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History of Poland
Herb Polski
List of Polish monarchs
Prehistory and protohistory
Stone Age
Bronze and Iron Age
Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
Kingdom of the Piasts (966–1385)
Kingdom of the Jagiellons (1385–1569)
Early Modern
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Partitions - Duchies - Kingdoms (1795–1915)
World War 1 (1915-1918)
Second Republic (1918–1939)
World War 2 (1939–1945)
People's Republic (1945–1989)
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Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th-14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellons (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties.

During the latter period a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th-18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795) and was restored at the end of World War I (1918) on a republican basis.

Legendary rulersEdit

LechLech 111 Lechites 6th centurya legendary founder of the Polish nation
KrakusChronica Polonorum I 5 Lechites 8th centurya legendary founder of Cracow
WandaChronica Polonorum Vanda Lechites 8th centurya legendary daughter of Krakus and unknown Vandal woman
Abraham Prochownik Khazars9th century a legendary Jew, nominated prince of Polans, after the death of prince Popiel in 842

Semi-legendary rulers of western Polans (Greater Poland)Edit

PopielPopielBis1581 PopielidsDuke the 9th centurya semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans
Siemowit Siemowit PiastDuke the 9th centurysemi-legendary
son of Piast the Wheelwright
LestekLestek PiastDuke the 9th-10th centurysemi-legendary
son of Siemowit
SiemomysłSiemomysł PiastDuke the 10th centurysemi-legendary
son of Lestko

Monarchs of PolandEdit

Mieszko IMieszkoDagome PiastDuke 960?-992son of Siemomysł
first Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry)
(Boleslas I)
Jan Bogumił Jacobi - Bolesław Chrobry PiastDuke 992-1025
King 1025
son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
first to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Mieszko II LambertMatylda wrecza mieszkowi II ksiege liturgiczna PiastKing 1025-1031son of Boleslas I and Emnilda of Lusatia
BezprymBezprym PiastDuke 1031-1032son of Boleslas I and Judith of Hungary (disputed)
Otto Bolesławowic PiastDuke 1032son of Boleslas I and Emnilda
PiastDuke 1032grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of Haldensleben
Mieszko II LambertMatylda wrecza mieszkowi II ksiege liturgiczna PiastDuke 1032-1034restored
Kazimierz I the Restorer
(Casimir I)
Odnowiciel PiastDuke 1039-1058son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia
Bolesław II the Bold
(Boleslas II)
Bolesław II Śmiały 1234 PiastDuke 1058-1076
King 1076-1079
son of Casimir I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev
Władysław I Herman
(Ladislas I)
Jan Matejko, Władysław I Herman PiastDuke 1079-1102son of Casimir I and Maria Dobroniega
Wratysław II Czeski
(Vratislaus II of Bohemia) (disputed)
Vratislav II Přemyslid King of Bohemia and Poland 1085-1092 the royal title was a grant from Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
ZbigniewZbigniew PiastDuke 1102-1107son of Ladislas I and Przecława, Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
first jointly with Boleslas III
Bolesław III Wrymouth
(Boleslas III)
Jacobi 1828 Boleslaw III Krzywousty PiastDuke 1102-1138son of Ladislas I and Judith of Bohemia
first jointly with Zbigniew
introduced senioral principle
Władysław II the Exile
(Ladislas II)
Wladyslaw Wygnaniec (Chronica Polanarum) PiastHigh Duke 1138-1146son of Boleslas III and Zbyslava of Kiev
also Duke of Silesia
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław IV the Curly
(Boleslas IV)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy PiastHigh Duke 1146-1173son of Boleslas III and Salomea of Berg
also Duke of Masovia
Mieszko III the OldMieszko stary PiastHigh Duke 1173-1177son of Boleslas III and Salomea
also Duke of Greater Poland
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy PiastHigh Duke 1177-1190son of Boleslas III and Salomea
also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Mieszko III the OldMieszko stary PiastHigh Duke 1190restored
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy PiastHigh Duke 1190-1194restored
Leszek I the WhiteLeszek I the White PiastHigh Duke 1194-1198son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Sandomierz
Mieszko III the OldMieszko stary PiastHigh Duke 1198-1199restored
Leszek I the WhiteLeszek I the White PiastHigh Duke 1199-1202restored
Mieszko III the OldMieszko stary PiastHigh Duke 1202restored
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Wielkopolscy PiastHigh Duke 1202-1206son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
also Duke of Greater Poland
Leszek I the WhiteLeszek I the White PiastHigh Duke 1206-1210restored
Mieszko IV TanglefootMieszko IV PiastHigh Duke 1210-1211son of Ladislas II and Agnes of Babenberg
also Duke of Silesia
Leszek I the WhiteLeszek I the White PiastHigh Duke 1211-1227restored
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Wielkopolscy PiastHigh Duke 1227-1229restored
Konrad I of MasoviaKoradofmasovia PiastHigh Duke 1229-1232son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Masovia
Henryk I the Bearded
(Henry I)
HedwigAltarIV PiastHigh Duke 1232-1238grandson of Ladislas II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
also Duke of Silesia
Henryk II the Pious
(Henry II)
Henryk II Pobożny tomb effigy PiastHigh Duke 1238-1241son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
fell at Battle of Legnica
Konrad I of MasoviaKoradofmasovia PiastHigh Duke 1241-1243restored
Bolesław V the Chaste
(Boleslas V)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław Wstydliwy PiastHigh Duke 1243-1279 son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of Luck
Leszek II the BlackPieczęć Leszka II Czarnego PiastHigh Duke 1279-1288paternal grandson of Konrad I
maternal grandson of Henry II
son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
Henryk IV Probus
(Henry IV)
Henryk probus PiastHigh Duke 1288-1290paternal grandson of Henry II
maternal grandson of Konrad I
son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Przemysł II
(Premyslas II)
Seal of Przemysł II King of Poland from 1296 PiastHigh Duke 1290-1291
King 1295-1296
grandson of Henry II
son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Wacław II Czeski
(Wenceslas II of Bohemia)
Codex Manesse Wenzel II. von Böhmen PřemyslidHigh Duke 1291-1300
King 1300-1305
son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
married Premyslas II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
also King of Bohemia
Wacław III Czeski
(Wenceslas III of Bohemia)
Wenzel3 PřemyslidKing 1305-1306son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
Rudolf Austriacki
(Rudolph I of Bohemia)
Rudolph III Habsburg HabsburgTitular King of Poland
Duke of Austria and Styria (as Rudolph III)
Henryk Karyncki
(Henry of Bohemia)
JindrichKorutansky pecet1303 MeinhardinTitular King of Poland
Count of Tyrol and Duke of Carinthia and Carniola (as Henry VI)
Jan Luksemburski
(John of Bohemia)
John of Luxemburg LuxembourgTitular King of Poland
Count of Luxembourg (as John the Blind)
Władysław I the Elbow-high
(Ladislas IV/I)
Władysław Łokietek by Bacciarelli PiastHigh Duke 1306-1320
King 1320-1333
grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Euphrosyne of Opole
re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Kazimierz III The Great
(Casimir III)
Kazimierz III sarcophagus figure PiastKing 1333-1370son of Ladislas IV/I and Hedwig of Kalisz
regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Ludwik Węgierski
(Louis I of Hungary)
Budapest Heroes square Nágy Lájos AnjouKing 1370-1382son of Charles I of Hungary and Elisabeth of Poland
nephew of Casimir III
elected King and crowned on 17 November
also King of Hungary
Jadwiga of Poland
(Hedwig d'Anjou)
Jadwiga Andegaweńska AnjouKing 1384-1399daughter of Louis I and Elisabeth of Bosnia
crowned at 1384
reigned jointly with her husband
Ladislas II since 1386

Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of LithuaniaEdit

Jagiellon DynastyEdit

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Ladislas II, Jogaila)
Jogaila (Władysław II) Jagiellon4 March 13861 June 1434son of Algirdas of Lithuania and Uliana of Tver
Grand Duke of Lithuania 1377-1434
reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga until 1399
the longest reigning king of Poland
Władysław III
(Ladislas III, Vladislovas III)
Warnenczyk grob CP Jagiellon25 July 143410 November 1444son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also king of Hungary (as Ulászló I)
fell at Varna, therefore surnamed "of Varna"
Kazimierz IV
(Casimir IV, Kazimieras Jogailaitis)
Giovanni da Capistrano and Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon Jagiellon25 June 14477 June 1492son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1440-1492
Jan I Olbracht
(John I Albert, Jonas Albrechtas)
Jan I Olbracht by Bacciarelli Jagiellon23 September 149216 June 1501son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
(Alexander, Aleksandras)
Aleksa Jagiellon12 December 150119 August 1506son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492-1506
Zygmunt I the Old
(Sigismund I, Žygimantas Senasis)
Jungholz Sigismund I the Old Jagiellon8 December 15061 April 1548son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Zygmunt II August I
(Sigismund II August I, Žygimantas Augustas)
Sigismund II Augustus Jagiellon1 April 15487 July 1572son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569

