- See also Mayflower Descendants -
The Mayflower was the ship that in 1620 transported 102 English Pilgrims, including a core group of Separatists, to New England. Their story is one of travail and survival in a harsh New World environment.
Early history[edit | edit source]
When and where the Mayflower of the Pilgrim voyage of 1620 was built is not known, but it is not improbable that she was launched at Harwich in Essex, England, and although later known ‘of London’, she was designated as ‘of Harwich’ in the Port Books of 1609-11. Harwich was the birthplace of Mayflower master Christopher Jones about 1570.
The Mayflower was rated at 180 tons—meaning it had a hold that could accommodate 180 casks of rum or wine—and was about 100 feet in length. Since Captain Jones became master eleven years before the Mayflower Pilgrims' voyage, the ship had sailed cross-Channel taking English woollens to France and bringing French wine to London. In addition to wine and wool, Jones had transported hats, hemp, Spanish salt, hops and vinegar to Norway and may have taken the Mayflower whaling in the North Atlantic in the Greenland area. It had travelled to Mediterranean ports, being then owned by Christopher Nichols, Robert Child, Thomas Short and Christopher Jones, the ship’s master. In 1620 Capt. Jones and Robert Child still owned their quarter shares in the ship, and it was from them that Thomas Weston chartered her in the summer of 1620 to undertake the Pilgrim voyage. Weston was deeply involved in the Mayflower voyage due to his membership in the investor group Merchant Adventurers, and eventually came to Plymouth Colony himself.
From the Port Books of England in the reign of James I (1603-1625), we see that there were twenty-six vessels bearing the same name as the Pilgrim ship; the reason for such popularity has never been found.
A particular Mayflower that has caused historical confusion is a ‘Mayflower’ erroneously named as the Mayflower of the 1620 Pilgrims. This particular ship was partly owned by John Vassall and was outfitted for the queen in 1588 during the time of the Spanish Armada, a war for which he outfitted several ships. There are no records of this Vassall ‘Mayflower’ beyond 1594.
From records of the time, and to avoid confusion with the many other ‘Mayflower’ ships, the identity of Captain Jones’ Mayflower is based on her home port, her tonnage (est. 180-200 tons), and the master’s name in 1620.
August 1609 records first note Christopher Jones as master and part owner of the Mayflower when his ship was chartered for a voyage from London to Drontheim (Trondheim) in Norway, and back to London. Due to bad weather, on her return, the ship lost an anchor and made short delivery of her cargo of herrings. Litigation was involved and was proceeding in 1612.
In a document of January 1611, Christopher Jones is described as being ‘of Harwich’, and his ship is called the Mayflower of Harwich (in Essex co.). Records of Jones’ ship Mayflower have the ship twice in the Thames in London in 1613 – once in July and again in October and November.
Records of 1616 again state Jones’ ship was in the Thames and the noting of wine on board suggests the ship had recently been on a voyage to France, Spain, Portugal, the Canaries, or some other wine country.
After 1616, there is no record which specifically relates to Jones’ Mayflower until 1624. This is unusual for a ship trading to London, as it would not usually disappear for such a long time from the records. There is no Admiralty court document relating to the pilgrim fathers' voyage of 1620 that can be found. Perhaps the situation of the way the transfer of the pilgrims from Leyden to New England was arranged may account for this. Or possibly many of the records of the period have been lost.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Concord (passenger ship) - the 1683 German pioneer ship (Rotterdam to Philadelphia)
[edit | edit source]
Voyage[edit | edit source]
The Mayflower embarked about sixty-five passengers in London, probably off Blackwall or Wapping, about the middle of July 1620 and proceeded down the Thames into the English Channel and then on to Southampton Water, the rendezvous, where for seven days she awaited the coming of the Speedwell, bringing the Leyden church members, who had sailed from Delfshaven about the 22nd of the month (Bradford).
About August 5, the two ships set sail for their destination. The unseaworthy Speedwell sprang a leak shortly after they put into Dartmouth for repairs. After the repairs, a new start was made. They were more than two hundred miles beyond Land’s End at the southwestern tip of England when Speedwell sprang another leak. Since it was now early September, they had no choice but to abandon the Speedwell and make a determination on her passengers. This was a dire event, as the ship had wasted vital funds and was considered very important to the future success of their settlement in America. Soon after the Mayflower continued on her voyage to America, Speedwell was sold, refitted, and, according to Bradford, “made many voyages…to the great profit of her owners.” Bradford later assumed that the Speedwell master Mr. Reynolds’s “cunning and deceit” (in causing what may have been ‘man-made’ leaks in the ship) had been motivated by a fear of starving to death in America.
