|Motto: Avant, avant, Lion le melhor.
(Old Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best)[nb 1]
|Intercommunality||Metropolis of Lyon|
|• Mayor (2014–2020)||Gérard Collomb (PS)|
|Area1||47.87 km2 (18.48 sq mi)|
|• Urban (2010)||1,177.75 km2 (454.73 sq mi)|
|• Metro (2010)||6,018.62 km2 (2,323.80 sq mi)|
|Population (Jan. 2011)2||491,268|
|• Rank||2nd in France|
|• Density||10,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban (Jan. 2011)||1,567,537|
|• Metro (Jan. 2011)||2,188,759|
|Time zone||CET (GMT +1)|
|INSEE/Postal code||69123 / 69001-69009|
|Elevation||162–349 m (531–1,145 ft)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
Lyon (UK // or //; French pronunciation: [ljɔ̃] ( listen), locally: [lijɔ̃]; Arpitan: Liyon [ʎjɔ̃]; sometimes spelled Lyons in English) is a city in east-central France, in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located approximately 470 kilometres (292 miles) from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) from Marseille, 420 km (261 mi) from Strasbourg, 160 km (99 mi) from Geneva, 280 km (174 mi) from Turin. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais.
The small municipality (commune) of Lyon proper has a population of 491,268 (January 2011), and as such is France's third largest city after Paris and Marseille, but together with its suburbs and satellite towns Lyon forms the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in France with a population of 2,188,759 at the January 2011 census. Lyon is the capital of the Rhône-Alpes region, as well as the capital of the smaller Rhône département.
The city is known for its historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Lyon was historically known as an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Since the late 20th century, it has developed a reputation as the capital of gastronomy in France and in the world.
It has a significant role in the history of cinema due to Auguste and Louis Lumière, who invented the cinematographe in Lyon. The city is also known for its famous light festival, 'Fête des Lumières,' which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights.
Legend says that the Virgin Mary saved the city from the plague. To thank her, a statue was commissioned. On the day it was erected, the whole city was lit by candles that its citizens had put at their windows.
Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking as well as for chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, and in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyonhosts the international headquarters of Interpol, Euronews and International Agency for Research on Cancer. By some measures, Lyon is ranked 2nd in France as an economic centre and convention centre. Lyon was ranked 8th globally and 2nd in France for innovation in 2011. It ranked 2nd in France and 38th globally in Mercer's 2010 liveability rankings.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administration
- 4 Culture
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Main sights
- 8 Education
- 9 Transport
- 10 Notable residents
- 11 Movies in Lyon
- 12 International relations
- 13 Gallery
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
History[edit | edit source]
- Main article for early, mainly Roman, history: Lugdunum. Main articles for both Roman and later history: History of Lyon and Timeline of Lyon.
According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered Munatius Plancus and Lepidus, lieutenants of the assassinated Julius Caesar and governors of central and Transalpine Gaul respectively, to found a city for a group of Roman refugees. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne (a town about 30 km to the south) by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. Dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum). The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lug[o]dunon, after the Celtic god Lugus ('Light', cognate with Old Irish Lugh, Modern Irish Lú) and dúnon (hill-fort).
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa recognized that Lugdunum's position on the natural highway from northern to south-eastern France made it a natural communications hub, and he made Lyon the starting point of the principal Roman roads throughout Gaul. It then became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two navigable rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul. Two emperors were born in this city: Claudius, a speech of whom is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators, and Caracalla. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules" and the city often referred to as the "capitale des Gaules".
The Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina (Blandine), Pothinus (Pothin), and Epipodius (Épipode), among others. In the 2nd century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner Irenaeus.
Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were resettled by the military commander of the west, Aëtius, at Lugdunum. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I. It later was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century.
Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic countinghouse of France. (Even the Bourse (treasury), built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air.) When international banking moved to Genoa, then Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France.
During the French Revolution, Lyon rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins. In 1793, the city was assaulted by the Revolutionary armies and under siege for over two months before eventually surrendering. Several buildings were destroyed, especially around the Place Bellecour. Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people. A decade later, Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period.
During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. (Italian influence on Lyon's architecture are still visible among historic buildings.) Thanks to the silk trade, the city became an important industrial town during the 19th century. In 1831 and 1834, the canuts (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings for better working conditions and pay. The 1831 uprising saw one of the first recorded uses of the black flag as an emblem of protest.
During World War II, Lyon was a centre for the occupying German forces as well as a stronghold of resistance. The traboules (secret passages) through houses enabled the local people to escape Gestapo raids. On 3 September 1944, the city was liberated by the 1st Free French Division and the Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur. The city is now home to a resistance museum. (See also Klaus Barbie.)
Geography[edit | edit source]
The Rhône and Saône rivers converge to the south of the historic city centre forming a peninsula or "Presqu'île". There are two large hills, one to the west and one to the north of the city centre, as well as a large plain which sprawls eastward. West of the Presqu'île, the original medieval city (Vieux Lyon) was built on the west bank of the Saône river at the foot of the Fourvière hill. This area, along with portions of the Presqu'île and much of the Croix-Rousse is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
To the west is Fourvière, known as "the hill that prays". This is the location for the highly decorated basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, several convents, the palace of the Archbishop, the Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower, replicating the last stage of the Eiffel Tower) and a funicular (a railway on a steep hill).
Place Bellecour is located on the Presqu'île between the two rivers and is the third largest public square in France. The broad, pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place Bellecour. The 2nd arrondissement has many of the finest old residential buildings in Lyon and the area is known for its concentration of old Lyonnaise Catholic families, particularly in the Ainay part of the arrondissement.