Kings of the Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthEdit

RulerDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Henryk Walezy
(Henry III)
Anjou 1570louvreValois21 February 157412 May 1575son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
abandoned the Polish-Lithuanian throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France
Maksymilian II
(Maximilian I)
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002Habsburg 15751575King of Bohemia, Germany, Hungary and Croatia, Archduke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor
election contested after four days
AnnaMartin Kober 002JagiellonKing 15 December 157512 December 1586daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Stefan I Batory
(Stephen I Báthory)
King Stefan BatoryBáthory15 December 157512 December 1586son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
reigned together with his wife Anna
regarded as one of the greatest kings of Poland
Maksymilian III
(Maximilian II)
Justus Sustermans 012Habsburg15871587son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Archduke of Austria
defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Zygmunt III
(Sigismund III )
Sigismund III of Poland-Lithuania and Sweden (Martin Kober)Vasa18 September 158719 April 1632grandson of Sigismund I
son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599-1632
Władysław IV
(Ladislas IV)
Frans Luycx 006Vasa8 November 163220 May 1648son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 1610-1634, titular King of Sweden 1632-1648
Jan II Kazimierz
(John II Casimir)
Schultz John II CasimirVasa20 November 164816 September 1668son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
Michał Korybut
(Michael I)
Michał Korybut WiśniowieckiWiśniowiecki19 June 166910 November 1673son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
(John III)
Schultz John III SobieskiSobieski21 May 167417 June 1696son of Jakub Sobieski and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683
Franciszek Ludwik Burbon-Conti
(François Louis, Prince of Conti)
Undated oil on canvas portrait of François Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Conti by a member of the École Française Bourbon 27 June 1697 ca. 20 July 1697 (withdrew)son of Armand de Bourbon-Conti and Anne Marie Martinozzi
elected king, obliged to return to France from Gdansk without the crown
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von PolenWettin15 September 169716 February 1704 (deposed)
24 September 1706 (abdicates)
son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark
Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1Leszczyński4 October 17058 August 1709son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
yielded to Augustus II
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von PolenWettin8 August 17091 February 1733restored
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1Leszczyński12 September 173330 June 1734 (deposed)
27 January 1736 (abdicates)
defeated in War of the Polish Succession
became Duke of Lorraine until his death
August III Sas
(Augustus III)
King Augustus III of PolandWettin17 January 1734 (in opposition)
30 June 1734 (effectively)
5 October 1763son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Stanisław II August
(Stanislas II August)
Stanislaus II Augustus of PolandPoniatowski25 November 17647 January 1795son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
forced to abdicate when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist

Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of PolandEdit

Kings and Queens of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicja)Edit

RulerEnglishDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Maria Teresa Maria TheresaHabsburg22 September 177229 November 1780the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, etc.) recalled the old Hungarian claims to the Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, and Czech claims to the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Józef II Joseph IIHabsburg-Lorraine29 November 178020 February 1790
Leopold II Leopold IIHabsburg-Lorraine20 February 17901 March 1792
Franciszek II Francis IIHabsburg-Lorraine1 March 17922 March 1835
Ferdynand I Ferdinand IHabsburg-Lorraine2 March 18352 December 1848after the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising of 1846, the Free City of Cracow was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow; the full official name of the province was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Franciszek Józef I Francis Joseph IHabsburg-Lorraine2 December 184821 November 1916after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and the reorganization of the Empire as the Dual Monarchy, a broad autonomy was granted to Galicia and Lodomeria within Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary
Karol I Charles IHabsburg-Lorraine21 November 191611 November 1918 renounced all participation in affairs of state but did not abdicate

Dukes of Warsaw (Warszawa)Edit

RulerEnglishDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Fryderyk AugustFrederick August I Wettin9 July 180714 March 1813 grandson of Augustus III
King of Saxony 1805-1827
Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon I in 1807 as a protectorate of the French Empire, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Kingdom of Poland, protectorate of the Russian Empire, and the Grand Duchy of Posen, protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia

Dukes of Danzig (Gdańsk)Edit

RulerEnglishDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Franciszek Józef LefebvreFrançois Joseph LefebvreMarshal of France9 September 18072 January 1814 Free City of Danzig, a semi-independent state established by Napoleon I in 1807, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and reincorporated into Prussia

Kings of the Kingdom of Poland ("Congress Poland")Edit

RulerEnglishDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Aleksander I Alexander I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov9 June 18151 December 1825 The Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland".
Konstanty I (disputed) Constantine I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov1 December 1825 26 December 1825 Grand Duke Constantine was de facto Viceroy (Namestnik) of the Kingdom of Poland.
Mikołaj I Nicholas I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov26 December 18252 March 1855 deposed by the Polish Parliament (Sejm) on 25 January 1831 during November Uprising (1830–1831), autonomy abolished in 1832.
Aleksander II Alexander II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov2 March 185513 March 1881"Congress Poland" annexed into the Russian Empire after January Uprising (1863–1864), and the name of the kingdom was changed to Privislinsky Krai (1867–1915)
Aleksander III Alexander III Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov13 March 18811 November 1894
Mikołaj II Nicholas II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov1 November 189415 March 1917 during World War I "Congress Poland" was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915; abdicated in 1917

Grand Dukes of Posen (Poznań)Edit

RulerEnglishDynastyReign BeganReign EndedNotes
Fryderyk Wilhelm III Frederick William III Hohenzollern9 June 18157 June 1840 The Grand Duchy of Posen created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831.
Fryderyk Wilhelm IV Frederick William IVHohenzollern7 June 18402 January 1861autonomy abolished on June 28, 1848; the Grand Duchy was formally replaced by the Province of Posen in the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848.
Wilhelm I William IHohenzollern2 January 18619 March 1888The Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia, became a part of the German Empire (1871–1918)
Fryderyk III Frederick IIIHohenzollern9 March 188815 June 1888
Wilhelm II William IIHohenzollern15 June 18889 November 1918abdicated in 1918

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at List of Polish monarchs. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.