The following is a list of African-American United States presidential and vice-presidential nominees and candidates for nomination. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed are those African Americans who achieved ballot access for the national election in at least one state. They may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the major parties, or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.
Not included in the first two tables are African Americans who lost campaigns in nominating conventions or primary elections for their party's nomination (or who have not yet completed that process), write-in candidates, potential candidates (suggested by media, objects of draft movements, etc.), or fictional candidates.
The third table includes African Americans who ran for their party's presidential nomination but who were not nominated, as well as those who are currently pursuing their party's presidential nomination (when applicable).
Barack Obama became the first African-American candidate to be nominated by a major party, and the first to win, for either president or vice president when he became the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 2008 election and was elected. He was re-elected in the 2012 election.
- 1 U.S. Presidential candidates: Party nominees
- 2 U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees
- 3 U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination
- 4 U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
U.S. Presidential candidates: Party nominees
Denotes winning candidate.
Candidates receiving electoral votes
|2008||Barack Obama||Democratic Party||Joe Biden||365||538|
|2012||Barack Obama||Democratic Party||Joe Biden||332||538|
|2016||Colin Powell||Not applicable||Not applicable||3||538|
Candidates receiving popular votes
|1904||George Edwin Taylor||National Liberty Party||W.C. Payne||scattering|
|1960||Clennon King||Independent Afro-American Party||Reginald Carter||1,485|
|1964||Clifton DeBerry||Socialist Workers Party||Ed Shaw||32,706|
|1968||Eldridge Cleaver||Peace and Freedom Party||Various candidates||36,623|
|1968||Dick Gregory||Freedom and Peace Party||Various candidates||47,097|
|1968||Charlene Mitchell||Communist Party||Michael Zagarell||1,076|
|1976||Margaret Wright||People's Party||Benjamin Spock||49,013|
|1980||Clifton DeBerry||Socialist Workers Party||Matilde Zimmermann||38,738|
|1980||Andrew Pulley||Socialist Workers Party||Matilde Zimmermann||6,264|
|1984||Larry Holmes||Workers World Party||Gloria La Riva||17,985|
|1984||Dennis L. Serrette||New Alliance Party||Nancy Ross||46,853|
|1984||Edward Winn||Socialist Equality Party||Helen Halyard||10,801|
|1988||Lenora Fulani||New Alliance Party||Joyce Dattner||217,219|
|1988||Larry Holmes||Workers World Party||Gloria La Riva||7,846|
|1988||James Warren||Socialist Workers Party||Kathleen Mickells||15,602|
|1988||Edward Winn||Socialist Equality Party||Helen Halyard||18,693|
|1992||Ronald Daniels||Peace and Freedom Party||Asiba Tupahache||27,949|
|1992||Lenora Fulani||New Alliance Party||Maria Elizabeth Muñoz||73,714|
|1992||Helen Halyard||Workers League||Fred Mazelis||3,050|
|1992||Isabell Masters||Looking Back Party||Walter Masters||327|
|1992||James Warren||Socialist Workers Party||Various candidates||23,533|
|1996||James Harris||Socialist Workers Party||Laura Garza||8,476|
|1996||Monica Moorehead||Workers World Party||Gloria La Riva||29,083|
|1996||Isabell Masters||Looking Back Party||Shirley Jean Masters||752|
|2000||James Harris||Socialist Workers Party||Margaret Trowe||7,038|
|2000||Monica Moorehead||Workers World Party||Gloria La Riva||4,795|
|2000||Randall A. Venson||Independent||Gene Kelly||547|
|2004||James Harris||Socialist Workers Party||Margaret Trowe||7,102|
|2004||John Parker||Workers World Party||Teresa Gutierrez||1,646|
|2008||James Harris||Socialist Workers Party||Alyson Kennedy||2,424|
|2008||Alan Keyes||America's Independent Party||Brian Rohrbough||47,756|
|2008||Cynthia McKinney||Green Party||Rosa Clemente||150,061|
|2008||Barack Obama||Democratic Party||Joe Biden||69,498,215|
|2012||Stewart Alexander||Socialist Party||Alejandro Mendoza||4,405|
|2012||Andre Barnett||Reform Party||Ken Cross||956|
|2012||James Harris||Socialist Workers Party||Maura DeLuca||4,117|
|2012||Peta Lindsay||Party for Socialism and Liberation||Yari Osorio||7,791|
|2012||Barack Obama||Democratic Party||Joe Biden||65,915,796|
|2016||Monica Moorehead||Workers World Party||Lamont Lilly||4,003|
|2016||Clifton Roberts||Humane Party||Breeze Harper||86|
U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees
Through the 2016 presidential election, no African-American candidates have received electoral votes for vice president.