East of the Rhône from the Presqu'île is a large area of flat ground upon which sits much of modern Lyon and contains most of the city's population. Situated in this area is the urban centre of Part-Dieu which clusters the Tour Part-Dieu (affectionately nicknamed "The Pencil"), the Tour Oxygène, the Tour Swiss Life, La Part-Dieu (a shopping centre) and Lyon Part-Dieu (one of Lyon's two major rail terminals).
North of this district is the relatively wealthy 6th arrondissement, which is home to the Parc de la Tête d'Or (one of Europe's largest urban parks), the prestigious Lycée du Parc to the south of the park, and Interpol's world headquarters on the park's western edge. The park contains a free zoo that has recently been upgraded.
Climate[edit | edit source]
Lyon lies in the broad transition zone between the Temperate Oceanic climates of northern France, and the subtropical Mediterranean climates to the south. Although Lyon does not share the drier summers typical of Mediterranean climates, it has summer temperatures that are warmer than typical temperate oceanic climates. In contrast, Lyon does not share the higher winter rainfall and cool summer temperatures typical of oceanic climates. Thus, Lyon appears to be located somewhat in the broad transition zone between these two climate types. The mean temperature in Lyon in the coldest month is 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) in January and in the warmest month in July is 22 °C (71.6 °F), which is just around the threshold for humid subtropical classification. Precipitation is adequate year-round, at an average of 830 millimetres (32.7 in), but the winter months are the driest.
|Climate data for Lyon (1981–2010 averages)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.5
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.4
|Average low °C (°F)||0.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−23
|Precipitation mm (inches)||47.2
|Avg. precipitation days||9.0||7.8||8.4||9.3||11.3||8.4||6.9||7.1||7.6||10.2||9.0||9.1||104.1|
|Avg. snowy days||5.5||3.9||2.5||1.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||2.0||4.6||19.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||73.9||101.2||170.2||190.5||221.4||254.3||283.0||252.7||194.8||129.6||75.9||54.5||2,001.9|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)|
Administration[edit | edit source]
Like Paris and Marseille, the city of Lyon is divided into a number of municipal arrondissements, each of which is identified by a number and has its own council and town hall. Five arrondissements were originally created in 1852, when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse, La Guillotière, and Vaise) were annexed by Lyon. Between 1867 and 1959, the 3rd arrondissement (which originally covered the whole of the Left Bank of the Rhône) was split three times, creating a new arrondissement in each case. Then, in 1963, the commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed to Lyon's 5th arrondissement. A year later, in 1964, the 5th was split to create Lyon's 9th – and, to date, final – arrondissement. Within each arrondissement, there are a number of recognisable quartiers or neighbourhoods:
- 1st arrondissement : Slopes of La Croix-Rousse, Terreaux, Martinière/St-Vincent
- 2nd arrondissement : Cordeliers, Bellecour, Ainay, Perrache, Confluent
- 3rd arrondissement : Guillotière (north), Préfecture, Part-Dieu, Villette, Dauphiné/Sans Souci, Montchat, Grange Blanche (north), Monplaisir (north)
- 4th arrondissement : Plateau de la Croix-Rousse, Serin
- 5th arrondissement : Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul, Saint-Jean, Saint-Georges), Saint-Just, Saint-Irénée, Fourvière, Point du Jour, Ménival, Battières, Champvert (south)
- 6th arrondissement : Brotteaux, Bellecombe, Parc de la Tête d'Or, Cité Internationale
- 7th arrondissement : Guillotière (south), Jean Macé, Gerland
- 8th arrondissement : Monplaisir (south), Bachut, États-Unis, Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent, Grange Blanche (south), Laënnec, Mermoz, Monplaisir-la-Plaine
- 9th arrondissement : Vaise, Duchère, Rochecardon, St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe, Gorge de Loup, Observance, Champvert (north)
Geographically, Lyon's two main rivers, the Saône and the Rhône, divide the arrondissements into three groups:
- To the west of the Saône, the 5th arrondissement covers the old city (Vieux Lyon), Fourvière hill and the plateau beyond. The 9th is immediately to the north, and stretches from Gorge de Loup, through Vaise to the neighbouring suburbs of Écully, Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or, Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or, Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or and Collonges-au-Mont-d'Or.
- Between the two rivers, on the Presqu'île are the 2nd, 1st and 4th arrondissements. The 2nd includes most of the city centre, including Bellecour and Perrache railway station, and reaches as far as the confluence of the two rivers. The 1st is directly to the north of the 2nd and covers part of the city centre (including the Hôtel de Ville) and the slopes of La Croix-Rousse. To the north of the Boulevard is the 4th arrondissement, which covers the Plateau of La Croix-Rousse, up to its boundary with the commune of Caluire-et-Cuire.
- To the east of the Rhône, are the 3rd, 6th, 7th and 8th arrondissements.
The Urban Community of Lyon, also known as Greater Lyon is the intercommunal structure gathering the city and some of its suburbs. The Urban Community encompasses only the core of the metropolitan area of Lyon.
