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Monarchy of Russia
Former Monarchy
Lesser CoA of the empire of Russia.svg
Imperial Coat of arms
Император Николай II.jpg
Last Monarch: Nicholas II
1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
First monarch Rurik (as Prince)
Last monarch Nicholas II (as Emperor)
Style His/Her Imperial Majesty
Official residence Winter Palace, Moscow Kremlin
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy started 862
Monarchy ended 15 March 1917
Current pretender

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes the titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus'(Russia), and Emperor of All Russia. The list begins with a semi-legendary Rurik, Prince of Novgorod, sometime in the mid 9th century (c. 862) and ends with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[1][2] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. According to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, the Russian Tsar held several dozen titles, each one representing a region which the monarch governed.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–13.

Princes of Rus', 862–1547

Parts of the land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the 9th century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus' people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who entered the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus' Khaganate circa 830. Little is known of the Rus' Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers).

Princes of Novgorod

Traditionally, Rus' statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus' leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus' state.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Rurik I
  • Рюрик
c. 830 – 879 862 879 Founder of Rurik Dynasty Rurikids
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg the Seer
  • Олег Вещий
855 – 912 879 882 Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor Rurikids

Grand Princes of Kiev

Rurik's successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev (now Ukraine), founding the state of Kievan Rus'. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Askold and Dir
  • Haskuldr and Dýri
    Аскольд и Дир
9th century 842[3][4][note 1] or 862 882 Rus' chieftains and members of Rurik's army Askold: Kyi
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg the Seer
  • Олег Вещий
855 – 912 882 Autumn 912 Successor of Askold and Dir as a regent of Rurik's son Rurikids
Igor I
Igor Rurikovich
  • Игорь Рюрикович
878 – 945 913 Autumn 945 Son of Rurik Rurikids
Olga of Kiev
Olga the Wise (Saint Olga)
  • Ольга Мудрая (Ольга Святая)
890 – 969 945 962 Wife of Igor I and regent of Sviatoslav I -
Sviatoslav I
Sviatoslav Igorevich
  • Святослав Игоревич
942 – 972 Autumn 945 March 972 Son of Igor I and Olga of Kiev Rurikids
Yaropolk I
Yaropolk Svyatoslavich
  • Ярополк Святославич
950 – 980 March 972 11 June 980 Son of Sviatoslav I and Predslava Rurikids
Vladimir I
Vladimir Syatoslavich (Vladimir the Great)
  • Владимир Святославич (Владимир Великий)
958 – 1015 11 June 980 15 July 1015 Son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha
Younger brother of Yaropolk I
Rurikids
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Vladimirovich (Sviatopolk the Cursed)
  • (Святополк Владимирович) Святополк Окаянный
980 – 1019 15 July 1015 Autumn 1016 Son of Yaropolk I
During his reign, Kievan Rus' was conquered by Poland
Rurikids
Yaroslav I
Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise)
  • Ярослав Владимирович (Ярослав Мудрый)
978 – 1054 Autumn 1016 Summer 1018 Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of Polotsk Rurikids
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Vladimirovich (Sviatopolk the Cursed)
  • (Святополк Владимирович) Святополк Окаянный
980 – 1019 14 August 1018 27 July 1019 Restored Rurikids
Yaroslav I
Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Yaroslav the Wise)
  • Ярослав Владимирович (Ярослав Мудрый)
978 – 1054 27 July 1019 20 February 1054 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 1078 20 February 1054 15 September 1068 First son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd Olofsdotter Rurikids
Vseslav Briachislavich
Vseslav the Sorcerer
  • Всеслав Брячиславич (Всеслав Чародей)
1039 – 1101 15 September 1068 29 April 1069 Great-grandson of Vladimir I
Usurped the Kievan Throne
Rurikids
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 1078 2 May 1069 22 March 1073 Restored Rurikids
Sviatoslav II
Sviatoslav Yaroslavich
  • Святослав Ярославич
1027 – 1076 22 March 1073 27 December 1076 Third son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd Olofsdotter Rurikids
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
  • Всеволод Ярославич
1030 – 1093 1 January 1077 15 July 1077 Fourth son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd Olofsdotter Rurikids
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Yaroslavich
  • Изяслав Ярославич
1024 – 1078 15 July 1077 3 October 1078 Restored Rurikids
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Yaroslavich
  • Всеволод Ярославич
1030 – 1093 3 October 1078 13 April 1093 Restored Rurikids
Sviatopolk II
Sviatopolk Iziaslavich
  • Святополк Изяславич
1050 – 1113 24 April 1093 16 April 1113 Son of Iziaslav I Rurikids
Vladimir II
Vladimir Vsevolodovich (Vladimir Monomakh)
  • Владимир Всеволодович (Мономах)
1053 – 1125 20 April 1113 19 May 1125 Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of Byzantium Rurikids
Mstislav I
Mstislav Volodimirovich (Mstislav the Great)
  • Мстислав Володимирович (Мстислав Великий)
1076 – 1132 20 May 1125 15 April 1132 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex Rurikids
Yaropolk II
Yaropolk Vladimirovich
  • Ярополк Владимирович
1082 – 1139 17 April 1132 18 February 1139 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
22 February 1139 4 March 1139 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I and Yaropolk II
Rurikids
Vsevolod II
Vsevolod Olgovich
  • Всеволод Ольгович
1084 – 1146 5 March 1139 30 July 1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II Rurikids
Igor II
Igor Olgovich
  • Игорь Ольгович
1096

