Mstislav Mstivlavich of Novgorod, Prince of Tripolye, Prince of Toropets, Prince of Torchesk, Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Halych, was born 1170 to Mstislav Rostislavich of Novgorod (c1143-1180) and died 1228 Torchesk, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine of unspecified causes. Charlemagne (747-814)/s.

Mstislav Mstislav Udatnyi (i.e. "lucky»[L 1]), presumably baptised Fyodor (up to 1176 - 1228 , Torchesk ) - Prince of Tripolye (1193-1203), Prince of Toropets (1206-1213) Prince of Novgorod (1209-1215, 1216-1218), Prince of Halych (1215-1216, 1219-1226), Prince of Torchesk (1203-1207, 1226-1228) [1]. The son of Mstislav Rostislavich the Brave, the younger of Smolensk Rostislavich. Grandfather of Aleksandr Svyatoslavich Nevsky and Lev Galitsky and of Feodosya Igoryevna of Ryazan. He was a gifted commander, repeatedly won victories in battles. Together with other Russian princes, he was defeated in the Battle of the Kalka River .

Parents and seniority

Mstislav was probalbly the oldest of the three sons of Mstislav Rostislavovich. V.V. Boguslavsky points out that Mstislav was the only son of Mstislav Rostislavovich from his first marriage with Feodosia, the daughter of Prince of Ryazan Gleb Rostislavich[1]. In this case, it is explained why he had the greatest significance from them: his brother Vladimir, who for some time was Prince of Pskov, acted in the mainstream of the policy of Mstislav, who reigned in Novgorod. After the revival of Mstislav in Halych, the formerly important principality of Toropetskoe in Smolensk land was given to Davyd, killed in 1225 in a battle with the Lithuanians . According to another version [2], Mstislav was the grandson of Yaroslav Osmomysl, then his successful claims to the Principality of Halych throne can be explained.

Sources and dating of events

The main sources for the events of the biography of Mstislav are the Novgorod First Chronicle , the Laurentian Chronicle and the Galician-Volhynian Annals , dating in which differ significantly. Their comparative analysis with the involvement of foreign sources for the restoration of a single chronology was undertaken by Berezhkov NG [3] and in the part connected with the Galician-Volyn lands - Grushevsky MS [4]

Biography

Not mentioned in the testament of his father; For a long time after the death of the latter (1180), there is no evidence of any kind of action - alone or in conjunction with uncles or cousins. F. B. Uspensky considers this reinforcement of the assumption that Mstislav was the posthumous and youngest son of his father. "If he were older than his brother Vladimir (who, after a year or two after the death of his father, had already taken part in military campaigns), he would have been Mstislav the Brave by the time of an adult or almost adult prince" [5]. .

The earliest mention of the prince refers to 1193 and 1198 and tells of his interaction with the family of his uncle Ryurik Rostislavich and his son Rostislav Rurikovich. Participated in campaigns against the Polovtsians in 1193 and 1203 . The campaign of 1193 was a joint outing of Mstislav and his cousin Rostislav Rurikovich, secretly done away from the elder kinsmen of princes, especially from Uncle Ryurik [5].

In 1196, on the orders of his uncle, Ryurik , together with Vladimir Galitsky attacked the possessions of Roman Volynsky. In 1207 he was put in the southern outpost of Torchesk on the river Ros, from which he was beaten during the victorious campaign of Vsevolod Chermny to Kiev. Mstislav fled to the Smolensk principality, where in 1207 he received from Ryurik Rostislavich 's uncle Toropets Kiev . In 1209, becoming a Novgorod prince, he began a struggle with Vsevolod the Big Nest , which continued the policy of Andrei Bogolyubsky . In 1210 and in winter1212 with a 15-thousand army made two successful campaigns against two groups of Estonians .

The Kiev campaing

Main article: Rostislavich's Kiev campaign After the death of Ryurik Rostislavich on Chernigov [L2] reign (1212[L 2] [3][6][7] ) and Vsevolod the Big Nest Vsevolod Chermny accused of hanging two northern Igorevichs in Halych a year before (1211) Smolensk Rostislavichi and made an attempt to deprive their possessions in the Kiev land .

Vnutsi Rostislavli was sent for help to the Novgorodians and Mstislav, and in June 1212[3][6][8] the army moved towards Kiev. In Smolensk, an incident occurred between the warriors of Smolenskand those of [[Novgorod[], during which one warriors of Smolensk died. Nevertheless, this did not prevent further joint actions. First, the allies ravaged several Chernigov cities on the Dnieper River (the name is known only to Rechitsa), besieged Vyshgorod, where they caught Rostislav Yaroslavich (grandson of Vsevolod Olgovich) and his brother Yaroslav, Oleg's grandson .