In addition to the 102 passengers, the officers and crew consisted of about 50 persons, including about 36 men before the mast, bringing the total persons on board the Mayflower to about one hundred and fifty.
In early September, western gales begin to make the North Atlantic a dangerous place for sailing. The Mayflower's provisions, already quite low when departing Southampton, became much less by delays of more than of a month, and the passengers, having been aboard ship for all this time, were quite worn out by then and in no condition for a very taxing lengthy Atlantic journey cooped up in cramped spaces in a small ship. But on September 6, 1620, the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth with what Bradford called “a prosperous wind.”
The known names of the ship’s crew are as follows: Christopher Jones Captain/Governor; masters mates: John Clarke (Pilot), Robert Coppin (Pilot), Andrew Williamson and John Parker; Surgeon: Doctor Giles Heale; Cooper: John Alden. Alden would later marry Priscilla, daughter of William Mullins, Mayflower passengers, and together would have a large family. Tradition has it that the last port in England for the Mayflower was actually not Plymouth but Newlyn in Cornwall on the Land's End peninsula when it was found that the water picked up at Plymouth was contaminated. Scholarly works do not mention this stop, but Newlyn has a plaque to this effort on its quay. Only the year "1620" is provided, with no date.
Aboard the Mayflower were many stores that supplied the pilgrims with the essentials needed for their journey and future lives. It is assumed that among these stores, they would have carried tools and weapons, including cannon, shot, and gunpowder; as well as some live animals, including dogs, sheep, goats, and poultry. Horses and cattle would come later. The Mayflower would also carry two boats: a long boat and a “shallop”, a sort of twenty-one foot dinghy. She also carried twelve artillery pieces (eight minions and four sakers), as the Pilgrims feared they might need to defend themselves against the Spaniards, Frenchmen, or the Dutch, as well as the Natives.
- For more details on acquisition of the ship and the planning of the voyage, see Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony).
It had been a miserable passage with a huge wave crashing against the ship’s topside until a structural support timber fractured. So far the passengers had suffered agonizing delays, cold and the scorn and ridicule of the sailors, but had done everything they could the help the carpenter repair the fractured ship’s beam. A mechanical device called screw-jack was loaded on board to help them in the construction of homes in the New World. The beam was loaded into place with the screw jack making the Mayflower secure enough to continue the voyage.
There were two deaths, but this was only a precursor of what happened after their arrival in Cape Cod, where almost half the company would die in the first winter.
On November 9/19, 1620, they sighted land, which was present-day Cape Cod. After several days of trying to sail south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia where they had already obtained permission from the Company of Merchant Adventurers to settle, strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, well north of the intended area. where they anchored on November 11/21. To establish legal order and to quell increasing strife within the ranks, the settlers wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact after the ship dropped anchor at the tip of Cape Cod on November 11/21, in what is now Provincetown Harbor. The Mayflower Compact was signed that day.
On Monday, November 27, an exploring expedition was launched to search for a settlement site under the direction of Christopher Jones. As master of the Mayflower, Jones was not required to assist in the search, but he apparently thought it in his best interest to assist the search expedition. There were thirty-four persons in an open shallop – twenty-four passengers and ten sailors. They were obviously not prepared for the bitter winter weather they encountered on their reconnoiter, the Mayflower passengers not being used to the winter weather much colder than back home. Due to the bad weather encountered on the expedition, they were forced to spend the night ashore ill-clad in below freezing temperatures with wet shoes and stockings that became frozen. “(s)ome of our people that are dead,” Bradford wrote,”took the original of their death here.” 
The settlers explored the snow-covered area and discovered an empty native village. The curious settlers dug up some artificially made mounds, some of which stored corn, while others were burial sites. Nathaniel Philbrick claims that the settlers stole the corn and looted and desecrated the graves, sparking friction with the locals. Philbrick goes on to say that, as they moved down the coast to what is now Eastham, they explored the area of Cape Cod for several weeks, looting and stealing native stores as they went. He then writes about how they decided to relocate to Plymouth after a difficult encounter with the local native, the Nausets, at First Encounter Beach, in December 1620.
However, Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation records that they took "some" of the corn to show the others back at the boat, leaving the rest. Then, later, they took what they needed from another store of grain, paying the locals back in six months, and it was gladly received.