19 September 1146
1 August 1146 13 August 1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II Rurikids
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154 13 August 1146 23 August 1149 Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden Rurikids
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 1157 28 August 1149 Summer 1150 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
Viacheslav Vladimirovich
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083

2 February 1154
Summer 1150 Summer 1150 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav II
Iziaslav Mstislavich
  • Изяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154 Summer 1150 Summer 1150 Restored Rurikids
Yuri I
Yuri Vladimirovich (Yuri the Long Hands)
  • Юрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)
1099 – 1157 August 1150 Winter 1151 Restored Rurikids

Grand Princes of Vladimir

By the early 11th century the Rus' state had fragmented into a series of petty principalities which warred constantly with each other. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the federal nature of the Rus' lands. By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Andrey I
Andrey Yuryevich (Andrey the Pious)
  • Андрей Юрьевич (Андрей Боголюбский)
1110 – 1174 15 May 1157 29 June 1174 Son of Yuri I Rurikids
Mikhail I
Mikhail Yuryevich
  • Михаил Юрьевич
12th century 1174 September 1174 Son of Yuri I
Younger brother of Andrey I
Rurikids
Yaropolk III
Yaropolk Rostislavich
  • Ярополк Ростиславич
12th century 1174 15 June 1175 Grandson of Yuri I Rurikids
Mikhail I
Mikhail Yuryevich
  • Михаил Юрьевич
12th century 15 June 1175 20 June 1176 Restored Rurikids
Vsevolod III
Vsevolod Yuryevich (Vsevolod the Big Nest)
  • Всееволод Юрьевич (Всеволод Большое Гнездо)
1154 – 1212 June 1176 15 April 1212 Son of Yuri I and Helene
Younger brother of Andrey I and Mikhail I
Rurikids
Yuri II
Yuri Vsevolodovich
  • Юрий Всеволодович
1189 – 1238 1212 27 April 1216 Son of Vselovod III and Maria Shvarnovna Rurikids
Konstantin of Rostov
Konstantin Vsevolodovich
  • Константин Всеволодович
1186 – 1218 Spring 1216 2 February 1218 Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Elder brother of Yuri II
Rurikids
Yuri II
Yuri Vsevolodovich
  • Юрий Всеволодович
1189 – 1238 February 1218 4 March 1238 Restored Rurikids
Yaroslav II
Yaroslav Vsevolodovich
  • Ярослав Всеволодович
1191 – 1246 1238 30 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II and Konstantin of Rostov
Rurikids
Sviatoslav III
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich
  • Святослав Всеволодович
1196

3 February 1252
1246 1248 Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II, Konstantin of Rostov and Yaroslav II
Rurikids
Mikhail Yaroslavich
Mikhail Khorobrit
  • Михаил Ярославич (Михаил Хоробрит)
1229

15 January 1248
1248 15 January 1248 Son of Yaroslav II Rurikids
Sviatoslav III
Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich
  • Святослав Всеволодович
1196

