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Maricopa County, Arizona
Maricopa County Courthouse October 6 2013 Phoenix Arizona 2816x2112 Rear.JPG
The Maricopa County Courthouse and Old Phoenix City Hall, also known as the County-City Administration Building, in 2013
Flag of Maricopa County, Arizona
Flag
Seal of Maricopa County, Arizona
Seal
Map of Arizona highlighting Maricopa County
Location in the state of Arizona
Map of the U.S. highlighting Arizona
Arizona's location in the U.S.
Founded February 14, 1871
Named for Maricopa people
Seat Phoenix
Largest city Phoenix
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

9,224 sq mi (23,890 km²)
9,200 sq mi (23,828 km²)
24 sq mi (62 km²), 0.3
Population
 -  Density


Congressional districts 1st, 3rd, 4th
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7
Website www.maricopa.gov

Maricopa County is located in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2020 census, the county’s population was 4,420,568, making it the state's most populous county, and the fourth-most populous in the United States. It contains about 62% of Arizona's population, making Arizona one of the most centralized states in the nation. The county seat is Phoenix,[1] the state capital and fifth-most populous city in the United States.

Maricopa County is the central county of the Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area. The Office of Management and Budget renamed the metropolitan area in September 2018. Previously, it was the Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale metropolitan area, and in 2000, that was changed to Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale.

Maricopa County was named after the Maricopa Native Americans.[2] Five Native American Reservations are located in the county.[3] The largest are the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (east of Scottsdale) and the Gila River Indian Community (south of Chandler).

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 9,224 sq mi (23,890 km2), of which 24 sq mi (62 km2) (0.3%) are covered by water.[4] Maricopa County is one of the largest counties in the United States by area, with a land area greater than that of four other US states. From west to east, it stretches 132 miles (212 km), and 103 miles (166 km) from north to south.[5] It is by far Arizona's most populous county, encompassing well over half of the state's residents. It is the largest county in the United States to have a capital city.

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

  • Sonoran Desert National Monument (part)
  • Tonto National Forest (part)

Demographics

File:Median Household Income Maricopa County.png

Median Household Income in 2015 across metro Phoenix; the darker the green, the higher the income[6]

Percent of people living in poverty across metro Phoenix in 2016; the darker the red, the higher the concentration of poverty[7]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1880 5,689
1890 10,986 93.1%
1900 20,457 86.2%
1910 34,488 68.6%
1920 89,576 159.7%
1930 150,970 68.5%
1940 186,193 23.3%
1950 331,770 78.2%
1960 663,510 100.0%
1970 971,228 46.4%
1980 1,509,175 55.4%
1990 2,122,101 40.6%
2000 3,072,149 44.8%
2010 3,817,117 24.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790–1960[9] 1900–1990[10]
1990–2000[11] 2010–2018[12]

Racial and Ethnic Composition since 1960

Racial composition 2020[13] 2010[14][15] 2000[16] 1990[17] 1980[18] 1970[19] 1960[20]
White 59.8% 73.0% 77.3% 84.7% 86.6% 94.8% 94.5%
 —Non-Hispanic 53.3% 58.7% 66.2% 77.1% 81.1% - -
Black or African American 5.9% 5.0% 3.7% 3.4% 3.1% 3.3% 3.7%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 30.6% 29.6% 24.8% 16.2% 13.1% 14.5% -
Asian 4.6% 3.5% 2.1% 1.7% - - 0.3%
Native American 2.3% 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% - - 1.2%
Pacific Islander 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% - - - -
Mixed Race 13.6% 2.4% 2.9% - - - -

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, 3,072,149 people, 1,132,886 households, and 763,565 families were living in the county. The population density was 334 people/sq mi (129/km2). The 1,250,231 housing units averaged of 136/sq mi (52/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 77.4% White, 3.7% African American, 1.9% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 12.0% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more races. About 29.5% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. About 19.1% reported speaking Spanish at home.[21]

Of the 1,132,886 households, 33.0% had children under 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were not families. About 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.67, and the average family size was 3.21.