Mayors[edit | edit source]
|Mayor||Term start||Term end||Party|
|Victor Augagneur||1900||October 30, 1905||PRS|
|Édouard Herriot||October 30, 1905||September 20, 1940||Radical|
|Georges Cohendy||September 20, 1940||1941||Nominated and dismissed by Vichy|
|Georges Villiers||1941||1942||Nominated and dismissed by Vichy|
|Pierre-Louis-André Bertrand||1942||1944||Nominated by Vichy|
|Justin Godart||1944||May 18, 1945||Radical|
|Édouard Herriot||May 18, 1945||March 26, 1957||Radical|
|Pierre Montel, interim||March 26, 1957||April 14, 1957||Radical|
|Louis Pradel||April 14, 1957||November 27, 1976||Centre-right|
|Armand Tapernoux, interim||November 27, 1976||December 5, 1976||Independent|
|Francisque Collomb||December 5, 1976||March 24, 1989||UDF|
|Michel Noir||March 24, 1989||June 25, 1995||bgcolor=Template:Rally for the Republic/meta/color|||RPR|
|Raymond Barre||June 25, 1995||March 25, 2001||UDF|
|Gérard Collomb||March 25, 2001||incumbent||PS|
Culture[edit | edit source]
|Historic Site of Lyons*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière on the hill.|
|Region†||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1998 (22nd Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Since the Middle Ages, the residents of the region speak several dialects of Arpitan language. The Lyonnais dialect was partly replaced by the French language as the importance of the city grew. However, it is still alive and, in addition, some "frenchified" Franco-Provençal words can also be heard in the French of the Lyonnais, who call their little boys and girls "gones" and "fenottes" for example.
- The Lumière brothers pioneered cinema in the town in 1895. The Musée Lumière, built as Auguste Lumiere's house, and a fascinating piece of architecture in its own right, holds many of their first inventions and other early cinematic and photographic artefacts.
- 8 December each year is marked by the Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières), a celebration of thanks to the Virgin Mary, who purportedly saved the city from a deadly plague in the Middle Ages. During the event, the local population places candles (lumignons) at their windows and the city of Lyon organizes impressive large-scale light shows onto the sides of important Lyonnais monuments, such as the medieval Cathédrale St-Jean.
- The church of Saint Francis of Sales is famous for its large and unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ, attracting audiences from around the world.
- The Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) is the home of the Opéra National de Lyon. The original opera house was re-designed by the distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 and 1993 and is named after him.
- Lyon is also the French capital of "trompe l'œil" walls, a very ancient tradition. Many are to be seen around the city. This old tradition is now finding a contemporary expression, for example in the art of Guillaume Bottazzi.
- The Brothers of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools in Europe and North America, was founded in Lyon in 1821.
- The African Museum of Lyon is one of the oldest museums situated in Lyon.
- The Museum of Resistance and Deportation looks at the various persons prominent in the Resistance movement in World War II. The building is strongly linked to Klaus Barbie. Lyon sees itself as the centre of the French resistance and many members were shot in Place Bellecour in the town centre. The exhibition is largely a series of mini-biographies of those involved.
- The unusual project Lyon Dubai City, a reproduction of some districts of Lyon in Dubai, is a major point for the tourism in Lyon.
- Lyon is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
UNESCO World Heritage Site[edit | edit source]
The Historic Site of Lyon was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998. In its designation, UNESCO cited the "exceptional testimony to the continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia on a site of great commercial and strategic significance." The specific regions composing the Historic Site include the Roman district and Fourvière, the Renaissance district (Vieux Lyon), the silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse), and the Presqu'île, which features architecture from the 12th century to modern times. Both Vieux Lyon and the slopes of Croix-Rousse are known for their narrow passageways (named traboules) that pass through buildings and link streets on either side. The first examples of traboules are thought to have been built in Lyon in the 4th century. The traboules allowed the inhabitants to get from their homes to the Saône river quickly and allowed the canuts on the Croix-Rousse hill to get quickly from their workshops to the textile merchants at the foot of the hill.
Gastronomy[edit | edit source]
Lyonnaise cuisine is renowned. For several centuries Lyon has been known as the French capital of gastronomy, due in part to the presence of many fine chefs including Paul Bocuse and other gastronomes like Colette Sibilia. This reputation also comes from the fact that two of France's best known wine-growing regions are located near Lyon: the Beaujolais to the North, and the Côtes du Rhône to the South. Beaujolais wine is very popular in Lyon and remains the most common table wine served with local dishes.
Lyon is the home of very typical and traditional restaurants serving local dishes, and local wines served at bouchons.
The city is famous for its morning snacks formerly had by its silk workers, the mâchons, made up of local charcuterie and usually accompanied by Beaujolais red wine. Traditional local dishes include Rosette lyonnaise and saucisson de Lyon (sausage); andouillette (a sausage of coarsely-cut tripe); pistachio sausage; coq au vin; esox (pike) quenelle; gras double (tripe cooked with onions); salade lyonnaise (lettuce with bacon, croûtons and a poached egg); marrons glacés; coussin de Lyon, sabodet and cardoon au gratin.
Cervelle de canut (lit. silk worker's brains) is a cheese spread/dip, a Lyonnais speciality. The dish has a base of fromage blanc, seasoned with chopped herbs, shallots, salt, pepper, olive oil and vinegar.
Sport[edit | edit source]
Lyon is home to the Ligue 1 football team Olympique Lyonnais, seven times winner of the French championship between 2002 and 2008. The team plays at the 43,000 capacity Stade de Gerland, which also hosted matches of the 1998 World Cup. The team is set to move to a new stadium in Décines-Charpieu in the eastern suburbs in 2016, which will hold about 60,000 people.
Lyon also has a rugby union team, Lyon OU, recently promoted to Top 14. In addition, Lyon has a rugby league side: Lyon Villeurbanne, play in the French rugby league championship. The club's current home ground is Stade Georges Lyvet in Villeurbanne.