3 February 1252
1248 1249 Restored Rurikids
Andrey II
Andrey Yaroslavich
  • Андрей Ярославич
1222 – 1264 December 1249 24 July 1252 Son of Yaroslav II
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Alexander Yaroslavich
Alexander Nevsky
  • Александр Ярославич (Александр Невский)
1221 – 1263 1252 14 November 1263 Son of Yaroslav II and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit and Andrey II
Rurikids
Yaroslav III
Yaroslav Yaroslavich
  • Ярослав Ярославич
1230 – 1272 1264 1271 Son of Yaroslav II and Fedosia Igorevna
Younger brother of Alexander Nevsky, Andrey II and Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Vasily Yaroslavich
  • Василий Ярославич
1241 – 1276 1272 January 1277 Son of Yaroslav II Rurikids
Dmitry Aleksandrovich
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 1294 1277 1281 Son of Alexander Nevsky Rurikids
Andrey III
Andrey Aleksandrovich
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 1304 1281 December 1283 Son of Alexander Nevsky
Younger brother of Dmitry of Pereslavl
Rurikids
Dmitry Aleksandrovich
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 1294 December 1283 1293 Restored Rurikids
Andrey III
Andrey Aleksandrovich
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 1304 1293 1304 Restored Rurikids
Mikhail Yaroslavich
Michael of Tver
  • Михаил Ярославич (Михаил Тверской)
1271 – 1318 Autumn 1304 22 November 1318 Son of Yaroslav III and Xenia of Tarusa Rurikids
Yuri III
Yuri Danilovich
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 – 1325 1318 2 November 1322 Grandson of Alexander Nevsky Rurikids
Dmitry Mikhailovich
Dmitry the Fearsome Eyes
  • Дмитрий Михайлович (Дмитрий Грозные Очи)
1299 – 1326 1322 15 September 1326 Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of Kashin Rurikids
Alexander Mikhaylovich
  • Александр Михайлович
1281 – 1339 1326 1327 Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of Kashin
Elder brother of Dmitry
Rurikids
Alexander Vasilyevich
  • Александр Васильевич
14th century 1328 1331 Grandson of Andrey II Rurikids
Ivan I
Ivan Danilovich (Ivan Kalita)
  • Иван Данилович (Иван Калита)
1288 – 1340 1332 31 March 1340 Grandson of Alexander Nevsky
Son of Daniel of Moscow
Rurikids

Grand Princes of Moscow

After Alexander Nevsky, the region once again broke up into petty states, though the Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky's youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Rus' territory in the 15th century, starting the story of Russia. Following the Mongol conquests of the 13th century, all of the Russian principalities paid tribute to the Golden Horde, effectively operating as vassals of the Mongol state. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan the Great of Moscow ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by eliminating the last few independent states in the 1520s.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Daniel Aleksandrovich
  • Даниил Александрович
1261

4 March 1303
1283 4 March 1303 Son of Alexander Nevsky and Maria Rurikids
Yuri Danilovich
  • Юрий Данилович
1281

21 November 1325
4 March 1303 21 November 1325 Son of Daniel
Elder brother of Ivan I
Rurikids
Ivan I
Ivan Danilovich (Ivan Kalita)
  • Иван Данилович (Иван Калита)
1288 – 1340 21 November 1325 31 March 1340 He was a successor of Alexander of Suzdal as Grand Prince of Vladimir and a successor of Yury of Moscow as Grand Prince of Moscow Rurikids
Simeon Ivanovich
Simeon the Proud
  • Семён Иванович (Семён Гордый)
7 November 1316

27 April 1353
31 March 1340 27 April 1353 Son of Ivan I and Helena Rurikids
Ivan II
Ivan Ivanovich (Ivan the Red)
  • Иван Иванович (Иван Красный)
30 March 1326

13 November 1359
27 April 1353 13 November 1359 Son of Ivan I and Helena
Younger brother of Simeon of Moscow
Rurikids
Dmitry Ivanovich
Dmitry of the Don
  • Дмитрий Иванович (Дмитрий Донской)
12 October 1350

19 May 1389
13 November 1359 19 May 1389 Son of Ivan II and Alexandra Vasilyevna Velyaminova Rurikids
Vasily I
Vasily Dmitriyevich
  • Василий Дмитриевич
30 December 1371

27 February 1425
19 May 1389 27 February 1425 Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna Rurikids
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
27 February 1425 30 March 1434 Son of Vasily I and Sophia of Lithuania Rurikids
Yuri Dmitriyevich
  • Юрий Дмитриевич
26 November 1374