Also there was found more of their corn and of their beans of various colors; the corn and beans they brought away, purposing to give them full satisfaction when they should meet with any of them as, about some six months afterward they did, to their good content.
During the winter, the passengers remained on board the Mayflower, suffering an outbreak of a contagious disease described as a mixture of scurvy, pneumonia and tuberculosis. When it ended, there were only 53 passengers, just over half, still alive. Likewise, half of the crew died as well. In the spring, they built huts ashore, and on March 21/31, 1621, the surviving passengers disembarked from the Mayflower. The Mayflower lay in New Plymouth harbor through the winter of 1620-1. On April 5/15, 1621, the Mayflower set sail from Plymouth to return to England, where she arrived on May 6/16, 1621.
Due to the fear of Indian attack, in late February 1621, the settlers decided to mount “our great ordnances” on the hill overlooking the settlement. Christopher Jones supervised the transportation of the “great guns” – about six iron cannons that ranged between four and eight feet in length and weighed almost half a ton. The cannon were able to hurl iron balls as big as 3 ½ inches in diameter as far as 1,700 yards. This action made what was no more than a ramshackle village almost into a well-defended fortress.
Jones had originally planned to return to England as soon as the Pilgrims found a settlement site. But after his crew members began to be ravaged by the same diseases that were felling the Pilgrims, he realized he had to remain in Plymouth Harbor “till he saw his men began to recover.”
On April 5, the Mayflower, her empty hold ballasted with stones from the Plymouth Harbor shore, set sail for England. As with the Pilgrims, her sailors had been decimated by disease. Jones had lost his boatswain, his gunner, three quartermasters, the cook, and more than a dozen sailors. The Mayflower made excellent time on her voyage back to England. The westerlies that had buffeted her coming out pushed her along going home and she arrived at the home port of Rotherhithe in London on May 6, 1621 – less than half the time it had taken her to sail to America." 
Jones died after coming back from a voyage to France on March 5, 1622, at about age 52. It is suggested that his journey to the New World may have taken its toll on him. For the next two years, the Mayflower lay at her berth in Rotherhithe, not far from the grave of Captain Jones at St. Mary’s church there. By 1624, the Mayflower was no longer useful as a ship and although her subsequent fate is unknown, she was probably broken up about that time. The Mayflower was the final casualty of a voyage that had cost her master, Christopher Jones, everything he could give.”
Passengers[edit | edit source]
For more info see also:
Some families traveled together and others left family members behind. Two of the passengers were pregnant women: Susanna White, and Mary Allerton. Elizabeth Hopkins gave birth en route; her baby was appropriately named Oceanus. A second baby was born during the winter of 1620-1621, when the company wintered aboard ship in Provincetown Harbor. One child died during the voyage, and there was one stillbirth during the construction of the colony. Many of the passengers were Pilgrims fleeing persistent religious persecution, but some were hired hands, servants, or farmers recruited by London merchants, all originally destined for Virginia.
Four of this latter group of passengers were small children given into the care of Mayflower pilgrims. The Virginia Company began the transportation of children in 1618. Until relatively recently, the children were thought to be orphans, foundlings or involuntary child labor. At that time, children were routinely rounded up from the streets of London or taken from poor families receiving church relief to be used as laborers in the colonies. Any legal objections to the involuntary transportation of the children were over-ridden by the Privy Council. In 1959 it was conclusively shown that the four More children were sent to America because they were deemed illegitimate, and a source of later historical controversy in England. Three of the four children died in the first winter in the New World, but the survivor, Richard More, lived to be approximately 81, dying in Salem, probably in 1695 or 1696.
The passengers mostly slept and lived in the low-ceilinged great cabins. These cabins were thin-walled and extremely cramped. The cabin area was 25 feet by 15 at its largest, and on the main deck, which was 75 by 20 at the most. Below decks, any person over five feet tall would be unable to stand up straight. The maximum possible space for each person would have been slightly less than the size of a standard single bed. The Mayflower passengers were the earliest permanent European settlers in New England. During their time, they were referred to as the "First Comers". They lived in the perilous times of what was called "The Ancient Beginnings" of the New World adventure.
