- Pratt & Whitney Component Solutions - a United Technologies Company
- GE Aviation - Muskegon, (formerly Johnson Technology) - Turbine engine components manufacturing
- Kaydon Corp - Precision Bearings
- Consumers Energy - Coal-fired power plant
- Mahle (Formerly Dana (formerly Sealed Power)) - Piston Rings - Aerospace
- Wesco, inc. (Headquarters)
- Cannon-Muskegon Corporation - Specialty alloys
- Cole's Quality Foods - Garlic Bread, Frozen Foods
- Nugent Sand
- Michigan's Adventure - Amusement Park
- Reid Supply Company
- Great Lakes Die Cast (formerly Dilesco)
- Anderson Global (Formerly Anderson Pattern)
- Mercy Health - Member of Trinity Health
- Century Foundry
- Knoll Inc.
- Port City Group
- SAF-Holland - Muskegon (Formerly Neway Equipment Company) - Comercial vehicle axles, suspensions and coupling devices
In 1976, Muskegon Mall was built in downtown Muskegon, featuring Sears, Steketee's, and Hardy's-Herpolsheimer's. A second mall, The Lakes Mall, was built southeast of town in 2001, resulting in the closure of Muskegon Mall.
Other retail sectors include Apple Avenue, Sherman Boulevard, and Henry Street.
Government[edit | edit source]
Education[edit | edit source]
Muskegon Public Schools was founded in 1860 and serves students from preschool through 12th grade. Additionally, it runs the Muskegon Museum of Art and the Muskegon Training and Education Center. In addition to Muskegon Public Schools, the anchor district for the city, there are several other public K-12 schools. These include Mona Shores, Reeths-Puffer, North Muskegon, Fruitport, Orchard View, Oakridge, and Muskegon Heights as well as private K-12 schools: Muskegon Catholic Central, Fruitport Calvary Christian, and Western Michigan Christian.
In 2010, North Muskegon High School was noted as the top performing public school in the State of Michigan by the state Department of Education.
Grand Valley State University's Muskegon Campus is home to the Michigan Alternative and Renewable Energy Center (MAREC) and Annis Water Resources Institute (AWRI) inside the Lake Michigan Center located in downtown Muskegon.
Western Michigan University, Ferris State University, and Grand Valley State University all operate programs out of the Stevenson Center for Higher Education on the campus of Muskegon Community College. It is designed so that an undergrad at MCC may transfer to any of the above schools and complete a bachelors and/or masters degree without having to leave Muskegon.
Culture and recreation[edit | edit source]
Music and fine arts[edit | edit source]
Muskegon County is home to Blue Lake Fine Arts Camp, located in the Manistee National Forest in the town of Twin Lake.
Once a movie house, the Frauenthal Center for the Performing Arts includes two theaters (the main Frauenthal house and the smaller Beardsley Theater in the adjoining Hilt Building). It was refurbished in 1998, and runs JAM Theatrical productions, Muskegon Civic Theatre productions, is home of the West Michigan Symphony Orchestra, was the venue for all Muskegon Community Concert Association events, and used to be home to the now-defunct Cherry County Playhouse.
Muskegon also has one the of founding chapters of the Barbershop Harmony Society.
Muskegon also houses a moderate-sized private collection of fine art in the Muskegon Museum of Art.
Festivals[edit | edit source]
A lackluster attendance in 2011 caused the cancellation of the 2012 Muskegon Summer Celebration festival. A new festival, Coast West has taken its place. The Art Fair also returned in 2013.
Muskegon Bike Time is held every July. From the website: Over 35,000 bikes (with 38 states and Canada represented) and 90,000 people visited the lakeshore community of Muskegon, Michigan for the event in 2010. Bike Time was attended by an estimated 100,000 people in 2012.
The Muskegon Motorcycle Club, organized in 1920, hosts the Hill Climb every other year, an American Motorcycle Association (AMA) sanctioned race.
The Muskegon Film Festival is held in May.
In September, the Michigan Irish Music Festival brings renowned Celtic musicians to Heritage Landing on the shore of Muskegon Lake. Artists have included Tommy Makem, Gaelic Storm, Slide, The Old Blind Dogs, Scythian and many more. In addition to music, Irish food, beverages, merchandise and cultural exhibits contribute to the appeal of this event. The Michigan Feis (Irish Dance competition) is affiliated and is held at Muskegon Catholic Central High School.
In early October, the International Buster Keaton Society visit Muskegon to host their annual convention. The event features public showings of Keaton films at the Frauenthal Theater.
Museums and theater[edit | edit source]
Broadway at the Frauenthal (fall through spring) brings Broadway musicals to Muskegon. Muskegon is also home to Muskegon Museum of Art and West Michigan Symphony Orchestra. The Muskegon Community Concert Association provides concerts from September through May.
