Bold text

Early dynastic: Lower Egypt[edit | edit source]

Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta. The following list may not be complete:

Name Comments Dates
Tiu ?
Thesh ?
Hsekiu ?
Wazner c. 3100 BC?

Early dynastic: Upper Egypt[edit | edit source]

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Comments Dates
Serket I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?
Iry-Hor kingship uncertain c. 3150 BC?
Ka c. 3100 BC
King Scorpion Potentially pronounced Serqet, but uncertain; possibly the same person as Narmer. c. 3100 BC
Narmer The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC

First Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The First Dynasty ruled from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Menes Potentially the same person as Narmer, Hor-Aha, Serket II, or any combination of the three. contingent upon identity
Hor-Aha Arguably the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt. c. 3050 BC
Djer 41 years
Merneith Regent for Den
Djet 23 years
Den 14 to 20.1 years
Anedjib 10 years
Semerkhet 9 years
Qa'a 2916?–2890

Second Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy 2890


Raneb 39 years
Nynetjer 40 years
Wneg 8 years
Senedj 20 years
Seth-Peribsen 17 years
Khasekhemwy ?–2686 BC 17 to 18 years

Old Kingdom[edit | edit source]

The Old Kingdom is period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (26302151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Third Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sanakhte 2686-2668
Djoser Commissioned the Step Pyramid designed by Imhotep 2668–2649
Sekhemkhet 2649–2643
Khaba 2643–2637
Huni 2637–2613

Fourth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
Sneferu He built the Bent Pyramid, which is pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried at the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried at the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that shows this is Sneferu's body. 2613–2589
Khufu Greek form Cheops. Built the great pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, name, and monuments have perished for one reason or another. 2589–2566
Djedefra (Radjedef) 2566–2558
Khafra Greek form Chephren 2558–2532
here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
Menkaura Greek form Mycerinus 2532–2503
Shepseskaf 2503–2498
here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho

Fifth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Userkaf 2498–2491
Sahure 2487–2477
Neferirkare Kakai 2477–2467
Shepseskare Isi 2467–2460
Neferefre 2460–2453
Nyuserre Ini 2453–2422
Menkauhor Kaiu 2422–2414
Djedkare Isesi 2414–2375
Unas 2375–2345

Sixth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Teti 2345–2333
Userkare 2333–2332
Pepi I Meryre 2332–2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I 2283–2278
Pepi II Neferkare Possible unto 2224 which would explain the following 4 kings. 2278–2184
Neferka(a child) Only mentiioned in the redford,reigned during Pepi II, possibly his son/co reigner? 2200–2199
Nefer Reign of 2 years, 1 month and a day according to turin canon 2197–2193
Aba 4yrs 2mths.Reign dates dont follow turan canon. Highly unlikely. 2293–2176
Unknown King Unknown king attested here
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Uncertain pharaoh. 2184
Nitiqret A supposed female ruler. 2184–2181

First intermediate period[edit | edit source]

The First Intermediate Period is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by ineffeciency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)[edit | edit source]

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from

Name Comments Dates
Neferkara I -
Neferkara Nebi -
Djedkara Shemai -
Neferkara Khendu -
Some authorities place here Merenhor
Neferkamin Seneferka -
Nikara -
Neferkara Tereru -
Neferkahor -
Neferkara Pepyseneb -
Neferkamin Anu -
Qakare Ibi -
Neferkara II -
Neferkawhor Khuwihap -
Neferirkara -

Ninth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160– ?
Meribre Khety II - ?
Neferkare III - ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) - ?
Setut - ?
Wakhare Khety I - ?
Merykare - ?
Wankhare Khety II - ?
Menethoupe I - ?
Wankhare Khety III - ?
Khety II - ?
Khety II's daughter - ?
Merikare's daughter - ? –2130

Tenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130– ?
Neferkare IV ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) ?
Merykare ?
? –2040

Eleventh Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Intef I 2134–2117
Intef II 2117–2069
Intef III 2069–2060
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060–2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep II 2010–1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III 1997–1991

Middle Kingdom[edit | edit source]

The Middle Kingdom is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to be beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