The age distribution in the county was 27.0% under 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.80% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.10 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $45,358, and for a family was $51,827. Males had a median income of $36,858 versus $28,703 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,251. About 8.0% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, 3,817,117 people, 1,411,583 households, and 932,814 families were living in the county.[22] The population density was 414.9 /sq mi (160.2 /km2). The 1,639,279 housing units averaged 178.2 /sq mi (68.8 /km2).[23] The racial makeup of the county was 73.0% white (58.7% non-Hispanic white), 5.0% African American, 3.5% Asian, 2.1% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 12.8% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 29.6% of the population.[22] The largest ancestry groups were:[24]

Of the 1,411,583 households, 35.1% had children under 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were not families, and 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age was 34.6 years.[22]

The median income for a household in the county was $55,054 and the median income for a family was $65,438. Males had a median income of $45,799 versus $37,601 for females. The per capita income for the county was $27,816. About 10.0% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.[25]

According to data provided by the United States Census Bureau in October 2015 and collected from 2009 to 2013, 73.72% of the population aged five years and over spoke only English at home, while 20.32% spoke Spanish, 0.56% spoke Chinese, 0.47% Vietnamese, 0.41% Tagalog, 0.37% Arabic, 0.36% German, 0.30% French, 0.25% Navajo, 0.21% Korean, 0.20% Hindi, 0.15% Italian, 0.14% Persian, 0.13% Russian, 0.13% Serbo-Croatian, 0.12% Telugu, 0.12% Polish, 0.11% Syriac, 0.11% Japanese, 0.11% spoke Romanian, and 0.10% spoke other Native North American languages at home.[26]

Religion

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Maricopa County was the Diocese of Phoenix, with 519,950 Catholics worshipping at 99 parishes, followed by 242,732 LDS Mormons with 503 congregations, 213,640 non-denominational adherents with 309 congregations, 93,252 AG Pentecostals with 120 congregations, 73,207 SBC Baptists with 149 congregations, 35,804 Christian churches and churches of Christ Christians with 29 congregations, 30,014 ELCA Lutherans with 47 congregations, 28,634 UMC Methodists with 55 congregations, 18,408 LCMS Lutherans with 34 congregations, and 15,001 PC-USA Presbyterians with 42 congregations. Altogether, 39.1% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.[27] In 2014, the county had 1,177 religious organizations, the fifth most out of all US counties.[28]

Government, policing, and politics

Government

The governing body of Maricopa County is its board of supervisors. The Maricopa County Board of Supervisors consists of five members chosen by popular vote within their own districts. Currently, the board consists of four Republicans and one Democrat. Each member serves a four-year term, with no term limits.

Maricopa County sheriff

The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, administers the county jail, and patrols the unincorporated areas of the county plus incorporated towns by contract.

Politics

For much of the time after World War II, Maricopa County was one of the more conservative urban counties in the United States. While the city of Phoenix has been evenly split between the two major parties, most of the rest of the county was strongly Republican. Until 2020, every Republican presidential candidate since 1952 had carried Maricopa County. This includes the 1964 presidential run of native son Barry Goldwater, who would not have carried his own state had it not been for a 21,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Until 2020, it was the largest county in the country to vote Republican. From 1968 to 2016, Democrats held the margin within single digits only three times–in 1992, 1996, and 2016. In 2020, Joe Biden became the first Democrat in 72 years to win the county, which flipped Arizona to the Democratic column for the first time since 1996 and only the second time since 1948.[29] Furthermore, Biden became the first presidential candidate to win more than one million votes in the county. This makes Maricopa County the third county in American history to cast more than one million votes for a presidential candidate. The county is also a statewide bellwether, voting for the statewide winning candidate in all elections except 1996.