Lakeshore Museum Center (formerly known as Muskegon County Museum) and Hackley & Hume Historic Site: Mansions built by Muskegon's lumber barons themselves are restored to their old glory and open to the public. The mansions are operated with the Lakeshore Museum Center, which details the grand, rich history of Muskegon County, from the Pottawatomi and Ottawa Native American tribes and lakeside fur traders to the Lumber Queen of the World to today. Also includes science and nature exhibits.
The Muskegon Museum of Art is touted as one of the finest art museums in the Midwest. Among the highlights of its permanent collection is Tornado Over Kansas, by John Steuart Curry (one of three leading painters, along with Grant Wood and Thomas Hart Benton, identified as Regionalists and known for their canvases celebrating the rural Midwest).
Muskegon is also the home of the USS Silversides Submarine Museum, which features the USS Silversides, a World War II submarine; the USS LST-393, a World War II amphibious landing ship; and the USCGC McLane, a Prohibition-era United States Coast Guard cutter.
In addition, Muskegon also berths the S.S. Milwaukee Clipper, a former car ferry that traveled the same route as Lake Express does today. The ship (which is a National Historic Landmark) is in the middle of a long process of being restored to its original form, but in the meantime is open for tours and hosts a museum aboard the vessel with information on both the Milwaukee Clipper, as well as the history of maritime in Muskegon. Muskegon is an historical port for commerce and lake travel. The lumbering era through World War II was its busiest historical use. Its image as a port the city has embraced with the local nickname 'The Port City'. It possesses a fine deep-water port and still functions delivering bulk cement, aggregate, and large cargoes to several lakeshore facilities, also coal to the B.C. Cobb power plant, an outdated coal-burning facility due to shut down.
- Carr-Fles Planetarium, Muskegon
- The Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame exhibits, detailing the area's rich athletic past, are on display at the L.C. Walker Arena.
Outdoor recreation[edit | edit source]
Muskegon State Park and Winter Sports Complex with all season Luge run.
Pere Marquette Beach The largest free public beach on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Windsurfing, kite boarding competitions, and professional volleyball tournaments are held there. Its quartz sand beach is a Clean Beaches Counsel certified beach.
Muskegon Lake is a 1st. class walleye fishery and has many other freshwater species including the Lake Perch. Lake Michigan off Muskegon host large numbers of coho and Chinook salmon, steelhead, and brown trout, lake perch and many other game fish.
Sailing and recreational boating are major summer pastimes with many services and marinas in the area for boats of all sizes.
Muskegon Lakeshore Bike Trail—Bike along the shores of Muskegon Lake to Lake Michigan. There are two trails that consist the Muskegon bike paths, one runs along the east side of Muskegon and the other along the north side.
Michigan's Adventure, the largest amusement park in the state, is located in Muskegon County, a few miles north of the city of Muskegon. Michigan's Adventure features a midway with roller coasters, general rides, amusements, and a full water park.
Sports[edit | edit source]
Muskegon has a long history of involvement in professional and nonprofessional sports.
|Muskegon Lumberjacks||Ice hockey||United States Hockey League||L.C. Walker Arena|
Previous sports teams to play in Muskegon have included:
|Muskegon Lumberjacks/Fury (1992–2010)||Hockey||1992−2010||IHL, UHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Thunder||Indoor football||2007−2009||IFL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Michigan Mayhem||Basketball||2004−2006||CBA||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Lumberjacks (1984–1992)||Hockey||1984−1992||IHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Mohawks||Hockey||1965−1984||IHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Zephyrs||Hockey||1960−1965||IHL||L.C. Walker Arena|
|Muskegon Lassies||Baseball||1946−1949||AAGPBL||Marsh Field|
The Chronicle Seaway Run is run every year in late June. It features a 15k race, 5k race, 5k walk for fun, 15k wheelchair race.
Media[edit | edit source]
- Muskegon's leading newspaper is The Muskegon Chronicle. The Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Muskegon, Michigan owned by Booth Newspapers. It started publication in 1857.
- Muskegon is served by several local television channels:
- WMKG-CA 38 is a low-powered television station serving the area. This station features a homey mix of programming such as television bingo and Dial-A-Bargain. The Dial-A-Bargain show includes a host reading menus from various local eateries. Viewers may then call in and purchase certificates for that particular establishment at 50% off the regular price.
- DSETV-97 is the locally run Government-access television (GATV) cable TV channel based out of City Hall Privately ran by Digital Spectrum Enterprises on Comcast Cable Channel 97. It features Live televised City Hall meetings as well as a long list of locally made television shows showcasing Muskegon. It also is home to Local Sporting events.
- MCCTV-98 is Muskegon Community College's television outlet on Comcast Cable Channel 98.