Twelfth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Name Comments Dates
Amenemhat I 1991–1962
Senusret I (Sesostris I) 1971–1926
Amenemhat II 1929–1895
Senusret II (Sesostris II) 1897–1878
Senusret III (Sesostris III) Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. 1878–1860
Amenemhat III 1860–1815
Amenemhat IV Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso. 1815–1807
Sobekneferu A rare female ruler. 1807–1803

Second intermediate period[edit | edit source]

The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia

Thirteenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Wegaf Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri. 1803–1799 4 yrs.
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 Yrs.
Amenemhat 1795–1792
Sehetepre ? –1790
Iufni ?
Seankhibre ?
Semenkare ?
Sehetepre ?
Sewadjkare ?
Nedjemibre 7 months ?
Sobekhotep I ?
Renseneb 4 months c. 1775
Awybre Hor I? c. 1775?
Sedjefakare A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. c. 5 to 7 yrs.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Compare Wegaf c. 1767
Khendjer Minimum 4 yrs and 3 months c. 1765
Imyremeshaw ?
Antef V ?
Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months c. 1755
Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740
Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730
Sobekhotep V c. 1730
Wahibre Ibiau 10 years & 8 months c. 1725–1714
Merneferre Ai 23 years & 8 months c. 1714–1691
Merhetepre Ini 2 years & 2 months ?
Seankhenre Sewadtjew ?
Mersekhemre Ined ?
Sewadjkare Hori ?

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Dudimose I c. 1654
Dudimose II ?
Senebmiu ?
Mentuhotep V ?
Senaayeb ?

Fourteenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre ? - ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre ? - ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare ? - ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre ? - ?
? - ?
—djefare ? - ?
—webenre - c. 1690

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sheshi Ruled either 1 or 3 years 1674- ?
Yakubher - ?
Khyan - 30-40 Years
Apepi I - 40 Years or more
Khamudy - ? -1535

Sixteenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
- name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -
Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy) 3 y
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy) 16 y
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) 1 y
Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra) 1 y
Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra) 26 y
Nebiryraw II 3 m?
– (Semenra) 1 y?
Bebiankh (Sewoserenra) 12 y
– (Sekhemreshedwaset) 3 m?
- names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -

Some sources include as many as six more names – Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) – who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.

Seventeenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw - 1650- ?
Intef V the Elder - 3 years
Antef VI Sekhemrewepmaat - ?
Antef VII Nubkheperre -
Intef VIII Sekhemreherhermaat - -
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhaw - -
Thuty - 1 year
Mentuhotep VI - 1 year
Nebiryerawet I - 6 years
Nebiryerawet II - ?
Semenmedjatre - ?
Seuserenre - 12 years
Shedwast - ?
Intef VII - 3 or more years
Tao I the Elder (ie: Senakhtenre) - c. 1558
Tao II the Brave (Seqenenre) - c. 1558-1554
Kamose - 1554-1549

New Kingdom[edit | edit source]

The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1550 to 1295 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Ahmose I, Ahmosis I Successor to Kamose, above. 1550-1525
Amenhotep I - 1525-1504
Thutmose I - 1504-1492
Thutmose II - 1492-1479
Thutmose III Often called the "Napoleon of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant. 1479-1425
Hatshepsut The second known Female ruler. Her statues often show her as a man, with the false beard and no sign that she was a woman. The reason for her death is unknown. 1473-1458
Amenhotep II - 1425-1400
Thutmose IV - 1400-1390
Amenhotep III - 1390-1352
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten Founder of brief period of monotheism (Atenism) His original name means "Amun is pleased." 1352-1336
Smenkhkare Possible coregent with Akhenaten. 1338-1336
Tutankhamun Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion. 1336-1327
Kheperkheprure Ay - 1327-1323
Horemheb Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye). 1323-1295

Nineteenth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1295 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Comments Dates
Ramesses I - 1295-1294
Seti I - 1294-1279
Ramesses II the Great The ruler usually associated with Moses, though with very little evidence to support this. Reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the earliest known peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. 1279-1213
Merneptah A stele describing his campaigns in Libya and Palestine contains the first known reference to the Israelites. 1213-1203
Amenemses - 1203-1200
Seti II - 1200-1194
Merneptah Siptah - 1194-1188
Tausret A rare female ruler also known as pielady in some places 1188-1186