5 June 1434
31 March 1434 5 June 1434 Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna
Younger brother of Vasily I
Rurikids
Vasily Yuryevich
Vasily the Squint
  • Василий Юрьевич (Василий Косой)
1421 – 1448 5 June 1434 1435 Son of Yury of Zvenigorod Rurikids
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
1435 1446 Restored Rurikids
Dmitry Yuryevich
Dmitry Shemyaka
  • Дмитрий Юрьевич (Дмитрий Шемяка)
15th century 1446 26 March 1447 Son of Yury of Zvenigorod Rurikids
Vasily II
Vasily Vasilyevich (Vasily the Dark)
  • Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)
10 March 1415

27 March 1462
27 February 1447 27 March 1462 Restored Rurikids
Ivan III
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Great)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Великий)
22 January 1440

6 November 1505
5 April 1462 6 November 1505 Son of Vasily II and Maria of Borovsk Rurikids
Vasily III
Vasily Ivanovich
  • Василий Иванович
25 March 1479

13 December 1533
6 November 1505 13 December 1533 Son of Ivan III and Sophia Paleologue Rurikids
Ivan IV
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Terrible)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Грозный)
25 August 1530

28 March 1584
13 December 1533 26 January 1547 Son of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya Rurikids

Tsars of Russia, 1547–1721

Vasili's son Ivan the Terrible formalized the situation by assuming the title Tsar of All Rus' in 1547, when the state of Russia (apart from its constituent principalities) came into formal being.

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia until the revolution.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ivan IV
Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Terrible)
  • Иван Васильевич (Иван Грозный)
25 August 1530

28 March 1584
26 January 1547 28 March 1584 Son of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya Rurikids
Simeon Bekbulatovich
  • Симеон Бекбулатович
16th/17th centuries 1575 1576 Muslim-born Khan of Qasim Khanate
Proclaimed Grand Prince of All Rus' in 1575 and abdicated within a year
Qasim
Feodor I
Feodor Ivanovich
  • Фёдор Иванович
31 May 1557

17 January 1598
28 March 1584 17 January 1598 Son of Ivan IV and Anastasia Romanovna Rurikids

Following the death of the Feodor I, the son of Ivan the Terrible and the last of the Rurik dynasty, Russia fell into a succession crisis known as the Time of Troubles. As Feodor left no male heirs, the Russian Zemsky Sobor (feudal parliament) elected his brother-in-law Boris Godunov to be Tsar. Devastated by famine, rule under Boris descended into anarchy. A series of impostors, known as the False Dmitriys, each claimed to be Feodor's long deceased younger brother; however, only the first impostor ever legitimately held the title of Tsar. A distant Rurikid cousin, Vasili Shuyskiy, also took power for a time. During this period, foreign powers deeply involved themselves in Russian politics, under the leadership of the Vasa monarchs of Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, including Sigismund III Vasa and his son Władysław IV Vasa. As a child, Władysław was even chosen as Tsar by the Seven Boyars, though he was prevented by his father from formally taking the throne. The Time of Troubles is considered to have ended with the election of Michael Romanov to the throne, who established the Romanov dynasty that would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Boris Godunov
  • Борис Годунов
c. 1551

13 April 1605
21 February 1598 13 April 1605 Brother-in-law of Feodor I
Elected by Zemsky Sobor
Godunov
Feodor II
Feodor Borisovich
  • Фёдор Борисович
1589

20 June 1605
13 April 1605 10 June 1605 Son of Boris Godunov and Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya
Murdered
Godunov
False Dmitriy I
Dmitriy Ivanovich
  • Дмитрий Иванович
c. 1581

17 May 1606
10 June 1605 17 May 1606 Claiming to be son of Ivan IV, he was the only imposter to actually sit on the throne of a major power
Backed by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Murdered.
Rurikids
(claimed)
Vasily IV
Vasily Ivanovich (Vasily Shuysky)
  • Василий Иванович (Василий Шуйский)
22 September 1552

12 September 1612
19 May 1606 17 July 1610
(deposed)
Ninth generation descendant of Andrei II in the male line Shuysky
Władysław IV Vasa
  • Владислав IV Ваза
9 June 1595