- WWMT-TV 3 (CBS and CW), WOOD-TV 8 (NBC), WZZM-TV 13 (ABC), WXMI-TV 17 (FOX), WOMS-TV 29 (MNTV), WGVU-TV 35 (PBS), WOTV (ABC), WZPX (ION), and WTLJ-TV 54 (TBN). Green Bay, Milwaukee, South Bend, and Chicago affiliates are also common in the warmer months.
- Comcast holds the local cable franchise.
- The Muskegon area is also served by several radio stations. WUVS-LP 103.7 is a popular urban (hip-hop/R&B) and gospel station with local programming as well as Sunday religious programming and local-based talk. Another local low-powered FM station is WMMT-LP 106.1, owned by the Muskegon Training and Education Center, which airs an Urban Oldies format dubbed "M-TEC 106 FM, Rock 'n' Soul."
- Local radio talk shows include the Ramona Show on WKBZ 1090. On this show the host interviews local small business people. A once-a-week, Friday afternoon show on the same station is called "Talking Muskegon". "Talking Muskegon" is hosted by local celebrity Jon Van Wyke. It features homey conversations about area nightlife, his work life and volunteer activities, and the state of the professional hockey team the Muskegon Fury. Usually the show is co-hosted..
- Other local FM stations include 90.3 WBLV-FM (classical/jazz/NPR), 91.7 WMCQ-FM (religious), WLAW-FM 92.5 ("outlaw" country), WGVS-FM 95.3 (public radio), WWSN FM 97.5 (sports), WLCS-FM 98.3 (oldies), WVIB-FM 100.1 (urban contemporary), WMRR-FM 101.7 (classic rock), WSNX-FM 104.5 (top 40, studios in Grand Rapids), WMUS-FM 106.9 (country), and WMUS FM 107.9 (adult contemporary). Other local AM stations aside from WKBZ include WGVS 850 (NPR), WKLQ 1490 (sports), and WMHG-AM 1600 (adult standards). Other area stations can be received from Grand Haven (WGHN-FM 92.1, adult contemporary), Grand Rapids (WGRD-FM 97.9), Ludington, Holland, Zeeland (WJQK-FM 99.3, Christian pop), and Milwaukee.
- Clear Channel Communications is the major radio-station owner in Muskegon, owning WKBZ-AM, WSHZ-FM, WMUS-FM, WMRR-FM and WMHG-AM, as well as WSNX (although WSNX is considered primarily a Grand Rapids station despite being licensed to Muskegon). Citadel Broadcasting owns WODJ-AM, WLAW-FM, WEFG-FM, WLCS-FM and WVIB-FM.
Transportation[edit | edit source]
MATS operates the Muskegon Trolley Company. Three routes cover north side, south side, and downtown; each trolley stops at 11 locations, including Hackley and Hume Historic Site, USS Silversides, Muskegon State Park. (Memorial Day-Labor Day, daily; no trips during special events).
Muskegon is the eastern port of the Lake Express High Speed Car Ferry that crosses Lake Michigan to Milwaukee, Wisconsin offering three roundtrips a day in the summer, and two roundtrips in the fall. There are many bike paths starting to be built around the area.
Several major highways serve the city, including:
Major roads[edit | edit source]
Sister cities[edit | edit source]
Notable people[edit | edit source]
- Joseph Beyrle, only soldier to have served in both the US Army and the Soviet Army in World War II
- John Beyrle, son of Joseph Beyrle, appointed as United States Ambassador to the Russian Federation on May 13, 2008, confirmed July 3, 2008.
- Nancy Anne Fleming, Miss America 1961
- Mark Grimmette, American luger
- David Leestma, astronaut
- Earl Morrall, former NFL quarterback
- Rocky Marquette Actor known for roles in Shallow Ground and Mortuary
- Harry Morgan, Actor in popular M*A*S*H television series.
- Frank Stanton, past president of CBS
- Vonda Kay Van Dyke, Miss America 1965
- Richard Versalle, opera singer
- Captain Jonathan Walker, "The Man With Branded Hand", abolitionist
- Business and politics
- Charles Hackley (1837–1905), lumber baron, philanthropist (Hackley Hospital, Hackley Library, Hackley Administration Building, Hackley Avenue, Hackley Art Gallery, Hackley Park). After a gift of $12,000,000 to the community, the city of Muskegon considered changing its name to "Hackleyville"
- Richard Mell, Politician
- Jim Bakker, TV Evangelist
- Edmund Cardinal Szoka, cardinal, President Emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
- Science and technology
- Clara H. Hasse (1880–1926), botanist
- W. Wesley Peterson, mathematician and computer scientist, best known for inventing the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
- Haddon Sundblom, Graphic Arts Designer best known for his images of Santa Claus for Coca-Cola.