Twentieth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1070 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Setnakhte - 1186-1183
Ramesses III Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. 1183-1152
Ramesses IV - 1152-1146
Ramesses V - 1146-1142
Ramesses VI - 1142-1134
Ramesses VII - 1134-1126
Ramesses VIII - 1126-1124
Ramesses IX - 1124-1106
Ramesses X - 1106-1102
Ramesses XI - stripped of power by High Priest of Amun Herihor 1102-1069

Third intermediate period[edit | edit source]

The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-first Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC

Name Comments Dates
Nesbanebdjed I Also known as Smendes I ( Smendes ) 1069-1043
Amenemnisu - 1043-1039
Psusennes I - 1039-991
Amenemope - 993-984
Osorkon the Elder - *( Osochor ) 984-978
Siamun - 978-959
Psusennes II - 959-945

Twenty-second Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 945 to 720 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Shoshenq I The biblical Shishaq 945-924
Osorkon I - 924-889
Shoshenq II - 890-890/889
Takelot I - 889-874
Harsiese A rebel, at Thebes 875-862
Osorkon II - 874-834
Shoshenq III - 834-795
Shoshenq IV - 795-782
Pami - 782-776
Shoshenq V - 776-740
Osorkon IV - 740-720

Twenty-third Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twenty-third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Leontopolis, that ruled from 836 to 720 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Takelot II Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837-813
Pedubast A rebel- seized Thebes from Takelot II 826-801
Iuput I - 812-811
Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801-795
Osorkon III Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795-767
Takelot III - 773-765
Rudamun - 765-762
Iuput II - 762-728

The Libu[edit | edit source]

Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu - 805-795
? - 795-780
Niumateped - 780-755
Titaru - 763-755
Ker - 755-750
Rudamon - 750-745
Ankhor - 745-736
Tefnakht - 736-732

Twenty-fourth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Tefnakhte - 732-725
Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 725-720

Late period[edit | edit source]

The Late Period runs from 732 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BC and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752-721
Shabaka - 721-707
Shebitku Synchronism with Sargon II of Assyria establshes his accession date at 707/706 BC 707-690
Taharqa - 690-664
Tantamani 664-653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC-4th cent. AD).

Twenty-sixth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.

Name Comment Dates
Necho I - 672664 BC
Psamtik I - 664610 BC
Necho II - 610595 BC
Psamtik II - 595589 BC
Wahibre - 589570 BC
Ahmose II - 570526 BC
Psammetichus III - 526525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty[edit | edit source]

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Cambyses II - 525521 BC
Smerdis the Usurper - 522521 BC
Darius I the Great - 521486 BC
Xerxes I the Great - 486465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand - 464424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424423 BC
Darius II Persian king 424404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians 404398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Nefaarud I Also known as Nepherites, removed Amyrtaues from the throne, found the 29th dynasty 398393 BC
Psammuthes - 393 BC
Hakor (Achoris) - 393380 BC
Nefaarud II - 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:




Nectanebo I

Also known as Nekhtnebef.

380362 BC

Teos of Egypt


362360 BC

Nectanebo II


360343 BC

Thirty-first Dynasty[edit | edit source]

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343

338 BC

Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338

336 BC

Khabbabash Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt 338

335 BC

Darius III Codomannus Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336

332 BC

Argead Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Alexander III the Great Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332

323 BC

Philip III Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323

317 BC

Alexander IV of Macedon Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317

309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty[edit | edit source]

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency):

Name Comments Dates
Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305

285 BC

Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288

246 BC

Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284/81-ca. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246

222 BC

Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244/3-222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222

204 BC

Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207186 BC 204

180 BC

Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Died 145 BC 180

164 BC

Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 173-164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171

163 BC

Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163-145 BC
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163-127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 144-145 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 145-131 BC
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142-131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 127-116 BC
Cleopatra III Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127-107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124-116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116

110 BC

Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116-115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110

109 BC

Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored 109

107 BC

Ptolemy X Alexander I Restored 107

88 BC

Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored again 88

81 BC

Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81-80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80

58 BC

Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV ?-57 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII ?-58 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled 58

55 BC

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55

51 BC

Cleopatra VII Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51

30 BC

Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51

47 BC

Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48-47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47

44 BC

Ptolemy XV Caesarion Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra 44

30 BC

External links[edit | edit source]

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.