Despite its consistent Republican allegiance since 1952, its fast-growing Hispanic population and influx of conservative retirees and Mormons, which were traditionally conservative voting blocs but were increasingly skeptical of President Donald Trump, signaled that it was a crucial bellwether in the 2020 election.[30]

Voter Registration as of July 2021[31]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Republican 908,613 34.59%
style="background-color:Template:Other Party (United States)/meta/color;" width=10px | Other/Independents 877,472 33.41%
Democratic 816,385 31.08%
Libertarian Party 24,254 0.92%
Total 2,626,724 100%


United States presidential election results for Maricopa County, Arizona[32]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 995,665 47.96% 1,040,774 50.13% 39,647 1.91%
2016 747,361 47.67% 702,907 44.83% 117,566 7.50%
2012 749,885 54.30% 602,288 43.61% 28,786 2.08%
2008 746,448 54.43% 602,166 43.91% 22,756 1.66%
2004 679,455 56.86% 504,849 42.25% 10,657 0.89%
2000 479,967 53.23% 386,683 42.88% 35,049 3.89%
1996 386,015 47.22% 363,991 44.53% 67,426 8.25%
1992 360,049 41.06% 285,457 32.56% 231,326 26.38%
1988 442,337 64.90% 230,952 33.89% 8,229 1.21%
1984 411,902 71.98% 154,833 27.06% 5,538 0.97%
1980 316,287 64.97% 119,752 24.60% 50,795 10.43%
1976 258,262 61.66% 144,613 34.53% 15,966 3.81%
1972 244,593 69.29% 95,135 26.95% 13,272 3.76%
1968 162,262 59.08% 86,204 31.39% 26,185 9.53%
1964 143,114 53.94% 122,042 46.00% 170 0.06%
1960 127,090 59.37% 86,834 40.57% 135 0.06%
1956 92,140 62.96% 54,010 36.91% 191 0.13%
1952 77,249 60.57% 50,285 39.43% 0 0.00%
1948 36,585 46.31% 40,498 51.27% 1,909 2.42%
1944 24,853 43.41% 32,197 56.23% 208 0.36%
1940 22,610 38.93% 35,055 60.36% 414 0.71%
1936 13,671 28.71% 32,031 67.28% 1,908 4.01%
1932 15,086 34.07% 28,601 64.59% 593 1.34%
1928 20,089 62.25% 12,146 37.64% 34 0.11%
1924 10,611 44.66% 9,177 38.63% 3,970 16.71%
1920 11,336 56.23% 8,825 43.77% 0 0.00%
1916 5,747 39.26% 7,634 52.14% 1,259 8.60%
1912 642 11.32% 2,606 45.97% 2,421 42.71%



Despite its political leanings at the time, Maricopa County voted against Proposition 107 in the 2006 election. This referendum, designed to ban gay marriage and restrict domestic partner benefits, was rejected by a 51.6–48.4% margin within the county, and statewide by a similar margin. Two years later, however, a majority of county residents voted to pass a successful state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage. The amendment was later invalidated by the Supreme Court's 2015 ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, which declared that same-sex marriage is a fundamental right in the United States.

Unlike cities and towns in Arizona, counties are politically and legally subordinate to the state and do not have charters of their own. The county Board of Supervisors acts under powers delegated by state law, mainly related to minor ordinances and revenue collection. With few exceptions, these powers are narrowly construed. The state legislature devotes considerable time to local matters, with legislative approval required for many routine local issues. The chairperson of the board presides for a one-year term, selected by the board members during a public hearing.

The County Sheriff, County Attorney, County Assessor, County Treasurer, Superintendent of Schools, County Recorder, Constables, Justices of the Peace, and Clerk of the Superior Court are elected by the people. Retention of Superior Court Judges is also determined by popular vote.

The county's dominant political figure for over two decades (from 1993 to 2017) was Sheriff Joe Arpaio, who called himself "America's Toughest Sheriff" and gained national notoriety for his flamboyant and often controversial practices and policies.[33]

Maricopa County is home to 62 percent of the state's population, thus dominating Arizona's politics. For example, in the 2018 Senate election, Democrat Kyrsten Sinema carried the county en route to becoming the first Democrat to win a Senate seat in Arizona since 1988.[34] She won the county by over 60,000 votes, more than enough for the victory; she won statewide by 55,900 votes.[35] All but one of the state's nine congressional districts include part of the county, and five of the districts have their population center located there. Most of the state's prominent elected officials live in the county. Further underlining Maricopa County's political dominance, Biden's margin of 45,109 votes was more than enough to carry the state; he only won Arizona by 10,457 votes.