- Laurie Keller, children's book writer and illustrator best known for The Scrambled States of America and Grandpa Gazillion's Number Yard
- John Frederick Nims, poet
- Lewis B. Smedes, Theologian and Author
- Bob Wood, author of Dodger Dogs to Fenway Franks and Big Ten Country.
- Steve Gorman, drummer, Black Crowes, born in Muskegon.
- Rick Johnson, musician, bass player for Mustard Plug
- Bettye LaVette, soul singer
- Iggy Pop, punk rock icon
- Wayne Static, lead singer and guitarist for industrial metal band, Static-X.
- Bill Szymczyk, musical producer of the Eagles, The Who and others.
- Gerry Teifer, music publisher, songwriter, performer
- Buster Keaton, comedian and film director; born in Kansas but spent the summers of his childhood in Muskegon with his family as a member of the Muskegon Actors' Colony. As a vaudevillian who traveled constantly in non-summer months, Keaton always regarded Muskegon as his home town.
- Kate Reinders, Broadway actress known for playing the role of Glinda in Wicked and Caroline in Good Vibrations
- Harry Morgan, versatile stage, film and TV actor best remembered as Colonel Potter on the TV series M*A*S*H (1972–1983)
- Frank Stanton, Former President of CBS
- Ron Jenkins – ABA coach, West Michigan Lake Hawks
- Justin Abdelkader – NHL player, Detroit Red Wings
- Curtis Adams – former San Diego Chargers running back
- Beatrice Allard – All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player
- Donna Cook – AAGPBL player
- Doris Cook – AAGPBL player
- Paul Dekker – NFL and CFL player
- Tony Ferguson – winner of Ultimate Fighter Season 13
- Bobby Grich – MLB All-star second baseman for the Baltimore Orioles and California Angels
- Mark Grimmette – Men's double luge, winner of Olympic silver (2002) and bronze (1998) medals
- Trisa Hayes – wrestling manager in Extreme Championship Wrestling
- Mark Hughes – former NCAA basketball player and professional basketball coach
- Ronald Johnson – University of Southern California and San Francisco 49ers wide receiver
- Beulah McGillicutty – wrestling manager in Extreme Championship Wrestling
- Nate McLouth – MLB player for the Baltimore Orioles
- Ruvell Martin – NFL player for the Seattle Seahawks
- Earl Morrall – former NFL player and three-time Super Bowl winner
- Robert Morse – NFL player for the New Orleans Saints
- Don Nelson – NBA Basketball Coach
- Ray Newman – MLB pitcher
- Bennie Oosterbaan – three-time University of Michigan All-American football player and head coach
- Terrance Taylor – Detroit Lions defensive tackle
- Bob Zuppke – University of Illinois Football coach
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ "City of Muskegon". http://www.muskegon-mi.gov/elected-officials/stephen-gawron/. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/files/Gaz_places_national.txt. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2012/SUB-EST2012.html. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ USGS GNIS: Muskegon, Michigan
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ Population of Michigan Regions and Statistical Areas, 2000 and 2010, at www.michigan.gov
- ^ Sherman, Elizabeth B. (2003). Beyond the Windswept Dunes: The Story of Maritime Muskegon, p. 2. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3127-0.
- ^ Helen Hornbeck Tanner. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987) p. 134
- ^ Walter Romig, Michigan Place Names, p. 68
- ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=grr. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- ^ "Thread Stations Extremes". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://threadex.rcc-acis.org/. Retrieved 2011−01−29.
- ^ Muskegon, Michigan (MI) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news
- ^ "Muskegon Correctional Facility (MCF). Michigan Department of Corrections. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ^ "Post Office™ Location - MUSKEGON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ^ North Muskegon High School top-performing in state; Muskegon Heights the lowest | MLive.com
- ^ Muskegon Summer Celebration Will Not Return In 2012
- ^ Alexander, Dave (February 9, 2012). "New Muskegon music festival to have a different look and feel, organizers promise". Muskegon Chronicle. http://downtownmuskegon.org/about-us/news/129-new-muskegon-music-festival-to-have-a-different-look-and-feel-organizers-promise. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- ^ Muskegon summer art fair re-emerges as Lakeshore Art Festival | 2012-11-27 | Grand Rapids Business Journal
- ^ Lakeshore Museum Center, "Lakeshore Museum Center History", Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- ^ Muskegon Museum of Art, Tornado Over Kansas.
- ^ Michigan DNR on Hoffmaster State Park.
- ^ MATS History
[edit | edit source]
- City of Muskegon
- Muskegon Area Chamber of Commerce
- Muskegon Guide
- Muskegon Chronicle
- Muskegon Business Directory
- Muskegon Convention and Visitor's Bureau
- Muskegon Area Sports Hall of Fame
- Muskegon Museum of Art
- Muskegon, Michigan at the Open Directory Project
- Seven Towns Where Land Is Free; CNBC.com; November 17, 2010
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