Lyon is also home to the Lyon Hockey Club, an ice hockey team that competes in France's national ice hockey league. The Patinoire Charlemagne is also the seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon, the club of Olympic champions Marina Anissina and Gwendal Peizerat, and world champions Isabelle Delobel and Olivier Shoenfelder (both pairs competed in ice dancing). Finally, Villeurbanne also has a renowned basketball team, ASVEL, whose members play at the Astroballe arena in Laurent Bonnevay.
Economy[edit | edit source]
The GDP of Lyon is 62 billion euro, and the city is the second richest after Paris. Lyon and its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of the most important economies in Europe and, according to Loughborough University, can be compared to Philadelphia, Mumbai or Athens concerning its international position. The city of Lyon is working in partnerships to more easily enable the establishment of new headquarters in the territory (ADERLY, Chambre du commerce et d'industrie, Grand Lyon...). According to the ECER-Banque Populaire, Lyon is the 14th favorite city in the European Union concerning the creation of companies and investments. High-tech industries like biotechnology, software development, game design, and internet services are also growing. Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Lyon is home to some of the most dangerous viruses in the world (class 4) in the Jean Merieux laboratory of research, like Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and Lassa.
The city is the headquarters of many companies like Euronews; Lyon Airports; BioMérieux; Sanofi Pasteur; LCL S.A.; Cegid Group; Boiron; Infogrames; Groupe SEB; Renault Trucks; Irisbus; LVL Medical, GL Events; Compagnie Nationale du Rhône; Norbert Dentressangle and intergovernmental agencies IARC, Interpol. The specialization of some sectors of activities has the consequence of creating several main business centers: La Part-Dieu, located in the 3rd arrondissement is the second biggest business quarter after La Défense in Paris with over 1,600,000 m2 (17,222,256.67 sq ft) of office space and services and more than 40,000 jobs. Cité Internationale, created by the architect Renzo Piano is located in the border of the Parc de la Tête d'Or in the 6th arrondissement. The worldwide headquarters of Interpol is located there. The district of Confluence, in the south of the historic centre, is a new pole of economical and cultural development.
Tourism is an important part of the Lyon economy, with one billion euros in 2007 and 3.5 million hotel-nights in 2006 provided by non-residents. Approximately 60% of tourists visit for business, with the rest for leisure. In January 2009, Lyon ranked first in France for hostels business. The festivals most important for attracting tourists are the Fête des lumières, the Nuits de Fourvière every summer, the Biennale d'art contemporain and the Nuits Sonores.
Demographics[edit | edit source]
The population of the city of Lyon proper was 491,268 at the January 2011 census, 14% of whom were born outside Metropolitan France. The city proper is only the central area of the much larger Lyon metropolitan area which had 2,188,759 inhabitants at the January 2011 census.
Main sights[edit | edit source]
Antiquity[edit | edit source]
- The Roman ruins on the hillside near the Fourvière Basilica with the Ancient Theatre of Fourvière, the Odeon of Lyon and the accompanying Gallo-Roman Museum;
- Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls, Roman ruins of an amphiteatre.
Middle Ages and Renaissance[edit | edit source]
- Cathedral of St. John, a medieval church with architectural elements of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, also the principal religious structure in the city and the seat of the Archbishop of Lyon;
- Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay, one of the rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches in Lyon;
- Église Saint-Paul, Romanesque (12th and 13th century) and Gothic (15th–16th century) church;
- Église Saint-Bonaventure, 14th- and 15th-century Gothic church;
- Eglise Saint-Nizier, Gothic church from the 15th century, having a doorway carved in the 16th century by Philibert Delorme;
- Vieux Lyon (English: Old Lyon) area – Medieval and Renaissance quarter of the town, with shops, dining and cobbled streets;
- The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of the Old Lyon quarter, such as the Hôtel de Bullioud, were also built by Philibert Delorme.
17th and 18th centuries[edit | edit source]
- City Hall on the Place des Terreaux, built by architects Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Robert de Cotte;
- Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon, fine arts museum housed in a former convent of the 17th century, including the Baroque chapelle Saint-Pierre;
- Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon (17th and 18th century), historical hospital with a baroque chapel;
- Temple du Change (17th and 18th century), former stock exchange of Lyon, Protestant temple since the 18th century;
- Place Bellecour, one of the largest town squares in Europe;
- Chapelle de la Trinité (1622), the first Baroque chapel built in Lyon, and part of the former École de la Trinité, now Collège-lycée Ampère;
- Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670), Classical church;
- Église Saint-Just (16th to 18th century), Classical church;
- Saint-Bruno des Chartreux (17th and 18th century), church, masterpiece of Baroque architecture;
- Église Notre Dame Saint-Vincent (18th century), Neoclassical church.
19th century and modern city[edit | edit source]
- Opéra National de Lyon (1831), renovated in 1993 by Jean Nouvel;
- Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, large 19th-century basilica on the top of Fourvière Hill;
- Tour métallique de Fourvière (1894);
- La Mouche Cattle Market and Abbatoir (1914, 1928), designed by Tony Garnier;
- Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery (1960) designed by Le Corbusier;
- Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas Airport), designed by Guillaume Gilbert;
- Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry (1994) by Santiago Calatrava;
- Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998), designed by Renzo Piano and a group of buildings for various functions;
- Tour du Crédit Lyonnais;
- Tour Oxygène;
- Tour Incity.