20 May 1648
6 September 1610 November 1612
(deposed)
14 June 1634
(resigned his claim)
King of Poland
Son of Sigismund III Vasa and Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland
Vasa

The Time of Troubles came to a close with the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613. Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret (died 1633) initially held the real power. However, Michael's descendants would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Peter the Great (reigned 1682–1725), a grandson of Michael Romanov, reorganized the Russian state along more Western lines, establishing the Russian Empire in 1721.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Michael I
Michael Feodorovich
  • Михаил Фёдорович
12 July 1596

12 July 1645
26 July 1613 12 July 1645 Founder of Romanov Dynasty
First cousin once removed of Feodor I
Romanov
Alexis I
Alexis Mikhaylovich (Alexis the Quiet)
  • Алексей I Михайлович (Алексей Тишайший)
9 May 1629

29 January 1676
12 July 1645 29 January 1676 Son of Michael I and Eudoxia Streshneva Romanov
Feodor III
Feodor Alekseyevich
  • Фёдор III Алексеевич
9 June 1661

7 May 1682
29 January 1676 7 May 1682 Son of Alexis I and Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya Romanov
Sophia Alekseyevna
  • Софья Алексеевна
17 September 1657

3 July 1704
17 May 1682 27 August 1689 Daughter of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Elder sister of Feodor III
She ruled as a regent of Ivan V and Peter I
Romanov
Ivan V
Ivan Alekseyevich
  • Иван Алексеевич
6 September 1666

8 February 1696
2 June 1682 8 February 1696 Son of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna and Feodor III
He "ruled" jointly with Peter I, but in fact had no power.
Romanov
Peter I
Peter Alekseyevich (Peter the Great)
  • Пётр I Алексеевич (Пётр Великий)
9 June 1672

8 February 1725
2 June 1682 2 November 1721 Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov

Emperors of Russia, 1721–1917

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

The Empire of Russia was declared by Peter the Great in 1721. Officially, Russia would be ruled by the Romanov dynasty until the Russian Revolution of 1917. However, direct male descendants of Michael Romanov came to an end in 1730 with the death of Peter II of Russia, grandson of Peter the Great. The throne passed to Anna, a niece of Peter the Great, and after the brief rule of her niece's infant son Ivan VI, the throne was seized by Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great. Elizabeth would be the last of the direct Romanovs to rule Russia. Elizabeth declared her nephew, Peter, to be her heir. Peter (who would rule as Peter III) spoke little Russian, having been a German prince of the House of Holstein-Gottorp before arriving in Russia to assume the Imperial title. He and his German wife Sophia changed their name to Romanov upon inheriting the throne. Peter was ill-liked, and he was assassinated within six months of assuming the throne, in a coup orchestrated by his wife, who became Empress in her own right and ruled as Catherine the Great (both Peter and Catherine were descended from the House of Rurik). Following the confused successions of the descendants of Peter the Great, Catherine's son Paul I established clear succession laws which governed the rules of primogeniture over the Imperial throne until the fall of the Empire in 1917.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Peter I
Peter Alekseyevich (Peter the Great)
  • Пётр I Алексеевич (Пётр Великий)
9 June 1672

8 February 1725
2 November 1721 8 February 1725 Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov
Catherine I
Yekaterina Alekseyevna
  • Екатерина I Алексеевна
15 April 1684

17 May 1727
8 February 1725 17 May 1727 Wife of Peter I Skowroński
Peter II
Peter Alekseyevich
  • Пётр II Алексеевич
23 October 1715

30 January 1730
18 May 1727 30 January 1730 Grandson of Peter I via the murdered Tsesarevich Alexei
Last male of the direct Romanov line
Romanov
Anna Ioannovna
  • Анна Иоанновна
7 February 1693

28 October 1740
13 February 1730 28 October 1740 Daughter of Ivan V Romanov
Anna Leopoldovna
  • Анна Леопольдовна
18 December 1718

19 March 1746
28 October 1740 6 December 1741 Regent for her son Ivan VI
Deposed by Empress Elizabeth and Imprisoned
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Ivan VI
Ivan Antonovich
  • Иван VI Антонович
23 August 1740

16 July 1764
28 October 1740 6 December 1741 Great-grandson of Ivan V
Deposed as a baby, imprisoned and later murdered
Brunswick-Bevern
Elizabeth
Yelizaveta Petrovna
  • Елизавета Петровна
29 December 1709

