Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great of Kiev (Мстислав Владимирович Великий, Великий князь Киевский), Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Rostov, Prince of Belgorod-Kievsky, Grand Prince of Kiev, was born 1 June 1076 in Turau, Zhytkavichy Rayon, Homiel Voblasts, Belarus to Vladimir II Vsevolodovich Monomakh of Kiev (1053-1125) and Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098) and died 15 April 1132 Kiev, Ukraine of unspecified causes. He married Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden (c1080-1122) 1095 JL . He married Lyubava Dmitriyevna (c1104-c1170) 1122 JL .
Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Russian: Мстислав Владимирович Великий, Ukrainian: Мстислав Володимирович Великий|, Belarusian: Мсціслаў Уладзіміравіч Вялікі) (June 1, 1076, Turov – April 14, 1132, Kiev) was the Grand Prince of Kiev (1125–1132), the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. He is figured prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name Harald, to allude to his grandfather, Harold II of England. Mstislav's Christian name was Theodore.
As his father's future successor, Mstislav reigned in Veliky Novgorod from 1088–93 and (after a brief reign in Rostov) from 1095–1117. Thereafter he was Vladimir II Monomakh's co-ruler in Belgorod-Kievsky , and inherited the throne of Kiev after his death. He built numerous churches in Novgorod, of which Saint Nicholas Cathedral (1113) and the cathedral of zAntoniev Monastery (1117) survive to the present day. Later, he would also erect important churches in Kiev, notably the Church of the Saviour at Berestove and the Church of the Dormition of the Mother of God.
Prince of Novgorod and Rostov
After the death of Yaropolk Izyaslavich in 1087, his brother Svyatopolk violated the promise made to the Novgorodians of a lifelong reign in Novgorod and moved to Turov, and his place in Novgorod was taken by the grandson of Vsevolod Yaroslavich of Kiev, Mstislav Vladimirovich, who made the same promise to the Novgorodians.
In 1094, the Svyatoslavichi, taking advantage of the temporary weakening of Svyatopolk of Kiev and Vladimir Monomakh, then the prince of Chernigov, raised their claims on Chernigov, Smolensk and Novgorod. In 1094-1095  Davyd Svyatoslavich became the prince of Novgorod (and Mstislav prince of Rostov). In 1096, Mstislav with the Novgorodians was the main force in the struggle against Oleg Svyatoslavich, expelled from the south, for Rostov, Murom and Ryazan. Having received from the south of his father an auxiliary Russian-Polovtsian army led by his brother Vyacheslav, he defeated Oleg in the Battle of the Koloshka River.
In the "Praiseworthy word to Saint Panteleimon" Rupert, a German priest, reported that, apparently, around this time Mstislav, nearly died in a hunting accident. A bear ripped open his stomach, so that the entrails fell out. When Mstislav was brought home, his mother Gytha began to pray for him to Saint Panteleimon. That night Mstislav saw a young man in a dream who promised to heal him. The next morning this young man, very much like Saint Panteleimon, came to the sick man with drugs and cured him. It is known that the Mstislav's second son Izyaslav was baptized Panteleimon, in addition, Mstislav founded a monastery near Novgorod in honor of this saint .
Mstislav contributed to the strengthening (in 1116 there was an expansion of the Novgorod Detinets) and decoration (on his instructions laid the church of the Annunciation on the hillfort in 1103, and in 1113 - the Saint Nicholas Cathedral) of the city .
Prince of Belgorod
In 1117 Mstislav was transferred to Belgorod-Kievsky by his father, thereby violating the promise made to the Novgorodians, and in 1118 the Novgorod boyars were summoned to Kiev, where they were forced to accept the change. The transfer of Mstislav to the south aroused the discontent of Yaroslav Svyatopolchich, who had been married to Mstislav's daughter since 1112, and he was soon expelled from Volhynia. The chronicle accuses him not so much of the fact that he went against his uncle Vladimir II Monomakh, but rather because he went against his father-in-law Mstislav. The place of Mstislav in Novgorod was occupied by his eldest son Vsevolod .
Grand Prince of Kiev
After the death of Vladimir II Monomakh in 1125, Mstislav inherited the great reign, which did not cause discontent and struggle from Chernigov's Svyatoslavichy, as in the reign of Vladimir II Monomakh in 1113. And although Mstislav's seniority was unconditionally recognized by all his brothers, from the princely centers under his immediate control was originally only Kiev .
At the news of the death of Vladimir II Monomakh, the Polovtsians attacked Kiev, but Yaropolk with the Pereyaslavl defeated them. Cited by the Ipatiev Chronicle "The Tale of the Grass of Emshan", which has parallels with historical events, tells of the return from the Caucasus of one of the two Polovtsian hordes of the sons of Sharukan immediately after the death of Vladimir II Monomakh.
The first possibility of expanding the possessions was opened to Mstislav by the struggle for power in Chernigov. He married his daughter Maria Mstislavna to the Prince of Novgorod, Vsevolod Olgovich, drove his uncle Yaroslav Svyatoslavich out of Chernigov in 1127 and called on the Polovtsians to help. Mstislav, although he spoke with Yaropolk against Vsevolod in accordance with his cross kissing Yaroslav, did not restore the status quo. Kursk and Pesemye left Mstislav (there he planted his son Izyaslav), and Murom and Ryazan separated from Chernigov under the rule of Yaroslav and his descendants.
In the same year after the death of Svyatopolchichi, Vyacheslav Vladimirovich moved from Smolensk to Turov, and in Smolensk Mstislav's son of Rostislav, who later founded the local dynasty, was installed as ruler.