Elected officials

United States Congress

District Name Party First elected [lower-alpha 1] Area(s) represented
United States Senate
  Class I Senator Kyrsten Sinema Democratic 2018 At Large
  Class III Senator Mark Kelly Democratic 2020
United States House of Representatives
  1 Tom O'Halleran Democratic 2016 Phoenix, Gila River Indian Community
  3 Raul Grijalva Democratic 2002 Buckeye, Gila Bend, Avondale, Phoenix
  4 Paul Gosar Republican 2010 Apache Junction, Camp Creek, Phoenix
  5 Andy Biggs Republican 2016 Gilbert, Mesa, Chandler, Queen Creek
  6 David Schweikert Republican 2010 Fountain Hills, Phoenix, Scottsdale, Paradise Valley
  7 Ruben Gallego Democratic 2014 Glendale, Phoenix
  8 Debbie Lesko Republican 2018 Glendale, Peoria, Phoenix, Surprise
  9 Greg Stanton Democratic 2018 Chandler, Mesa, Tempe, Phoenix
  1. ^ Due to redistricting in 2002 and again in 2012, many of the Representatives listed were first elected to a district other than the one they currently represent.

The 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th districts are all centered in Maricopa County. The 1st and 4th are centered in rural Arizona, while the 2nd is primarily Tucscon-based.

Board of Supervisors

Elected county officials

Party Office Name First elected Reference
  Republican Assessor Eddie Cook 2020† [36]
  Republican Clerk of the Superior Court Jeff Fine 2018† [37]
  Republican County Attorney Allister Adel 2020† [38]
  Republican County Recorder Stephen Richer 2020 [39]
  Republican County School Superintendent Steve Watson 2016 [39]
  Democratic Sheriff Paul Penzone 2016 [39]
  Republican Treasurer John Allen 2020 [39]

†Member was originally appointed to the office.

Education

  • Maricopa County Library District operates the county libraries in Maricopa County.
  • The Maricopa County School Superintendent is charged with the general conduct and supervision of the public school system in Maricopa County. The Superintendent is one of six county-wide elected officials, elected by the voters of Maricopa County every four years. Since the inception of the office, there have been thirteen Maricopa County School Superintendents. The incumbent, Steve Watson, took office January 1, 2017.

Transportation

Major highways

  • I-8 (AZ).svg Interstate 8
  • I-10 (AZ).svg Interstate 10
  • I-17 (AZ).svg Interstate 17
  • US 60.svg U.S. Route 60
  • US 80 (AZ historic).svg Historic U.S. Route 80
  • US 93.svg U.S. Route 93
  • Arizona 101.svg Loop 101
  • Arizona 202.svg Loop 202
  • Arizona 303.svg Loop 303
  • Arizona 51.svg State Route 51
  • Arizona 71.svg State Route 71
  • Arizona 74.svg State Route 74
  • Arizona 85.svg State Route 85
  • Arizona 87.svg State Route 87
  • Arizona 143.svg State Route 143
  • Arizona 347.svg State Route 347

Air

The major primary commercial airport of the county is Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX).

Other airports located in the county include:

  • Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport in Mesa (AZA)
  • Scottsdale Municipal Airport in Scottsdale (SCF)
  • Deer Valley Airport in Deer Valley Village in Phoenix (DVT)
  • Chandler Municipal Airport in Chandler (CHD)
  • Phoenix Goodyear Airport in Goodyear (GYR)
  • Glendale Municipal Airport in Glendale (GEU)
  • Buckeye Municipal Airport in Buckeye (BXK)
  • Falcon Field in Mesa (MSC)
  • Gila Bend Municipal Airport in Gila Bend (E63)
  • Wickenburg Municipal Airport in Wickenburg (E25)

Rail

In terms of freight rail, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad serve the county.

In terms of passenger rail, greater Phoenix is served by a light rail system. The county has no other passenger rail transport as Amtrak's Sunset Limited, which served Phoenix until June 2, 1996, has its closest stop in Maricopa in neighboring Pinal County. The train connects Maricopa to Tucson, Los Angeles, and New Orleans three times a week. However it does not stop in Phoenix itself.