Upon learning of the surrender of Vyshhorod, Vsevolod Chermny left Kiev for [[Chernigov], and Rostislavichi entered Kiev and was imprisoned by Ingvar Yaroslavich Lutsky, once reigning in Kiev (1201-1203). Information about the reign of Ingvar before Mstislav Romanovich, who then moved from Smolensk to Kiev, is presented in the Resurrection Chronicle.

Immediately after this the Allies besieged the Chernigov, stood under it for 12 days and made peace. Vsevolod Chermny remained to reign in Chernigov.

Fighting the younger Vsevolodovichi

1216 year. Lipitskaya battle. Mstislav Udatny's entry into battle. Miniature from the Archival Chronicle of the 16th century. Main article: Lipitskaya battle

In February 1216 , when Yaroslav Vsevolodovich captured Torzhok and blocked the delivery of food to Novgorod, Mstislav returned to the north and led the Novgorod-Smolensk army in the Battle of the Lipitsa River on April 21, in which a strong army of Vladimir-Suzdal princes, which also included Murom, was defeated, and the Vladimir throne was taken by Mstislav's ally, the elder Vsevolodovich Constantine , married to Mstislav Romanovich's sister.

The rule in Halych

Main article: Galician trips of Mstislav Udatnogo According to one version, Mstislav took Halych for the first time already in 1215, when he left Novgorod, referring to the existence of cases in the south. It is known that he asked the Hungarian king to give him Halych, and also about the siege of Halych by the Russian army, which was not reflected in the Russian annals, after which Andrewh II took his son Koloman to Hungary[8], and also about the plans of the younger Vsevolodovichi Suzdal relative Galich in the event of a victory in the Lipitskaya battle next year, where Galich is ranked on the same line as Kiev, Novgorod and Smolensk, occupied directly by Smolensk Rostislavich [L 3].

However, the main successful actions of Mstislav to master Galich were made after his departure from Novgorod in 1217 [9], when he transferred the throne of Novgorod to the son of Mstislav of Kiev Svyatoslav . Mstislav took Galich in 1218 [L 4] with the support of his cousin Vladimir Rurikovich Smolensk [L 5] during the participation of the main Hungarian forces in the fifth crusade .

In 1219, Mstislav concluded an alliance with Daniel Romanovich Volynsky , extraditing his daughter Anna to him, Daniel launched successful military operations against the Cracow prince Leshek White , after which Leszek was inclined to union with the Hungarian King Andras II against Mstislav and Daniel. In the same year, the united Hungarian-Polish army besieged Galich . Mstislav led the Allied Olgovichi and instructed Daniil Romanovich to take a siege in Galicia . But for some reason Mstislav did not join the Hungarians in the field battle, and allowed Daniil to leave the city.

In the winter of 1220/21, Mstislav with the Polovtsians again went to Halych. The Hungarian army met him on the outskirts of the city. The battle lasted several hours and did not bring the prince success. Mstislav's ally Daniel and the allied Hungarians of the Poles distracted each other. In the spring of 1221 Mstislav again approached Galich . Having smashed the Hungarian garrison near the city gates, Mstislav broke into Halych. The captive prince Koloman was sent to the town of Torchesk, which belonged to Mstislav. Hungarian King Andrash II, to free his son from captivity, was forced to begin negotiations. After the conclusion of peace with the Hungarian king and extradition for his son Andrash to his daughter Maria, Mstislav finally established himself in Halych (1221).

Battle of the Kalka River (1223)

Main article: The Battle of the Kalka River (1223)

Boris Chorikov . Prince Mstislav Mstslavich Udatny after the battle of Kalka In 1223, the Polovtsians addressed Mstislav and other Russian princes , in particular Mstislav Khan's father-in-law, Kotyan Khan, for help against the Mongols invading the Black Sea steppes . Mstislav participated in the creation of the broadest coalition, which, in addition to the Kiev, Smolensk, Volhynia and Pinsk princes, also included the Chernihiv-North. Fearing the transition of the Polovtsians to the side of the Mongols during the ongoing confrontation, the Russian princes went to the steppe, not expecting a connection with the army of Vladimir Suzdal.

In the battle of the Kalka River, Mstislav, along with the Polovtsians and the Volhynian contingent, crossed the river separating the allies from the Mongols, and entered the battle. The avant-garde of the enemy fled, and the Mongols brought in the main forces already when the Chernigov contingent crossed only partially, while the Kiev regiment was still on the west bank of the river. The blow led to the flight of the Polovtsians in the forefront and the defeat of the allied army. Moreover, Mstislav Udatniy managed to break away from the pursuit, while Mstislav of Kiev, Mstislav of Chernigov and many other princes perished.

