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Madison County, Illinois
Map of Illinois highlighting Madison County
Location in the state of Illinois
Map of the U.S. highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
Founded September 14, 1812
Seat Edwardsville
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

740.35 sq mi (1,917 km²)
725.02 sq mi (1,878 km²)
15.33 sq mi (40 km²), 2.07%
 - (2006)
 - Density

366/sq mi (141.3/km²)

Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. Madison County is part of the Metro-East region of the St. Louis Metro Area. As of 2010, the population was 269,282. The county seat is Edwardsville, Illinois, home to Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville.[1] The largest town in the county is Alton, Illinois known for its abolitionist and American Civil War-era history. It is also the home of Southern Illinois University Dental School.

Geography[edit | edit source]

According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 740.35 square miles (1,917.5 km2), of which 725.02 square miles (1,877.8 km2) (or 97.93%) is land and 15.33 square miles (39.7 km2) (or 2.07%) is water.[2] Madison County is on the Mississippi River, while the other major body of water is Horseshoe Lake.

Major expressways and highways[edit | edit source]

Adjacent counties[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1820 13,550
1830 6,221 −54.1%
1840 14,433 132.0%
1850 20,441 41.6%
1860 31,251 52.9%
1870 44,131 41.2%
1880 50,126 13.6%
1890 51,535 2.8%
1900 64,694 25.5%
1910 89,847 38.9%
1920 106,895 19.0%
1930 143,830 34.6%
1940 149,349 3.8%
1950 182,307 22.1%
1960 224,689 23.2%
1970 250,934 11.7%
1980 247,691 −1.3%
1990 249,238 0.6%
2000 258,941 3.9%
2010 269,282 4.0%
UVa Census Browser 1820-1890[3]
Illinois Counties 1900-1990[4]

Madison County was established on September 14, 1812. It was formed from parts of Randolph and St. Clair counties and named for President James Madison.[5] At the time of its formation, Madison County included all of the modern State of Illinois north of St. Louis, as well as all of the modern state of Wisconsin and part of Minnesota and Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

In the late 19th century, Madison County became an industrial powerhouse, and in the 20th century, was known for first, Graniteware, and later, its steel mills, oil refineries, and other heavy industry. It had a large working-class population, and the county and surrounding area became known as a center of strength for the Democratic Party.

Industrial restructuring drew off many jobs and population. Today, the county is part of the semi-rural, sparsely populated eastern portion of the St. Louis metropolitan area (nicknamed "Metro East") along with neighboring St. Clair County.

In 2009, the EPA issued an air pollution report that ranked Madison County as the county with the second-highest cancer risk in the country due to air pollution, second only to Los Angeles County, California.

Demographics[edit | edit source]

As of the U.S. Census of 2000,[6] there were 258,941 people, 101,953 households, and 70,041 families residing in the county. The population density was 357 people per square mile (138/km²). There were 108,942 housing units at an average density of 150 per square mile (58/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 90.23% White, 7.31% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, and 1.08% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.2% were of German, 11.6% American, 10.4% Irish and 9.2% English ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 101,953 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.30% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the county the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, and 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $41,541, and the median income for a family was $50,862. Males had a median income of $39,857 versus $25,968 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,509. About 7.20% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.70% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65 or over.

Political subdivisions[edit | edit source]

Map of Madison County, Illinois.

Cities[edit | edit source]

Villages[edit | edit source]

Unincorporated communities[edit | edit source]

Townships[edit | edit source]

Madison County is divided into twenty-four townships:

Transportation[edit | edit source]

Madison County Transit serves the county with 25 bus routes and 85 miles (137 km) of bike trails.

Climate and weather[edit | edit source]

Climate chart for Edwardsville, Illinois
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: The Weather Channel[7]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Edwardsville have ranged from a low of 19 °F (−7 °C) in January to a high of 90 °F (32 °C) in July, although a record low of −16 °F (−26.7 °C) was recorded in January 1982 and a record high of 111 °F (44 °C) was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches (51 mm) in January to 4.24 inches (108 mm) in May.[7]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

Coordinates: 38°50′N 89°55′W / 38.83, -89.91

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Madison County, Illinois. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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