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Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Kiev (Russian: Михаил Всеволодович, Prince of Pereyaslavl, Prince of Chernigov, Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Halych, Grand Prince of Kiev, was born circa 1185 to Vsevolod IV Svyatoslavich of Kiev (c1157-1212) and Maria of Poland (1164-1194) and died 20 September 1246 Sarai, Kharabali Rayon, Astrakhan Oblast, Russia of beheaded by the Tartars. He married Yelena Romanovna of Halych (c1190-c1237) 1210 JL . Alfred the Great (849-899)/s, Charlemagne (747-814)/s.

Mikhail Vsevolodovich (also known as Michael of Chernigov, 1179-1246 ) - Prince of Pereyaslavl (1206), Prince of Novgorod (1224-1226, 1229), Prince of Chernigov (1223-1246 ), Prince of Halych (1235-1239), Grand Prince of Kiev (1238-1239 , 1241-1243 ). Son of Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Chermny and Maria of Poland daughter of the prince Casimir II the Just of Poland . Canonized saints at the Council in 1547 ; Memorial Days - September 20 ( October 3 ) and February 14 (27) .

Biography

After the expulsion of Vsevolod's son Yaroslav Vsevolodovich by his father from Pereyaslavl, Mikhail Vsevolodovich briefly occupied the throne of the Principality of Pereyaslavl

In fact, it is unknown what throne Mikhail occupied between 1206 and 1226, despite the fact that he occupied a rather high place in the prince's ladder of the Olgovichi at that time (after his father, Gleb Svyatoslavich and Mstislav Svyatoslavich). In 1223 Mikhail was the only Olgovich, mentioned by the chronicle after his uncle, the Prince of Chernigov Mstislav Svyatoslavich. Voitovich L.V. thinks that Mikhail owned a certain principality near Chernigov, without naming it, and according to his version of this principality were neither Starodub, nor Vshchizh, nor Snovsk. L.V. Voitovich considers that during the aforementioned period, Mikhail's younger cousin, Mstislav Glebovich, was Prince of Novgorod-Seversky, that is, the rules of the second oldest principality in the Chernigov - Novgorod-Seversky area.

He participated in the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) [1], where Mstislav Svyatoslavich was killed and, thereafter, took the throne of the Principality of Chernigov [2]. In 1224 he became a prince of Novgorod immediately after the conflict, Yuri Vsevolodovich of Vladimir , who was married to his sister, with the Novgorod boyars, and organized an exchange of prisoners.

In 1226, with Yuri Vsevolodovich's help, he conducted a campaign against Oleg Svyatoslavich of Kursk, a representative of the Seversky branch of Olgovichi. The chronicle does not indicate the cause of the conflict, and L. Voytovich believes that Oleg Svyatoslavich was trying to change the decision of the Council of Chernigov (1206).

In 1228, together with Rostislav Svyatopolchich of Pinsk and Vladimir Ryurikovich, he participated in the unsuccessful Siege of Kamenets (1228), the possession of Daniil Romanovich. In 1229 due to famine, the zabozhniche tax in the Novgorod Republic was cancelled for 5 years for the serfs who had gone into the new land, also appointed Posadnik in Novgorod Vnezda Vodovika that brought subsequently abandoned Mikhail's son Rostislav in Chernigov, after their expulsion from Novgorod and Torzhok in 1230 year. He refused to fight for Novgorod after the campaign of the Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal against the Principality of Chernigov (1231).


Prince Mikhail of Chernigov in front of the Batu headquarters (painting by V. Smirnov, 1883).

In 1234, he intervened in the struggle for Kiev on the side of Izyaslav, in the same year Chernigov was besieged by the troops of Daniil Romanovich, and in 1235, Mikhail retaliated against Galich and Izyaslav - Kiev winning the Battle of Torchesk (1235).

In the autumn of 1237, the Princes of Ryazan turned to Mikhail' for help against the Mongols, Evpaty Kolovrat arrived as an ambassador . According to the chronicle, Mikhail' refused to provide help, since Ryazan did not go with him to Battle of the Kalka River (1223) [3] Evpaty Kolovrat returned to the ashes of Ryazan, then caught up with the Mongols within the Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, inflicted significant losses on them, but also died with the detachment.