Museums[edit | edit source]
- Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum), main museum of the city and one of the largest art galleries in France. Housed in the "Palais Saint Pierre", a former 17th-century convent, it displays a major collection of paintings by artists (including Tintoretto; Paolo Veronese; Nicolas Poussin; Rubens; Rembrandt; Zurbaran; Canaletto; Delacroix; Monet; Gauguin; Van Gogh; Cézanne; Matisse; Picasso; Francis Bacon...); collections of sculptures, drawings and printings, decorative arts, Roman and Greek antiquities; the second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities in France after that of the Louvre; and a medal cabinet of 50 000 medals and coins.
- The Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects and artworks found on the site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such as Circus Games Mosaic, Coligny calendar and the Taurobolic Altar;
- African Museum of Lyon;
- Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation;
- Musée des Confluences, new museum of Sciences and anthropology which opened its doors on 20 December 2014.
- La Sucrière, contemporary art center;
- Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon houses the "Musée des Hospices Civils", a permanent exhibit tracing the history and practice of medicine from the Middle Ages to modern time;
- Musée des Tissus et des Arts Décoratifs, decorative arts museum;
- Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, contemporary art museum;
- Musée Gadagne, museum of the history of Lyon housed in a historic building in Vieux Lyon. Also includes a large collection of marionnettes.
- Musée des Automates, museum of automated puppets in Vieux Lyon, open since 1991.
Parks and gardens[edit | edit source]
- Parc de la Tête d'Or, (literally, Golden Head Park), in central Lyon is the largest urban park in France at 117 hectares. Located in the 6th arrondissement, it features a large lake on which boating takes place during the summer months.
- Jardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares), included in the Parc de la Tête d'Or, is a municipal botanical garden and is open weekdays without charge. The garden was established in 1857 as a successor to earlier botanical gardens dating to 1796, and now describes itself as France's largest municipal botanical garden.
- Parc de Gerland, in the south of the city (80 hectares);
- Parc des hauteurs, in Fourvières;
- Parc de Miribel-Jonage (300 hectares);
- Parc de Lacroix-Laval (115 hectares);
- Parc de Parilly (178 hectares).
Education[edit | edit source]
- École Centrale de Lyon;
- École Normale Supérieure de Lyon
- EM Lyon (École de Management de Lyon);
- ECE Lyon (École de Commerce Européenne de Lyon);
- Institut d'études politiques de Lyon (Sciences Po Lyon);
- CPE Lyon;
- ECAM Lyon (École Catholique d'Arts et Métiers de Lyon);
- École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies;
- ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État);
- École des Beaux-Arts;
- Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (located in Villeurbanne);
- Polytech Lyon located in Villeurbanne;
- Institut supérieur européen de gestion group;
- ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes);
- Institution des Chartreux;
- Université Claude Bernard (Lyon 1);
- Université Lumière (Lyon 2);
- Université Jean Moulin (Lyon 3);
- IAE (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon);
- Catholic University of Lyon;
- ESDES Business School;
- IDRAC (International School of Management);
- Wesford Graduate Business School;
- IFAG (Business Management School);
- Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action;
- Le Lycée du Parc;
- La Martiniere Lyon;
- CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie);
- Bellecour, Ecoles D'Arts.
There are some international private schools in Lyon, including:
- Cité Scolaire Internationale de Lyon;
- International School of Lyon;
- Montessori School of Lyon.
Other Japanese supplementary schools:
- The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ; リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) is held in the Maison Berty Albrecht in Villeurbanne, near Lyon. It was formed in 1987.
Transport[edit | edit source]
Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport, located east of Lyon, serves as a base for domestic and international flights. It is an important transport facility for the entire Rhône-Alpes region. Coach links connect the airport with other towns in the area including Chambéry and Grenoble. With its in-house train station (Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry), the airport is also connected to the TGV network. Since August 2010, the new Rhônexpress tram links the international airport with the business quarter of La Part Dieu in less than 30 minutes and can reach up to 100 km/hour; it offers connections with Underground A&B, Tramway T1,T2 & T3, and many bus lines. The Lyon-Bron Airport is a smaller airport dedicated to General Aviation (both private and commercial). Having helipads, the facility hosts a Gendarmerie and a Sécurité Civile (civilian defence) Base.
Lyon has two major railway stations: Lyon Part-Dieu, which was built to accommodate the TGV and has become the principal railway station for extra-regional trains; and Lyon Perrache, an older station that now serves primarily regional rail services. In practice, many trains, including TGVs, serve both stations. Smaller railway stations include Gorge-de-Loup, Vaise, Vénissieux, Saint-Paul and Jean Macé. Lyon is connected to the north (Lille, Paris, Brussels, and in the future Amsterdam) and the south (Marseille, Montpellier, and in the future Barcelona, Turin) by the TGV. Since 23 March 2012 there is also a direct TGV connection from Frankfurt via Strasbourg and Lyon to Marseille. It was the first city to be connected to Paris by the TGV in 1981.
The city is at the heart of a dense road network and is located at the meeting point of several highways: A6 (to Paris); A7 (to Marseille); A42 (to Geneve); and A43 (to Grenoble). The city is now bypassed by the A46. A double motorway tunnel passes under Fourvière, connecting the A6 and the A7 autoroutes, both forming the "Autoroute du Soleil". Prior to the construction of the bypass by the east, the tunnel was famous for its traffic jams, since traffic between northern and southern France, as well as from neighboring countries and local traffic, converged at this point, Lyon being virtually the only low passage between the Alps and the Massif Central (extinct) volcano range. Lyon is served by the Eurolines intercity coach organisation. Its Lyon terminal is located at the city's Perrache railway station, which serves as an intermodal transportation hub that also includes tramways, local and regional trains and buses, the terminus of metro line A, the bicycle service Vélo'v, and taxis.