The last years of life

In the last years of his life he fought with the Poles and Daniil Romanovich of Halych (1201-1264) in alliance with the Polovtsian Kotyan Khan, Vladimir Ryurikovich of Kiev and Aleksander Belzsky . In 1226, Zvenigorod defeated the Hungarians who had invaded the principality, but in spite of this he appointed Andrash as his successor, and himself went over to the reign of Ponizier, where he died, assuming the death of the schema (1228). According to Polish records, he was buried in Kiev in the "Church of the Holy Cross" founded by him (apparently, the Cross Exaltation, not preserved).

Children

From Maria of Cumania, Polovtsian princess, the daughter of Kotyan Khan :

== Ancestors ==]]










Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh




Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great






Gita of Wessex




Rostislav Mstislavich of Smolensk








Inge I the Elder




Christina Ingesdotter, Princess of Sweden






Helena Sigthornsdotter




Mstislav Rostislavich the Brave









Mstislav Mstislavich











Yaroslav Sviatoslavich Muromsky




Rostislav Yaroslavich (prince of Murom)






Gleb Rostislavich (prince of Ryazan)








Theodosius, the princess of Ryazan









Yury Vladimirovich Dolgoruky




Rostislav Y. Vladimiro-Suzdal






the daughter of the Polovtsian khan




Efrosinya Rostislavna, princess of Vladimir-Suzdal







See also

Inter-war in the North-Eastern Russia (1212-1216) The war for the unification of the Galicia-Volyn principality The campaigns of Russian princes against the Order of the Swordmen

Notes

  1. ^ a b Template:Богуславский В.В. - Славянская энциклопедия. Киевская Русь - Moscow, pp. 768—769
  2. ^ Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ CXIДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
  3. ^ a b c Бережков Н. Г. Хронология русского летописания. М. 1963.
  4. ^ Михайло Грушевський. ХРОНОЛОГІЯ ПОДІЙ ГАЛИЦЬКО-ВОЛИНСЬКОГО ЛІТОПИСУ
  5. ^ a b Template:Литвина А. Ф., Успенский Ф. Б. Выбор имени у русских князей в X-XVI вв. С. 297—299, 317
  6. ^ a b Горский А. А. Русские земли в XIII—XIV веках. Пути исторического развития.
  7. ^ Соловьёв С. М. История России с древнейших времён
  8. ^ a b Грушевский М. С. История Украины-Руси. Том III. Раздел I. Стр. 2.
  9. ^ На основании сопоставления Бережковым Н. Г. с «Хроникой Ливонии» Генриха Латвийского.
  10. ^ Михайло Грушевський. Хронологія подій Галицько-Волинського літопису
  11. ^ В венгерских источниках
  12. ^ Густынская летопись, у Яна Длугоша и В.Н. Татищева
  13. ^ В Густынской летописи и у Татищева — её муж не Андраш, а Бела
  14. ^ a b Известен по киевскому съезду (1231)
  15. ^ Румянцевский музей, Именной указатель XIII—XIV веков
  16. ^ Новгородская первая летопись старшего извода




Children



Offspring of Mstislav Mstivlavich of Novgorod and Maria of Cumania (c1185-c1260)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vasili Mstislavich of Novotorzhok (c1201-1218) 1201 1218
Rostislava Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1202-1244) 1202 4 May 1344 Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Vladimir (1191-1246)
Rostislav Mstislavich (c1203-c1241) 1203 1241
Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod (c1205-c1250) 1205 1250 Daniil Romanovich of Halych (1201-1264)
Yelena Mstislavna (c1207-c1220) 1207 1220
Semyon Mstislavich (c1207-c1230) 1207 1230
Mariya Mstislavna (c1210-c1260) 1210 1260 Andrew of Hungary (1210-1233)
Mstislav Mstislavich (c1212-c1245) 1212 1245
Yaroslav Mstislavich (c1213-c1240) 1213 1240
Izyaslav Mstislavich (c1215-c1235) 1215 1235
Yuri Mstislavich (c1216-1240) 1216 1240










Siblings




Footnotes (including sources)

‡ General



Afil
Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "L", but no corresponding <references group="L"/> tag was found, or a closing </ref> is missing

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.
1170 JL +
Vasili Mstislavich of Novotorzhok (c1201-1Vasili Mstislavich of Novotorzhok (c1201-1218) + Rostislava Mstislavna of Smolensk (c1202-1244) + Rostislav Mstislavich (c1203-c1241) + Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod (c1205-c1250) + Yelena Mstislavna (c1207-c1220) + Semyon Mstislavich (c1207-c1230) + Mariya Mstislavna (c1210-c1260) + Mstislav Mstislavich (c1212-c1245) + Yaroslav Mstislavich (c1213-c1240) + Izyaslav Mstislavich (c1215-c1235) + Yuri Mstislavich (c1216-1240)215-c1235) + Yuri Mstislavich (c1216-1240) +
1228 JL +
Mstislav +
Mstislavich +
Mstislav Mstivlavich of Novgorod +
Rurik +