In 1238, after Yaroslav Vsevolodovich's departure for Vladimir, Mikhail Vsevolodovich occupied the throne of Grand Prince of Kiev and, in the winter 1238/1239, organized a campaign against Lithuania with his eldest son Rostislav and troops from Halych with whom L.Voytovich [4] connects two deaths Princes of Chernigov-Seversky, Mikhail Romanovich the son of Roman Igorevich of Halych (c1178-1211) and Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, grandson of Vladimir Igorevich. Taking advantage of the departure of the boyars of HAlych, Daniil Romanovich was able to finally take possession of Halych.

At the time of the Mongol invasion of the Chernigov-Seversky lands was the Grand Prince of Kiev [5][6], but was forced to flee to Hungary with his son Rostislav. He received Lutsk from Daniil Romanovich, later returned to Kiev, devastated by the Tatars, where he reigned until 1243 , when during his departure to Hungary for the wedding of Rostislav’s son, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich was taken over by Jarlig. After that, Mikhail Vsevolodovich returned to Chernigov, where he ruled until the moment when, together with a number of other princes, he was summoned to the Horde .

Death and canonization

Mikhail Vsevolodovich

Michael on the icon of the XVII century
Born 1179
Died 1246
Golden Horde
Canonized 1572
Feast September 20 o.s. (October 3) and February 14 o.s. (February 27)

Before entering the tent of Batu Khan, the Mongolian priests ordered him to go through the sacred fire and worship their idols, to which Michael, a true Christian, replied: “I can worship your King, for Heaven gave him the fate of the states of the earth; but the Christian serves neither fire nor deaf idols. " For refusing to worship on the orders of Batu, the prince was executed. The death of the prince is dedicated to "The Legend of the killing in the horde of Prince Mikhail of Chernigov and his boyar Theodore ." The prince was secretly buried by his close associates, and then his remains were transferred to Chernigov. After his death, the throne of the Principality of Chernigov was taken by Michael’s brother Andrei.

Practically at the same time (September 30), the second of the three most influential Russian princes, Yaroslav Vsevolodovich of Vladimir, were allegedly poisoned in Mongolia (almost a year earlier, Daniil Romanovichy, during a personal visit to Batu Khan, recognized dependence on the Khans).

Soon in Rostov a wooden church was erected in honor of Mikhail of Chernigov, burned down by a lightning strike in 1288.

In 1572, the remains of Mikhail of Chernigov after his glorification were transferred from Chernigov to Moscow. In 1772, his relics were placed in a silver shrine in the Cathedral of the Archangel . In 1812, during the invasion of Napoleon, the silver cancer was stolen and subsequently replaced with a bronze one.

In 1987, Mikhail Vsevolodovich was included in the created Tula Saints Cathedral, the celebration of the Cathedral takes place on September 22 ( October 5 ) [7]..

Progeny

See also: Upper Oka Principalities The descendants of Mikhail of Chernigov ruled in all Chernigov-Seversky lands, with the exception of Seminye (where the descendants of Svyatoslav Olgovich , who later established themselves in Kiev and Pereyaslavl, ruled ). The Princes of Bryansk also bore the title of the Grand Princes of Chernigov, but their dynasty was cut short, the Smolensk princely dynasty was established in Bryansk , and the upper princes became almost independent.

The wide popularity of Mikhail of Chernigov in the Russian state, especially after the ceremonial transfer of his relics from Chernigov, led to the fact that all the serving princes in the drafting of pedigrees indicated his ancestor. Thus, in the genealogical books , a colossal “tribe of Mikhail of Chernigov” was formed, to which the Dolgorukov, Volkonsky, Repnin, Gorchakov, Obolensky, Odoevsky, Vorotynsky, Baryatinsky families as well as all other descendants of Olgoviches attributed themselves. At the same time, genetic studies of representatives of this clan, conducted in the 21st century, showed that they do not follow the male lineage from the same ancestor as the Monomakhichi [8].

Family and children

Wife

Olyona (or Maria) Romanovna (died after 1241) - married from 1188/1190 (or from 1210/1211 [9]), daughter of Roman Mstislavich Galitsky.

Children

  1. Mariya Mikhailovna of Chernigov (c1211-1271) - Vasilko Konstantinovich Rostovsky’s wife ,
  2. Feodula Mikhailovna (1212-1250) Saint Euphrosyne of Suzdal
  3. Rostislav Mikhailovich (c1214-1262) , Ban Machvy,

Estimated children (attributed in later genealogies):

  1. Roman Mikhailovich of Bryansk (c1218-c1290)
  2. Mstislav Mikhailovich of Karachev (1220-1280)
  3. Simeon Mikhailovich of Glukhov (c1222-c1274)
  4. Yuri Mikhailovich of Tarusa (c1225-1270).