The TCL (for Transports en Commun Lyonnais), Lyon's all-four public transit system, consisting of metro, tramways and buses, serves 62 communes of the Lyon agglomeration. The metro network has 4 lines (Template:R-I Template:R-I Template:R-I Template:R-I), 42 stations and runs with a frequency of up to a train every 2 minutes. There are 5 Lyon tram lines (Template:Lyon Transport icon Template:Lyon Transport icon Template:Lyon Transport icon Template:Lyon Transport icon Template:Lyon Transport icon) since April 2009: T1 from Debourg in the south to IUT-Feyssine in the north, Tram T2 from Perrache railway station in the southwest to Saint-Priest in the southeast, Tram T3 from Part-Dieu to Meyzieu, Tram T4 from Mendès-France to Feyzin ant Tram T5 from Grange Blanche, in the South-East to Eurexpo in the South-East. The Lyon bus network consists of the Lyon trolleybus system, motorbuses, and coaches for areas outside the centre. There are also two funicular lines from Vieux Lyon to Saint-Just and Fourvière.
The ticketing system is quite simple right now, knowing that the city has only one operator for public transport; the SYTRAL (TCL is the brand name used for the transport, it stands for Transport en Commun Lyonnais (Lyon Common Transport)).
In 2008, an 'RER' (commuter rail) project was started, with the objective of linking Lyon with the surrounding cities which are growing fast. It should have a total of 8 lines and will replace the actual TER lines operated by the SNCF (National French Railway Network). It was planned to be fully finished by 2010.
The public transit system has been complemented since 2005 by Vélo'v, a bicycle network providing a low-cost and convenient bicycle-hire service where bicycles can be hired and dropped off at any of 340 stations throughout the city of Lyon and Villeurbane, Lyon was the first city in France to introduce this bicycle renting system. Borrowing a bicycle for less than 30 minutes is free. Free rental time can be extended to another 15 minutes at any station. In 2011 the Auto'lib car rental service was introduced; it works exactly like the Velo'v but for cars.
Notable residents[edit | edit source]
- Karim Benzema, footballer for Real Madrid
- Claudius (10 BC – AD 54), Roman Emperor
- Caracalla (188–217), Roman Emperor
- Frederique Bangue, athlete;
- Irenaeus (2nd century AD – 202), Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul and early Christian martyr;
- André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), physicist and mathematician;
- Raymond Barre, French politician;
- Azouz Begag, writer and politician;
- Paul Bocuse (born 1926), prominent chef (recipient of the "Chef of the Century" award);
- Gérard Collomb, politician and current mayor of Lyon;
- Clovis Cornillac, actor;
- Natalie Dessay, opera singer;
- Youri Djorkaeff, footballer;
- Liane Foly, singer, humorist and actress;
- Florence Foresti, humorist;
- Éric Guirado, film director and writer;
- Théodore Herpin, (1799-1865), physician known for his work involving epilepsy;
- Maurice Jarre, musician (famous for his movie soundtracks);
- Jean Michel Jarre musician (son of Maurice Jarre, above);
- Allan Kardec, spiritist;
- Katsuni, pornographic actress;
- Jérôme Kerviel, trader;
- Seyhan Kurt, poet, writer;
- Louise Labé famous Renaissance female poet;
- Alexandre Lacassagne, criminologist;
- Edmond Locard, pioneer in forensic science;
- Auguste and Louis Lumière, inventors of cinematograph;
- André Manoukian, musician;
- Jean-Baptiste Maunier, actor;
- Jean Moulin hero and leader of the French Resistance during the Second World War;
- Émile Ntamack, rugby union player;
- Abbé Pierre, priest and philanthropist;
- Juliette Récamier, famous 19th-century society leader, intellectual and "muse";
- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, writer and pioneer of aviation;
- Jean-Baptiste Say, economist;
- Louis Gabriel Suchet, marshal of France, one of Napoleon's greatest generals;
- Bertrand Tavernier, film director;
- Sylvie Testud, actress;
- Jean-Yves Thibaudet, pianist;
- André César Vermare (1869–1949), sculptor
Movies in Lyon[edit | edit source]
- 1895: 14 vues Lumière filmées à Lyon entre 1895 et 1900 by Auguste and Louis Lumière;
- 1929: The Kiss, (Le Baiser) by Jacques Feyder with Greta Garbo;
- 1938: Le Petit Chose by Maurice Cloche with Arletty, Robert Lynen;
- 1945: 120 rue de la Gare by Jacques Daniel-Norman with René Dary, Sophie Desmarets;
- 1946: Un revenant by Christian-Jaque with Louis Jouvet, Gaby Morlay, François Périer, Marguerite Moreno, Ludmilla Tchérina;
- 1949: La Cage aux filles by Maurice Cloche with Danièle Delorme, Noël Roquevert;
- 1950: Cœur sur mer by Jacques Daniel-Norman;
- 1952: Les Dents longues by Daniel Gélin with Daniel Gélin, Danièle Delorme, Louis de Funès;
- 1953: Thérèse Raquin by Marcel Carné, with Simone Signoret, Raf Vallone, Jacques Duby;
- 1956: Un condamné à mort s'est échappé by Robert Bresson;
- 1956: Crime et Châtiment by Georges Lampin with Jean Gabin, Robert Hossein, Marina Vlady, Bernard Blier, Gaby Morlay, Lino Ventura;