Passengers would pass the time by reading by candlelight or playing cards and games like Nine Men’s Morris. Meals on board were cooked by the firebox, which was an iron tray with sand in it on which a fire was built. This was risky because it was kept in the waist of the ship. Passengers made their own meals from rations that were issued daily and food was cooked for a group at a time. Upon arrival late in the year, the harsh climate and scarcity of fresh food caused many more deaths. Due to the delay in departure, provisions were short. Living in these extremely close and crowded quarters, several passengers experienced scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of the essential nutrient vitamin C (ascorbic acid). There was no way to store fruits or vegetables without their becoming rotten, so many passengers did not receive enough nutrients in their diets. Passengers with scurvy experienced symptoms such as rotten teeth, which would fall out; bleeding gums, and stinking breath. Passengers consumed large amounts of alcohol, specifically beer. Beer was thought to be safer than water because the Pilgrims were accustomed to unsafe drinking water. Beer was thought to be part of a healthy, well-balanced diet. William Mullins took 126 pairs of shoes and 13 pairs of boots. These clothes included: oiled leather and canvas suits, stuff gowns and leather and stuff breeches, shirts, jerkins, doublets, neckcloths, hats and caps, hose, stockings, belts, piece goods, and haberdasherie.
No cattle or beasts of draft or burden were brought on the journey, but there were pigs, goats, and poultry. Some passengers brought family pets such as cats and birds. Peter Browne took his large bitch mastiff and John Goodman brought along his spaniel.
The seamen on the Mayflower had four devices to help them during their journey. They charted their course with a compass. They measured their speed with the log and line system. This system consisted of a board attached to a line, which was tossed over the stern. The line was marked with a knot at regular intervals related to the length of a nautical mile. Time was measured with hour glasses; for example, "when the hour glass had emptied at the top vessel, a sailor would strike a bell, and another sailor would count how many knots of line had run out". The speed of the ship in nautical miles per hour (still called "knots") would then be known.
The Pilgrim ship Mayflower has a famous place in American history as a symbol of early European colonization of the future United States.
The main record for the voyage of the Mayflower and the disposition of the Plymouth Colony comes from the letters and journal of William Bradford, who was a guiding force and later the governor of the colony.
Later history[edit | edit source]
On May 4, 1624, two years after Captain Jones’ death in 1622, an application was made to the Admiralty court for an appraisal of the Mayflower by three of her owners including Jones’ widow, Mrs. Josian (Joan) Jones. This appraisal probably was made to determine the valuation of the ship for the purpose of settling the estate of its late master. The appraisal was made by four mariners and shipwrights of Rotherhithe, home and burial place of Captain Jones, where the Mayflower was apparently then laying in the Thames at London. The appraisement is extant and provides information on ship’s gear on board at that time as well as equipment such as muskets and other arms. The ship may have been laid up since Jones’ death and allowed to get out of repair, as that is what the appraisal indicates.
What finally became of the Mayflower is an unsettled issue. Per Banks, an English historian of the Pilgrim ship, claims that this historic ship was finally broken up, with her timbers used in the construction of a barn at Jordans village in Buckinghamshire. At the present time, within the grounds of Old Jordan in South Buckinghamshire is what tradition calls the Mayflower Barn. In 1624 Thomas Russell supposedly added to part of a farmhouse already there with timbers from a ship, believed to be from the Pilgrim ship ‘Mayflower’, bought from a shipbreaker's yard in Rotherhithe. The well-preserved structure is a present-day tourist attraction, receiving visitors each year from all over the world and particularly from America.
Second Mayflower[edit | edit source]
Another ship called the Mayflower made a voyage from London to Plymouth Colony in 1629 carrying 35 passengers, many from the Pilgrim congregation in Leiden that organized the first voyage. This was not the same ship that made the original voyage with the first settlers. This voyage began in May and reached Plymouth in August. This ship also made the crossing from England to America in 1630, 1633, 1634, and 1639. It attempted the trip again in 1641, departing London in October of that year under master John Cole, with 140 passengers bound for Virginia. It never arrived. On October 18, 1642 a deposition was made in England regarding the loss.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Billericay, where the Pilgrim Fathers met prior to the voyage
- A Journey to the New World: The Diary of Remember Patience Whipple, Mayflower, 1620, a historical fiction novel for young adults
- Leigh-on-Sea, where the Mayflower was outfitted
- Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery were the ships that settled Jamestown, Virginia.
- Taylor-Bray Farm, a farm in southeastern Massachusetts owned by descendants of Mayflower passengers
- Thanksgiving (United States)
- The Ark and The Dove, ships that settled Maryland in 1634
- Pilgrim (Plymouth Colony)
- Puritan migration to New England (1620–1640)
- Plymouth Adventure (directed by Clarence Brown, 1952)
- Mayflower: The Pilgrims' Adventure (1979)
- Mayflower II, a replica of the Mayflower in Plymouth, Massachussets
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and 'Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 19
- ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and 'Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 17.