Candidates receiving popular votes
|1872||Frederick Douglass||Equal Rights Party||Victoria Woodhull||Unreported|
|1928||Simon P. Drew||Interracial Independent Party||Jacob S. Coxey|
|1932||James W. Ford||Communist Party||William Z. Foster||102,991|
|1936||James W. Ford||Communist Party||Earl Browder||80,195|
|1940||James W. Ford||Communist Party||Earl Browder|
|1952||Charlotta Bass||Progressive Party||Vincent Hallinan||140,023|
|1968||Paul Boutelle||Socialist Workers Party||Fred Halstead|
|1972||Julius Hobson||People's Party||Benjamin Spock||78,759|
|1972||Jarvis Tyner||Communist Party||Gus Hall|
|1976||Willie Mae Reid||Socialist Workers Party||Peter Camejo||90,986|
|1976||Jarvis Tyner||Communist Party||Gus Hall|
|1980||Angela Davis||Communist Party||Gus Hall||43,871|
|1984||Angela Davis||Communist Party||Gus Hall||36,386|
|1984||Helen Halyard||Socialist Equality Party||Edward Winn||10,801|
|1988||Helen Halyard||Socialist Equality Party||Edward Winn||18,693|
|1992||Willie Mae Reid||Socialist Workers Party||James "Mac" Warren|
|1996||Shirley Jean Masters||Looking Back Party||Isabell Masters||752|
|2000||Ezola B. Foster||Reform Party||Pat Buchanan||449,225|
|2004||Arrin Hawkins||Socialist Workers Party||Róger Calero||3,689|
|2004||Jim Lawrence||Socialist Equality Party||Bill Van Auken||1,857|
|2008||Stewart Alexander||Socialist Party||Brian Moore||7,315|
|2008||Eugene Puryear||Party for Socialism and Liberation||Gloria La Riva||7,478|
|2016||Ajamu Baraka||Green Party||Jill Stein||1,457,044|
|2016||Osborne Hart||Socialist Workers Party||Alyson Kennedy||11,667|
|2016||Lamont Lilly||Workers World Party||Monica Moorehead||4,003|
|2016||Eugene Puryear||Peace and Freedom Party||Gloria La Riva||43,445|
|2016||Angela Nicole Walker||Socialist Party USA||Mimi Soltysik||2,579|
|2016||Breeze Harper||Humane Party||Clifton Roberts||86|
U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination
Candidates who failed to receive their party's nomination (or who are currently campaigning for their party's nomination). Candidates who won the nomination belong in the above tables only.
|1848||Frederick Douglass||Liberty Party||1 vote at national convention||Gerrit Smith|
|1888||Frederick Douglass||Republican Party||1 vote at national convention||Benjamin Harrison|
|1968||Channing E. Phillips||Democratic Party||67.5 votes at national convention||Hubert Humphrey|
|1972||Shirley Chisholm||Democratic Party||152 votes at national convention||George McGovern|
|1972||Walter Fauntroy||Democratic Party||1 vote at national convention; 21,217 votes (71.78%) and winner of Washington, D.C. primary||George McGovern|
|1976||Barbara Jordan||Democratic Party||1 vote at national convention||Jimmy Carter|
|1976||Walter Fauntroy||Democratic Party||10,149 votes (30.49%) (2nd place) in Washington, D.C. primary||Jimmy Carter|
|1984||Jesse Jackson||Democratic Party||466 votes at national convention||Walter Mondale|
|1988||Jesse Jackson||Democratic Party||1218.5 votes at national convention||Michael Dukakis|
|1992||Douglas Wilder||Democratic Party||Withdrew before Iowa caucuses||Bill Clinton|
|1992||Alan Keyes||Republican Party||1 vote at national convention. Keyes was the Republican candidate in the U.S. Senate election in Maryland at the time, and was not actively seeking the presidency in 1992.||George H.W. Bush|
|1996||Alan Keyes||Republican Party||1 vote at national convention||Bob Dole|
|1996||Isabell Masters||Republican Party||1052 votes (7th place) in Oklahoma primary||Bob Dole|
|2000||Alan Keyes||Republican Party||6 votes at national convention||George W. Bush|
|2000||Angel Joy Rocker||Republican Party||6 votes in Alabama straw poll||George W. Bush|
|2004||Carol Moseley Braun||Democratic Party||Withdrew before Iowa caucuses||John Kerry|
|2004||Al Sharpton||Democratic Party||Earned 26 delegates in 5 primaries and caucuses||John Kerry|
|2008||Alan Keyes||Republican Party||Keyes withdrew from Republican Party on April 15, 2008, but remained on the Republican ballot in several states.||John McCain|
|2008||Alan Keyes||Constitution Party||125.7 votes (24.36%) (2nd place) at national convention.||Chuck Baldwin|
|2012||Herman Cain||Republican Party||Withdrew on December 3, 2011.|
|2016||Ben Carson||Republican Party||Announced candidacy on May 3, 2015. Withdrew on March 4. Earned 9 delegates.||Donald Trump|
|2016||Willie Wilson||Democratic Party||Announced candidacy on June 1, 2015.||Hillary Clinton|
|2016||John Fitzgerald Johnson||Democratic Party||Announced candidacy on August 23, 2015.|
|2016||Monica Moorehead||Peace and Freedom Party||1,369 votes (30%) (2nd place) in California primary||Gloria La Riva|
U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination
|1856||Frederick Douglass||Political Abolitionist||Samuel T. McFarland|