His descendants

In the second half of the 19th century, many family branches stemming from Mikhail flourished: the Boryatinskie, the Gorchakovy, the Dolgorukie, the Eletskie, the Zvenigorodskie, the Koltsovy-Mosalskie, the Obolenskie, the Odoevskie, and the Shcherbatovy.[10]

Nicolas Baumgarten in his Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides russes du Xe au XIIIe siècle (Orientalia christiana 9, no. 35 (1927)) includes the following important appendix with regard to Mikhail's alleged descendants. Essentially, the four princes—Roman, Simeon, Mstislav, and Iurii (Yury)—claimed in most published genealogies past and present (Dolgorukov, Vlas'ev, Ikonnikov, Ferrand, Dumin & Grebel'skii, etc.) as his sons and as the progenitors of numerous Russian princely families are apparently not to be found in any original historical document, appearing for the first time in the genealogies composed—or more likely contrived—in the 16th century, which witnessed a spate of fanciful genealogical aspirations among European royal and noble families (the Habsburgs claimed descent from Julius Caesar's cousin Sextus (among others); the Bagratids of Georgia, from the biblical King David; the Lévis-Mirepoix, from cousins of the Virgin Mary; and the Muscovite tsars, from Augustus Caesar, to name but a few):

Several princely families claim descent from the Princes of Chernigov: the majority are now extinct, but those of Mosal'skii, Obolenskii, Dolgorukii, Shcherbatov, Bariatinskii, Volkonskii, Zvenigorodskii, and Gorchakov are still existant.—Their ancestries can only be traced back through documentary sources to the end of the 15th or the beginning of the 16th century.—Only the Princes Obolensky are an exception: their ancestry can be traced back to the second half of the 14th century.—This absence of documents can be explained by the invasion of the Mongols, who plunged the country into a state of chaos; for more that two centuries, almost nothing is known of the history of Chernigov. Deprived of information and having no chronicle, this country fell into complete obscurity and into such ignorance that even their princes, incontestably descended from Rurik, lost the memory of their ancestors.—Two centuries later, when they sought service with Moscow and wished to establish their line of descent, they were obliged to resort to filiations full of anachronisms and suspect names, if not entirely apocryphal.—Genealogies were composed in the 16th century; one of the oldest is to be found in the appendix to Volume VII of the Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles (Voskresenskaia).—The authors paid absolutely no attention to historical accuracy and presented as the common progenitor for all these families St. Michael of Chernigov, to whom they gave four additional sons, completely unknown to the chronicles.—The chronicles of the first half of the 13th century are full of details on this Saint Michael (Table IV n. 51) and on his son Rostislav (Table XII n. 1).—There can be no doubt whatsoever that if St. Michael had had additional sons, the chronicles would have mentioned them.—They indicate, rather, St. Michael had only one son, who settled in Hungary.—At the time of his execution by the Golden Horde, St. Michael had at his side only the young Prince of Rostov, son of his daughter.—The modern genealogists (Dolgorukov, Petrov, Zotov, Vlas'ev) never once raise this question and simply endeavor to resolve these anachronisms and fill in certain blanks by arbitrarily introducing two or three new generations in each genealogy.—The genealogy of the Princes Gorchakov, for example, requires the addition of at least four generations, for at present one finds several princes who had children at 8 and 12 years of age.—The notices that are to be found for the Princes of Chernigov in the 13th and 14th centuries are almost exclusively limited to a few vague pieces of information from the Northern Chronicles and from the old commemorative lists sinodiks of the convents.—The sinodiks preserve a quantity of names of princes; however, they unfortunately do nothing more than list them, almost never indicating the relationship between them, and as a result they are of little use in reconstructing a filiation.—Of all the sinodiks, the most important is indisputably that of Liubech; it provides the most complete details on the Princes of Chernigov; then comes those of Kiev, Elets, and Sieviersk; the others add nothing to the contents of the preceding.—All of the sinodiks were unknown to those who composed the genealogies of the 16th century, which explains why 95% of the names found in them do not appear in the genealogies.—The latter, on the contrary, are full of names of princes whose existence has never been proven and who figure in these genealogies by ingenious combinations.—The names of the Chernigov princes are inscribed in the sinodiks more or less in chronological order, verified by several references in the Northern Chronicles.—In the Liubetskii Sinodik, following St. Michael, one finds seven other princes by the name Michael.—Immediately after him is inscribed a Prince Michael and his wife Elena, a few lines later one finds a second Michael, then Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich of Chernigov; the latter is followed by Grand Prince Michael Aleksandrovich of Chernigov, then comes Prince Michael Romanovich, killed by the Lithuanians.—The latter could well be the son of Roman of Briansk (Table XII, n. 5) whose fate is unknown; his father, as is known, had several conflicts with the Lithuanians.—Finally, following this Michael, one finds yet another Prince Michael of Glukhov and Prince Michael Vsevolodovich.—All of these princes are unknown to the genealogies and the chronicles, although their existence is without question substantiated by their insertion in the sinodiks of several churches and convents.—With this considerable number of princes from Chernigov and Sieviersk bearing the name of Mikhail, it is quite probable that the princely families referred to at the beginning of this article can count one or several of these Mikhails as their ancestors.—The authors of the genealogies of the 16th century, who knew only of St. Michael of Chernigov, placed him at the head of all of their genealogies, without concerning themselves with the glaring anachronisms that ensued.—This insertion of St. Michael did not attract the attention of Russian historians for the simple reason that he was unquestionably a relative of the majority of these families, more or less of the same origin.[11]