Communities

Cities

Towns

Ghost towns

  • Agua Caliente
  • Alma
  • Angel Camp
  • Marinette
  • Nothing
  • Vulture City

Census-designated places

  • Aguila
  • Anthem
  • Arlington
  • Citrus Park
  • Gila Crossing
  • Kaka
  • Komatke
  • Maricopa Colony
  • Morristown
  • New River
  • Rio Verde
  • St. Johns
  • Sun City
  • Sun City West
  • Sun Lakes
  • Theba
  • Tonopah
  • Wintersburg
  • Wittmann

Unincorporated communities

  • Ahwatukee
  • Chandler Heights
  • Circle City
  • Co-op Village
  • Desert Hills
  • Fort McDowell
  • Higley
  • Laveen
  • Liberty
  • Mobile
  • Palo Verde
  • Rainbow Valley
  • Sunflower
  • Tortilla Flat
  • Waddell

Native American communities

  • Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation
  • Gila River Indian Community
  • Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community
  • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation

County population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Maricopa County.[40][41]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Population (2010 Census) Population (2017 Estimate) Municipal type Incorporated
1 Phoenix 1,445,632 1,626,078 City 1881
2 Mesa 439,041 496,401 City 1878 (founded)
3 Chandler 236,123 253,458 City 1920
4 Scottsdale 217,385 249,950 City 1951
5 Glendale 226,721 246,709 City 1910
6 Gilbert 208,453 242,354 Town 1920
7 Tempe 161,719 185,038 City 1894
8 Peoria (partially in Yavapai County) 154,065 168,181 City 1954
9 Surprise 117,517 134,085 City 1960
10 Avondale 76,238 84,025 City 1946
11 Goodyear 65,275 79,858 City 1946
12 Buckeye 50,876 68,453 City 1929
13 Queen Creek (partially in Pinal County) 26,361 39,184 Town 1990
14 Sun City 37,499 -- CDP
15 El Mirage 31,797 35,216 City 1951
16 Sun City West 24,535 -- CDP
17 Fountain Hills 22,489 24,583 Town 1989
18 Anthem 21,700 -- CDP
19 New River 14,952 -- CDP
20 Paradise Valley 12,820 14,293 Town 1961
21 Sun Lakes 13,975 -- CDP
22 Wickenburg 6,363 7,409 Town 1909
23 Tolleson 6,545 7,205 City 1929
24 Youngtown 6,156 6,760 Town 1960
25 Guadalupe 5,523 6,525 Town 1975
26 Litchfield Park 5,476 6,009 City 1987
27 Cave Creek 5,015 5,622 Town 1986
28 Citrus Park 4,028 -- CDP
29 Carefree 3,363 3,783 Town 1984
30 Gila Bend 1,922 2,069 Town 1962
31 Rio Verde 1,811 -- CDP
32 Komatke 821 -- CDP
33 Aguila 798 -- CDP
34 Wittmann 763 -- CDP
35 Maricopa Colony 709 -- CDP
36 Gila Crossing 621 -- CDP
37 St. Johns 476 -- CDP
38 Morristown 227 -- CDP
39 Arlington 194 -- CDP
40 Theba 158 -- CDP
41 Kaka 141 -- CDP
42 Wintersburg 136 -- CDP
43 Tonopah 60 -- CDP

Climate

Climate chart for Maricopa County
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
7
 
19
5
 
 
6
 
23
6
 
 
18
 
31
9
 
 
3
 
40
14
 
 
3
 
49
20
 
 
1
 
45
24
 
 
29
 
47
28
 
 
39
 
45
27
 
 
46
 
48
24
 
 
4
 
40
15
 
 
15
 
29
8
 
 
21
 
19
2
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [42]

Economy

In 2019, the largest employers in Maricopa County were:[43]