|1880||Blanche Bruce||Republican Party||8 votes at national convention||Chester A. Arthur|
|1888||Blanche Bruce||Republican Party||11 votes at national convention||Levi P. Morton|
|1968||Julian Bond||Democratic Party||48.5 votes at national convention||Edmund Muskie|
|1972||Julian Bond||Democratic Party||1 vote at national convention||Thomas Eagleton|
|1972||Shirley Chisholm||Democratic Party||20 votes at national convention||Thomas Eagleton|
|1972||Ron Dellums||Democratic Party||4 votes at national convention||Thomas Eagleton|
|1976||Barbara Jordan||Democratic Party||17 votes in national convention||Walter Mondale|
|1980||Mel Boozer||Democratic Party||49 votes in national convention||Walter Mondale|
- African American candidates for president of the United States
- List of female United States presidential and vice-presidential candidates
- Jesse Jackson presidential campaign 1984
- Jesse Jackson presidential campaign, 1988
- ^ Colin Powell did not run for president in 2016. He received the votes of 3 faithless electors from Washington. Powell, a Republican, had endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election and received his electoral votes from Democratic electors.
- ^ Wisconsin Labor Advocate, La Crosse, Wis. : Geo. E. Taylor, 1886-
- ^ The World Almanac & Encyclopedia. 1908. pp. 268. https://books.google.com/books?id=Cl43AAAAMAAJ&pg=RA3-PA268#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "they received only a few scattering votes of which there is no exact record."
- ^ Does not include 27,887 votes cast for the party's ticket in California and Utah, where Cleaver's name did not appear on the ballot because he was under 35 years old.
- ^ Leip, David (2005). "1980 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/national.php?year=1980&minper=0&f=0&off=0&elect=0. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
- ^ a b In 2004 and 2008, Harris served as a stand-in nominee for the Socialist Workers Party in states where the party's main presidential nominee, Róger Calero, was ineligible because he was not a natural-born citizen.
- ^ Winger, Richard (2009-01-06). "2008 Presidential Vote (not final)". Ballot Access News. http://www.ballot-access.org/2008/120108.html#10. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
- ^ a b c d e Federal Elections 2012. Washington, D.C.: Federal Election Commission. 2013. pp. 5. http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2012/federalelections2012.pdf.
- ^ a b Gunzburger, Ron (2016). "2016 Presidential Candidates". http://www.politics1.com/p2016.htm. Retrieved 2017-03-20.
- ^ a b "Breaking: Humane Party announces Dr. Breeze Harper as Vice Presidential nominee". June 10, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_-r8xkeGc0. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- ^ a b "2016 Presidential Election by State". February 5, 2017. http://www.thegreenpapers.com/G16/President-Details.phtml?n=ROBERTS,CLIFTONLEE. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
- ^ Douglass did not acknowledge the nomination or participate in the campaign.
- ^ Walton, Hanes. Invisible politics: Black political behavior. p.92.
- ^ Guzman, Jessie Parkhurst. Negro Year Book - An Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro 1931-1932 p.87.
- ^ (June 18, 1928) "National Affairs: Fifth Party". Time.
- ^ Edward Bergonzi was an alternate candidate for Helen Halyard in some states, including Ohio.
- ^ "Proceedings of the National Liberty Convention, held at Buffalo, N.Y., June...". 1848. http://library.syr.edu/digital/collections/g/GerritSmith/453.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
- ^ http://www.ok.gov/~elections/96rpres.html
- ^ "White House bid wants serious attention", St. Petersburg Times, March 24, 1999. Accessed 07/08/08.
- ^ "Republican Party". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990830/ai_n14247867.
- ^ "President Peace and Freedom - Statewide Results". Government of California. 8 June 2016. http://vote.sos.ca.gov/returns/president/party/peace-and-freedom/.
- ^ Walton, Hanes. Invisible politics: Black political behavior. p.92.
- ^ Wesley, Dr. Charles H. (March 14, 1953). "The Greatest American". The Afro-American. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=z-klAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ffYFAAAAIBAJ&pg=5700,5345948. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- ^ a b Ragsdale, Bruce; Joel D. Treese (1990). Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989. Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. p. 8.
- ^ Sears, p. 389
- Sears, Thomas James (2001). Rebels, Rubyfruit, and Rhinestones: Queering Space in the Stonewall South. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2964-6.
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