See also

The internecine war in southern Russia (1228–1236) The war for the unification of the Principality of Halych-Volhynia

Notes

Kreferences/>

Children



Offspring of Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Kiev (Russian: Михаил Всеволодович and Yelena Romanovna of Halych (c1190-c1237)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mariya Mikhailovna of Chernigov (c1211-1271) 1211 9 December 1271 Vasilko Konstantinovich of Rostov (1209-1238)
Feodula Mikhailovna (1212-1250)
Rostislav Mikhailovich (c1214-1262) 1214 1262 Anna of Hungary (c1226-aft1271)
Roman Mikhailovich of Bryansk (c1218-c1290)
Mstislav Mikhailovich of Karachev (1220-1280) 1220 1280
Simeon Mikhailovich of Glukhov (c1222-c1274)
Yuri Mikhailovich of Tarusa (c1225-1270) 1225 1270










Siblings



Residences

Footnotes (including sources)

Afil

Mikhail Vsevolodovich
Born: 1179 Died: 1246
Preceded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Prince of Pereyaslavl
1206
Succeeded by
Vladimir Ryurikovich
Preceded by
Mstislav Svyatoslavich
Prince of Chernigov
1224-1226
Succeeded by
Oleg Svyatoslavich
Preceded by
Oleg Svyatoslavich
Prince of Chernigov
1226-1234
Succeeded by
Mstislav Glebovich
Preceded by
Daniil Romanovich
Prince of Halych
1235-1236
Succeeded by
Rostislav Mikhailovich
Preceded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1238-1239
Succeeded by
Rostislav Mikhailovich
Preceded by
Mstislav Glebovich
Prince of Chernigov
1239
Succeeded by
Rostislav Mikhailovich
Preceded by
Daniil Romanovich
Grand Prince of Kiev
1241-1243
Succeeded by
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
Preceded by
Rostislav Mikhailovich
Prince of Chernigov
1241-1246
Succeeded by
Andrei Mstislavich
  1. ^ Михаил упоминается вторым среди Ольговичей после своего дяди Мстислава Черниговского без указания удела.
  2. ^ По другой версии, в 1226 году. См. Константин Ольгович
  3. ^ Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  4. ^ КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ CXIДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ.
  5. ^ Галицко-Волынская летопись. В лето 6745
  6. ^ М.Грушевский ХРОНОЛОГІЯ ПОДІЙ ГАЛИЦЬКО-ВОЛИНСЬКОГО ЛІТОПИСУ
  7. ^ "Главная>Приходы>г.Тула". Официальный сайт Тульской епархии. http://tulaeparhia.ru/prixodyi/g.tula/. Retrieved 2014-08-25. "Святые Тульского благочиния: В Собор Тульских святых входят:" 
  8. ^ "Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project". Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. https://www.webcitation.org/6BVXWY3qa. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  9. ^ "RUSSIA RURIKID". fmg.ac. http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/RUSSIA,%20Rurik.htm#Romanovnaafter1241M1211MikhailVsevolodic. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  10. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Dimnik
  11. ^ Nicolas Baumgarten, Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides russes du Xe au XIIIe siècle, Orientalia christiana 9, no. 35 (1927): 86-88.
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