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006) p. 24
- ^ History of the Mayflower/
- ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and 'Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 22.
- ^ a b c Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and 'Little James" in 1623,(orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 22
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 28
- ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and 'Little James" in 1623, (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), pp. 17-19
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 29
- ^ Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and 'Little James" in 1623, (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 19
- ^ Newlyn in Cornwall
- ^ a b c d e f Hodgson, Godfrey. A Great and Godly Adventure. Public Affairs: New York, 2006
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 4
- ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 413
- ^ Cheney, Glenn Alan (2007). Thanksgiving: The Pilgrims' First Year in America. New London: New London Librarium. ISBN 978-0-9798039-0-1.
- ^ a b c d e Moritz, Bjoern (2003). "The Pilgrim-Fathers’ Voyage with the 'Mayflower' (history)". ShipsOnStamps.org. http://www.shipsonstamps.org/Topics/html/pilgrim.htm.
- ^ William Bradford. History of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford, the second Governor of Plymouth (Boston. 1856 Not in copyright) p. 448
- ^ George Ernest Bowman, The Mayflower Compact and its signers, (Boston: Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1920). Photocopies of the 1622, 1646 and 1669 versions of the document pp. 7-19.
- ^ Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620-1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 413
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 65-66
- ^ Philbrick, pp. 61-62
- ^ Winslow, Edward; William Bradford (1622). A Relation or Journal of the Beginning and Proceeding of the English Plantation Settled at Plymouth. London, England: John Bellamie. pp. 8–10. http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/PrimarySources/MourtsRelation.pdf.
- ^ Philbrick, pp. 65-70
- ^ William Bradford, William T. Davis (ed), Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606-1646, (Scribners 1908) p. 25 (the only written account of the voyage)
- ^ John Harris, Saga Of The Pilgrims(historical analysis), (Globe Newspaper Co., 1983), webpages (no links between): UCcom-saga1 and UCcom-saga11
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), pp. 90-91
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 91
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 100-101
- ^ Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006), p. 101
- ^ Donald F. Harris, PhD. The Mayflower Descendant (July 1994) vol. 44 no. 2 p. 111
- ^ R.C. Johnson. The Transportation of Vagrant Children from London to Virginia, 1618-1622, in H.S. Reinmuth (Ed.), Early Stuart Studies: Essays in Honor of David Harris Willson, Minneapolis, 1970.
- ^ The Mayflower Descendant (July 2, 1994) vol. 44 no. 2 pp. 110, 111
- ^ Donald F. Harris, PhD. The Mayflower Descendants. vol 43 (July 1993), vol. 44 (July 1994.
- ^ David Lindsay, PhD., Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) Introduction
- ^ a b Caffrey, Kate. The Mayflower. New York: Stein and Day, 1974
- ^ David Lindsay, PhD., Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) pp. x, xvi.
- ^ a b Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, (Viking 2006).
- ^ Philbrick, pp. 4-5
- ^ R. G. Marsden, The Mayflower English Historical Review (19 October 1904), p. 677
- ^ Pierson, RichardE.; Pierson, Jennifer (1997). Pierson Millennium. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, Inc. ISBN 0-7884-0742-2.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Mayflower and Her Passengers by Caleb Johnson - Genealogical research on all Mayflower pilgrims. 292 pages (Pulb 2006).
- Bradford, William; William T. Davis (ed) (1908). Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606-1646. Scribners. http://books.google.com/books?id=Sd9BAAAAIAAJ. (the only written account of the voyage)
- R. G. Marsden, "The 'Mayflower,'" English Historical Review 19 (October 1904): 669-80.
- Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03760-5.
- Usher, Roland G (1984). The Pilgrims and their History. Williamstown, Massachusetts: Corner House Publishers. ISBN 0-87928-082-4. (originally published in 1918)
[edit | edit source]
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Mayflower.|
- Mayflower history Mayflower History
- Pilgrim Hall Museum of Plymouth, Massachusetts
- General Society of Mayflower Descendants
- The Mayflower And Her Log; Azel Ames, Project Gutenberg edition.
- The Mayflower And Her Log; Azel Ames, Internet Archive edition.
- Exact arrival site of the Mayflower on Satellite Map and NOAA Chart on BlooSee
- The Mayflower II
- Contemporary photos of Plymouth's Barbican and the Mayflower Steps
- Pilgrims Point, Plymouth (UK) A photo of the modern-day Mayflower Steps Arch and Pilgrims Point
- "Mayflower, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
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