5 January 1762
6 December 1741 5 January 1762 Daughter of Peter I and Catherine I Romanov
Peter III
Peter Feodorovich
  • Пётр III Фëдорович
21 February 1728

17 July 1762
9 January 1762 9 July 1762 Grandson of Peter I
Nephew of Elizabeth
Murdered
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Catherine II
Yekaterina Alekseyevna (Catherine the Great)
  • Екатерина II Алексеевна (Екатерина Великая)
2 May 1729

17 November 1796
9 July 1762 17 November 1796 Wife of Peter III Ascania, with Rurikid descent
Paul I
Pavel Petrovich
  • Павел I Петрович
1 October 1754

23 March 1801
17 November 1796 23 March 1801 Son of Peter III and Catherine II
Assassinated
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Alexander I
Alexander Pavlovich (Alexander the Blessed)
  • Александр I Павлович (Александр Благословенный)
23 December 1777

1 December 1825
23 March 1801 1 December 1825 Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
First Romanov King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Constantine Pavlovich
  • Константин Павлович
27 April 1779

27 June 1831
1 December 1825 26 December 1825 Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I
Uncrowned (abdicated the throne)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Nicholas I
Nikolay Pavlovich
  • Николай I Павлович
6 July 1796

2 March 1855
26 December 1825 2 March 1855 Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I and Constantine Pavlovich
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Alexander II
Alexander Nikolayevich (Alexander the Liberator)
  • Александр II Николаевич (Александр Освободитель)
29 April 1818

13 March 1881
2 March 1855 13 March 1881 Son of Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodrovna
Nephew of Alexander I
Assassinated
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Alexander III
Alexander Aleksandrovich (Alexander the Peacemaker)
  • Александр III Александрович (Александр Миротворец)
10 March 1845

1 November 1894
13 March 1881 1 November 1894 Son of Alexander II and Maria Alexandrovna Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Nicholas II
Nikolay Aleksandrovich (Nicholas the Bloody)
  • Николай II Александрович (Николай Кровавый)
18 May 1868

17 July 1918
1 November 1894 15 March 1917 Son of Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna
Abdicated the throne during the February Revolution
Executed by Bolsheviks
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Nominal emperors after Nicholas II

Dates after 1918 are in the New Style.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Michael II
Michael Aleksandrovich
  • Михаил II Александрович
4 December 1878

13 June 1918
15 March 1917 16 March 1917 Son of Alexander III
Abdicated after a nominal reign of only 18 hours,
ending dynastic rule in Russia[5]
He is not usually recognised as a tsar, as Russian law did not allow Nicholas II to disinherit his son[6]
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Nikolai Nikolaevich
  • Николай Николаевич
  • (nominal)
6 November 1856

5 January 1929
8 August 1922 25 October 1922 Grandson of Nicholas I
Proclaimed Emperor of Russia by the Zemsky Sobor of the Provisional Priamurye Government
His nominal rule came to an end when the areas controlled by the Provisional Priamurye Government were overrun by the communists
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kirill Vladimirovich
  • Кири́лл Влади́мирович Рома́нов
30 September 1876

12 October 1938
31 August 1924 12 October 1938 Grandson of Alexander II
Claimed the title Emperor of All the Russias while in exile[7]
Recognised by a congress of legitimists delegates in Paris in 1926[8]
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Leaders after the Revolution

See also

Russia
Monarchy

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Russian history: Kievan Rus". Russiapedia. RT. http://russiapedia.rt.com/russian-history/early-days/. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Glenn E. Curtis (1996). "Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Russia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070927230631/http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Kievan.html. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7.
  4. ^ Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7.
  5. ^ Montefiore, Simon S. (2016) The Romanovs, 1613–1918 London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pp. 619–621
  6. ^ "The Abdication of Nicholas II: 100 Years Later". https://www.russianlegitimist.org/the-abdication-of-nicholas-ii-100-years-later/. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  7. ^ Almanach de Gotha (182nd ed.). Almanach de Gotha. 1998. p. 214. 
  8. ^ Shain, Yossi The Frontier of Loyalty: Political Exiles in the Age of the Nation-State University of Michigan Press (2005) p.69.

External links


Template:Russian emperors Template:Lists of Russians Template:American monarchies


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at List of Russian monarchs. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.


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