- 1964: L'Insoumis by Alain Cavalier with Alain Delon, Léa Massari;
- 1966: Le Voyage du père by Denys de La Patellière with Fernandel, Lilli Palmer, Laurent Terzieff, Madeleine Robinson, Michel Auclair, Philippe Noiret;
- 1969: La Sirène du Mississipi by François Truffaut with Jean-Paul Belmondo, Catherine Deneuve;
- 1969: L'Armée des ombres by Jean-Pierre Melville with Lino Ventura, Simone Signoret, Paul Meurisse, Jean-Pierre Cassel;
- 1974: L'Horloger de Saint-Paul by Bertrand Tavernier with Philippe Noiret, Jean Rochefort;
- 1975: Verdict by André Cayatte with Jean Gabin, Sophia Loren;
- 1975: La Chair de l'orchidée by Patrice Chéreau with Charlotte Rampling, Edwige Feuillère, Bruno Cremer, Simone Signoret, Alida Valli;
- 1980: Une semaine de vacances by Bertrand Tavernier, with Nathalie Baye, Gérard Lanvin, Michel Galabru;
- 1981: Le Voyage à Lyon by Claudia von Alemann;
- 1982: Coup de foudre by Diane Kurys with Miou-Miou, Isabelle Huppert, Guy Marchand;
- 1985: Parole de flic by José Pinheiro, with Alain Delon, Jacques Perrin;
- 1993: Un crime by Jacques Deray, with Alain Delon;
- 1994: Lucie Aubrac by Claude Berri with Carole Bouquet, Daniel Auteuil;
- 1996: Les Voleurs by André Téchiné;
- 1998: Le Gone du Chaâba by Christophe Ruggia, from the book by Azouz Begag;
- 2000: Lyon police spéciale by Bertrand Arthuys;
- 2000: Tout va bien, on s'en va by Claude Mouriéras;
- 2000: Une affaire de goût by Bernard Rapp with Bernard Giraudeau;
- 2002: Inventaire filmé des rues de la Croix-Rousse à Lyon by Gérard Courant;
- 2002: Quand tu descendras du ciel by Éric Guirado;
- 2003: Le Coût de la vie by Philippe Le Guay;
- 2004: Vaada by Satish Kaushik, film by Bollywood;
- 2005: Destination Fourvière by Gérard Courant;
- 2007: Après Lui by Gaël Morel;
- 2007: Détrompez-vous by Bruno Dega;
- 2007: J'veux pas que tu t'en ailles by Bernard Jeanjean;
- 2007: La Fille coupée en deux by Claude Chabrol;
- 2008: Les Liens du sang by Jacques Maillot;
- 2009: The International by Tom Tykwer;
- 2009: Je te mangerais by Sophie Laloy;
- 2011: Les Lyonnais by Olivier Marchal;
- 2011: Les Adoptés by Melanie Laurent.
International relations[edit | edit source]
- Lyon is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
Twin towns – Sister cities[edit | edit source]
- Aleppo, Syria
- Beersheba, Israel
- Beirut, Lebanon 
- Birmingham, UK (since 1951)
- Craiova, Romania (since 1992)
- Frankfurt, Germany (since 1960)
- Guangzhou, China (since 1988)
- Leipzig, Germany (since 1981)
- Łódź, Poland (since 1991)
- Milan, Italy (since 1966)
- Minsk, Belarus (since 1976)
- Montreal, Canada (since 1979)
- Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
- Pécs Hungary
- Saint Petersburg, Russia (since 1993)
- St. Louis, United States (since 1975)
- Turin, Italy
- Yerevan, Armenia (since 1992)
- Yokohama, Japan (since 1959)
Gallery[edit | edit source]
The lion, symbol of the city, is a common sight in Lyon :
Other images :
See also[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
- ^ A war cry from 1269, in modern Franco-Provençal this is spelt: Avant, Avant, Liyon lo mèlyor.
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement - Unité urbaine 2010 de Lyon (00758)". INSEE. http://insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau_local.asp?ref_id=TER&millesime=2011&typgeo=UU2010&typesearch=territoire&codgeo=Lyon+%2800758%29&territoire=OK. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- ^ a b c "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement - Aire urbaine 2010 de Lyon (002)". INSEE. http://insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau_local.asp?ref_id=TER&millesime=2011&typgeo=AU2010&typesearch=territoire&codgeo=Lyon+%28002%29&territoire=OK. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- ^ a b c d "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement - Commune de Lyon (69123)". INSEE. http://insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau_local.asp?ref_id=TER&millesime=2011&typgeo=COM&typesearch=territoire&codgeo=Lyon+%2869123%29&territoire=OK. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- ^ Oxford Dictionary of English (retrieved 2014-08-19)
- ^ Buford, Bill (12 February 2011). "Why Lyon is food capital of the world". The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2011/feb/13/bill-buford-lyon-food-capital. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- ^ "Lyon entrepreneurship, Lyon company, Invest Lyon – Greater Lyon". Business.greaterlyon.com. http://www.business.greaterlyon.com/city-business-support-lyon-entrepreneurship-system.85.0.html?&L=1. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- ^ 
- ^ "Innovation Cities Top 100 Index, 2011". Innovation Cities Program. 18 October 2011. http://www.innovation-cities.com/innovation-cities-index-top-cities-for-innovation-2011/1649. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book 46: Lepidus and Lucius Plancus [...] founded the town called Lugudunum, now known as Lugdunum
- ^ Louis, Jaucourt de chevalier (1765). Lyon. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0000.159.