# Employer # of employees
1 Banner Health 27,650
2 State of Arizona 23,950
3 Walmart 16,870
4 Frys Food Stores 15,170
5 Wells Fargo 13,790
6 Maricopa County 13,350
7 City of Phoenix 12,190
8 Intel Corporation 11,410
9 Arizona State University 10,950
10 HonorHealth 9,430
11 JPMorgan Chase Bank National Association 9,310
12 Bank of America 9,180
13 Dignity Health 9,100
14 Amazon 9,050
15 Mesa Unified School District 4 8,500
16 Honeywell 8,450
17 United States Department of the Air Force 7,720
18 Home Depot 7,420
19 State Farm Insurance 7,420
20 United States Postal Service 7,260

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2019 the employment of Maricopa County in the following sectors was:[44]

Sector Number of jobs Percent National percent
Health care and social assistance 312,385 11.2% 11.3%
Retail trade 271,802 9.8% 9.4%
Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 249,786 9.0% 6.2%
Finance and insurance 226,934 8.2% 5.4%
Accommodation and food services 204,917 7.4% 7.5%
Professional, scientific, and technical services 200,508 7.2% 7.2%
Construction 172,119 6.2% 5.5%
Real estate and rental and leasing 169,363 6.1% 4.8%
Local government 152,939 5.5% 7.1%
Other services (except government) 140,788 5.1% 5.8%
Manufacturing 137,444 4.9% 6.7%
Transportation and warehousing 134,151 4.8% 4.5%
Wholesale trade 91,114 3.3% 3.2%
Arts, entertainment, and recreation 64,117 2.3% 2.4%
Educational services 63,445 2.3% 2.4%
State government 49,051 1.8% 2.7%
Information 48,195 1.7% 1.7%
Management of companies and enterprises 35,917 1.7% 1.4%
Federal civilian 21,366 0.8% 1.4%
Military 14,632 0.5% 1.0%
Utilities 8,229 0.3% 0.3%
Farming 6,237 0.2% 1.3%
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 5,356 0.2% 0.6%
Forestry, fishing, and related activities 2,994 0.1% 0.5%
Total 2,783,679 100.0% 100.0%

See also

  • 2021 Maricopa County presidential ballot audit
  • History of Phoenix, Arizona
  • Maricopa County Sheriff's Office
  • Maricopa Trail
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Maricopa County, Arizona
  • USS Maricopa County (LST-938)
  • White Tank Mountain Regional Park

References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  2. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 199. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_9V1IAAAAMAAJ. 
  3. ^ Indian Reservations in the Continental United States, Bureau of Indian Affairs on National Park Service website. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
  4. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 23, 2012. http://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/counties_list_04.txt. 
  5. ^ "Quick Facts about Maricopa County". Maricopa County, Ariz.. https://www.maricopa.gov/3598/About-Maricopa-County. 
  6. ^ "INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2016 INFLATION-ADJUSTED DOLLARS)". US Census Bureau. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_16_5YR_S1901&prodType=table. 
  7. ^ "POVERTY STATUS IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS". US Census Bureau. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_16_5YR_S1701&prodType=table. 
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/az190090.txt. 
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  12. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/04/04001.html. 
  13. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census" (in EN-US). https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-state-2010-and-2020-census.html. 
  14. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census" (in EN-US). https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-state-2010-and-2020-census.html. 
  15. ^ https://www.socialexplorer.com/a9676d974c/explore
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  26. ^ "Table 2. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for Maricopa County, AZ: 2009-2013". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2013/demo/2009-2013-lang-tables.html. 
  27. ^ "County Membership Report Maricopa County (Arizona)". 2010. http://www.thearda.com/rcms2010/rcms2010A.asp?U=04013&T=county&Y=2010&S=Name. 
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  30. ^ Wasserman, David (October 6, 2020). "Opinion | The 10 Bellwether Counties That Show How Trump Is in Serious Trouble" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/06/opinion/biden-trump-bellwether-counties-.html. 
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  43. ^ Maricopa County - Business, Jobs, and Industry Explorer
  44. ^ [1]

Further reading

  • Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, Maricopa County Sheriff's Office History and Pictorial. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing. Co., 2005.

External links

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Coordinates: 33°30′50″N 112°28′33″W / 33.51389, -112.47583

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