In the same year Mstislav made his first raid on the 'principality of Polotsk: the cities of Strezhev, Lagozhsk, Izyaslavl were taken and looted, and in Polotsk Prince Davyd Vseslavich was replaced by his brother Rogvolod. In 1128 Rogvolod died, and in Polotsk again resigned from the peaceful relations Davyd. During the new campaign in 1129, Mstislav captured the three remaining Vseslavichs (Davyd, Svyatoslav and Rostislav) and all their relatives, and the principality of Polotsk added: Izyaslav Mstislavich was transferred to reign here. In the Polotsk area there was only a minor Prince Vasilko Svyatoslavich (in Izyaslavl). In 1130 Mstislav expelled the captured princes of Polotsk to Constantinople.
Not always successful were the secondary campaigns in the Baltics: in 1130, the Chud was encamped with tribute, but the new campaign of 1131 ended in defeat at St. George's . The campaign to Lithuania (1132) was successful , but on the way back the Kievites were defeated.
On April 15> Mstislav died, having transferred the throne to his brother Yaropolk. According to the agreement between Mstislav and Yaropolk, he had to give the Principality of Pereyaslavl to Vsevolod Mstislavich. This plan not only failed to be realized because of the resistance of the younger Vladimirovichs, but because of the movements of Vsevolod and Izyaslav, Novgorod and Polotsk were lost, and the conflict between the Vladimirovichi and the Mstislavichi was used by the Olgovichi not only to return the family, but also to be included in the struggle for the throne of Kiev. The collapse of the Old Russian state into independent principalities is most often dated by the year of Mstislav the Great's death.
New data on Mstislav the Great in the light of archeology
In the Moscow Region, one of the seals of Mstislav Vladimirovich was found on the territory of the Mogutovsky archaeological complex . In the last decade, many of the seals of Mstislav Vladimirovich and his descendants were found by archeologists in the territory of the archaeological complexes of Veliky Novgorod .
Family and children
- Vsevolod Mstislavich
- Izyaslav II of Kiev
- Ingeborg of Kiev, married Canute Lavard of Jutland, and was mother to Valdemar I of Denmark
- Evpraksiya of Kiev, married Alexius Comnenus, son of John II Comnenus
- Malmfred, married (1) Sigurd I of Norway; (2) Eric II of Denmark
- Maria Mstislavna, married Vsevolod II of Kiev
- Rostislav of Kiev
- Rogneda, married Yaroslav Svyatopolchich
- Svyatopolk Mstislavich
- Kseniya, married Bryachislav Davydovich of Izyaslavl
- Euphrosyne Mstislavna (1130—1193), married in 1146 the King of Hungary Géza II
- Yaropolk Mstislavich (c1131-1149)
- Vladimir Mstislavich (1132—1171)
Through Euphrosyne, Mstislav is an ancestor of both Philippa of Hainault and King Edward III of England, hence of all subsequent English and British monarchs. Through his mother Gytha of Wessex (1053-1098)Gytha, he is part of a link between Harold II of England and the modern line of English kings founded by William the Conqueror, who deposed him.
- ^ Philip Line, Kingship and State Formation in Sweden 1130-1290, (Brill, 2007), 597.
- ^ George Heard Hamilton, The Art and Architecture of Russia, (Yale University Press, 1983), 43.
- ^ Историки Т. В. Круглова и А. В. Назаренко оспаривают границы сроков и место княжения.
- ^ Л.Е. Морозова. "Великие и неизвестные женщины Древней Руси". http://www.tinlib.ru/istorija/velikie_i_neizvestnye_zhenshiny_drevnei_rusi/p8.php#metkadoc4.
- ^ Строительство обоих церковных сооружений связано с локализацией княжеской резиденции на территории Новгорода.
- ^ Ипатьевская летопись
- ^ Согласно Ипатьевской летописи. По данным Лаврентьевской летописи Мстислав умер 14 апреля. См. Домбровский Д. Генеалогия Мстиславичей. Первые поколения (до начала XIV в.) / Пер. с польского и вступ. слово к рус. изд. К. Ю. Ерусалимского и О. А. Остапчук. — СПб.: ДМИТРИЙ БУЛАНИН, 2015. — С. 69—70.
- ^ Чернов С. З. Сфрагистический комплекс из Могутова и его значение для изучения предыстории московской земли в первой половине XII века. Первые опыты интерпретации // Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики. — 2003. — № 2 (12). — С. 5—21.
- ^ URL: http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusNovgorod/109.htm; URL: http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusNovgorod/137.htm
- ^ The Kiev State and Its Relations with Western Europe, F. Dvornik, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol. 29 (1947), 41.
Mstislav I Vladimirovich the GreatBorn: 1 June 1076 Died: 14 April 1132
Vladimir II Monomakh
| Prince of Novgorod
| Prince of Novgorod
| Prince of Rostov
Principality again abolished
| Prince of Belgorod-Kievsky
Vladimir II Monomakh
| Grand Prince of Kiev
Yaropolk II Vladimirovich
|Offspring of Mstislav I Vladimirovich of Kiev|
(Мстислав Владимирович Великий, Великий князь Киевский) and Lyubava Dmitriyevna (c1104-c1170)
|Euphrosyne Mstislavna of Kiev (1130-1193)||1130||1193||Géza II of Hungary (c1130-1162)|
|Yaropolk Mstislavich of Porossk (c1131-1149)||1131||1149|
|Vladimir III Mstislavich of Kiev (1132-1171)||1132||30 May 1171||Unnamed daughter of Beloš (c1130-c1190)|
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