- ^ Lugduno - desiderato monte: dunum enim montem Lugduno: "mountain of yearning"; dunum of course is mountain. www.maryjones.us/ctexts/endlicher_glossary.html
- ^ Braudel 1984 p. 327
- ^ Pierre Edmond DESVIGNES. "Quartier renaissance Lyon : Vieux Lyon, quartier ancien et secteur sauvegarde Lyon". Vieux-lyon.org. http://www.vieux-lyon.org/lyon-epoque-renaissance_f01150.htm. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- ^ (French) Georges Duby (ed), Histoire de la France : Dynasties et révolutions, de 1348 à 1852 (vol. 2), Larousse, 1999 p. 53 ISBN 2-03-505047-2
- ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Lyon" (in French). Meteo France. http://www.meteofrance.com/climat/france/station/69029001/normales. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- ^ "Climat France" (in French). Meteo France. http://www.meteofrance.com/climat/france/rhone-alpes/regi82/normales. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Lyon-Bron (69) - altitude 198m" (in French). Infoclimat. http://www.infoclimat.fr/climatologie-07480-lyon-bron.html. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- ^ Jean-Baptiste Onofrio : Essai d'un glossaire des patois de Lyonnais, Forez et Beaujolais, Lyon 1864
- ^ "Pierre Alain Muet Archives 2008". Pa-muet.com. 17 June 2008. http://pa-muet.com/archives.htm. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- ^ "Bottazzi fait le mur". Brefonline.Com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071125163711/http://www.brefonline.com/numeroERA_affichearticle.asp?idA=3262. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
- ^ "The African Museum of Lyon Website". Musee-africain-lyon.org. http://www.musee-africain-lyon.org/. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
- ^ Entry on Historic Site of Lyons UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- ^ UNESCO World Heritage Site. City of Lyon official website. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- ^ Le site de Lyon Villeurbanne Rhône à XIII – LVR XIII
- ^ www.lyon-business.org. "Chiffres-clés Lyon & sa région" (in french). http://www.opale-lyon.com/content/medias/pdf/000051.pdf.
- ^ "Le laboratoire P4, ménagerie virale". Le Monde. France. http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2009/06/05/le-laboratoire-p4-menagerie-virale_1202866_3244.html. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- ^ "Official site of Lyon". Grandlyon.com. http://www.grandlyon.com/La-Part-Dieu.2315.0.html. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- ^ "Le nouveau profil de la population active immigrée". http://www.insee.fr. http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/document.asp?reg_id=8&ref_id=19297.
- ^ a b "欧州の補習授業校一覧（平成25年4月15日現在）" (Archive). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Retrieved on May 10, 2014. Cite Scolaire: "Cité Scolaire Internationale, 2 place de Montréal,69361 LYON CEDEX 07 FRANCE" and Lyon: "Maison Berty Albrecht 14, Place Grandclement, 69100 Viueurbanne, FRANCE"
- ^ Home page. Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises. Retrieved on May 12, 2006.
- ^ Council of Europe (2011). "Intercultural city: Lyon, France". coe.int. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/culture/Cities/lyon_en.asp. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on 2009-07-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20090719003816/http://www.lyon.fr/vdl/sections/en/villes_partenaires/villes_partenaires_2/?aIndex=1. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ^ "Twinning the Cities". City of Beirut. http://www.beirut.gov.lb/MCMSTest/Menu-Pages/SisterCitiesEN.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRORIGINALURL=%2fwww%2ebeirut%2egov%2elb%2fMCMSEN%2fTwinning%2bthe%2bCities%2f&NRNODEGUID=%7b18839037-0140-436E-A1AF-7F8F3693C3E6%7d&NRCACHEHINT=NoModifyGuest#. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
- ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. http://www.completefrance.com/language-culture/twin-towns. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
- ^ "Partner Cities". Birmingham City Council. http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/twins. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- ^ "Frankfurt -Partner Cities". 2008 Stadt Frankfurt am Main. http://www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=502645. Retrieved 5 December 2008.
- ^ "Guangzhou Sister Cities[via WaybackMachine.com"]. Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. http://web.archive.org/web/20121024091437/http://www.gzwaishi.gov.cn/Category_121/Index.aspx. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- ^ "Leipzig – International Relations". © 2009 Leipzig City Council, Office for European and International Affairs. http://www.leipzig.de/int/en/int_messen/partnerstaedte/. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via WaybackMachine.com"] (in Polish). City of Łódź. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20130624211727/http://www.uml.lodz.pl/samorzad/miasta_partnerskie_lodzi/tabelka/. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- ^ "Milano – Città Gemellate". 2008 Municipality of Milan (Comune di Milano). http://www.comune.milano.it/portale/wps/portal/CDM?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/connect/ContentLibrary/In%20Comune/In%20Comune/Citt%20Gemellate. Retrieved 5 December 2008.
- ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com"] (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20130502075333/http://minsk.gov.by/ru/city/. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- ^ "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. http://eng.gov.spb.ru/figures/ities. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20130618182559/http://www.comune.torino.it/relint/inglese/gemellaggieaccordi/index.shtml. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
- ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. http://www.yerevan.am/3-233-233.html. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- ^ "Yerevan Municipality – Sister Cities". © 2005–2009 . http://yerevan.am/main.php?lang=3&page_id=194. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
- ^ "Official Yokohama City Tourism Website: Sister Cities". Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau. http://www.welcome.city.yokohama.jp/eng/tourism/mame/a3000.html. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
[edit | edit source]
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lyon.|
- Lyon, the City between two rivers - Official French website (English)
- City of Lyon official website;
- Official tourist office site
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Lyon. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|