|— Town —|
|Karlsruhe Palace at night|
|• Mayor||Heinz Fenrich (CDU)|
|• Total||173.46 km2 (66.97 sq mi)|
|Elevation||115 m (377 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Website||www.karlsruhe.de http://www.karlsruhe.de www.karlsruhe.de|
Karlsruhe (German pronunciation: [ˈkaːlsʁuːə]; formerly Carlsruhe) is a city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the Franco-German border. Karlsruhe Palace was built in 1715 and the town is now the seat of two of the highest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court of Justice.
The city lies at an altitude between 100 m (on the eastern shore of the river Rhine) and 322 m (near the TV Tower). Its geographical coordinates are ; the 49th parallel runs through the city centre. Its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten ("city park").
The city was planned with the palace tower (Schloss) at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city" (Fächerstadt). Almost all of these streets survive today. Because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre.
The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets. The central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest, respectively (i.e., parallel with the streets marking the boundaries of the quadrant defining the city center).
The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen. The market square has the town hall (Rathaus) to the west, the main Lutheran church (Evangelische Stadtkirche) to the east, and the tomb of Margrave Karl Wilhelm in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the Neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a park and forest. Originally the area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Institute of Technology (founded in 1825), Wildparkstadion, and residential areas have been built there. The area west of the palace is now mostly residential.
Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to much of Germany. In 2008, the more than 130 years-old weather station in Karlsruhe was closed, which is replaced by a weather station in Rheinstetten, south of Karlsruhe.
|Climate data for Karlsruhe|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.4|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||56|
According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as Charles’ repose, was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city.
Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach. The founding of the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach and in 1771 of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 1822, the "Ständehaus" was the first parliament building in a German State. In the aftermath of the democratic revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected here.
In 1860 the first ever international professional convention, the Karlsruhe Congress, was held in the city.
Much of the central area, including the palace, was reduced to rubble by Allied bombing during World War II but was rebuilt after the war. Located in the American zone of the post-war Allied occupation, Karlsruhe was home to an American military base, established in 1945. In 1995, the bases closed and their facilities were turned over to the city of Karlsruhe.
The Stadtgarten is a recreational area near the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and was rebuilt in 1967 during the 'Federal Garden Show' (Bundesgartenschau). It is also the site of the Karlsruhe Zoo.
The city has two botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe which forms part of the Palace complex, and the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe which is maintained by the university.
The Marktplatz has a stone pyramid marking the grave of the city's founder. Built in 1825, it is the emblem of Karlsruhe. The city is nicknamed the fan city (Die Fächerstadt) because of its design layout, with straight streets radiating fan-like from the Palace.
The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is an interesting piece of architecture; the adjacent Schlossgarten includes the Botanical Garden with a palm, cactus and orchid house, and walking paths through the woods to the north.
The so-called Kleine Kirche (Little Church), built between 1773 and 1776, is the oldest church of Karlsruhe's city centre.
The architect Friedrich Weinbrenner designed many of the city's most important sights. Another sight is the Rondellplatz with its 'Constitution Building Columns' (1826). It is dedicated to Baden's first constitution in 1818, which was one of the most liberal of its time. The Münze (mint), erected in 1826/27, was also built by Weinbrenner.
The St. Stephan parish church is one of the masterpieces of neoclassical church architecture in Southern Germany. Weinbrenner, who built this church between 1808 and 1814, orientated it to the Pantheon, Rome.
The neo-gothic Grand Ducal burial chapel, built between 1889 and 1896, is a mausoleum rather than a church, and is located in the middle of the forest.
The main cemetery of Karlsruhe is the oldest park-like cemetery in Germany. The crematorium was the first to be built in the style of a church.
Karlsruhe is also home to a Museum of Natural History, an opera house (the 'Baden State Theatre'), as well as a number of independent theatres and art galleries. The State Art Gallery, built in 1846 by Heinrich Hübsch, displays paintings and sculptures from six centuries, particularly from France, Germany and Holland. Karlsruhe's newly renovated art museum is one of the most important art museums in Baden-Württemberg. Further cultural attractions are scattered throughout Karlsruhe's various incorporated suburbs. The Scheffel Association or literary society (established in 1924), is the largest literary organisation in Germany. Today the Prinz-Max-Palais, built between 1881 and 1884 in neoclassical style, houses the organisation and includes its museum.
Due to population growth in the late 19th century, Karlsruhe developed several suburban areas (Vorstadt) in the Gründerzeit and especially art nouveau styles of architecture, with many preserved examples.
Karlsruhe is also home to the Majolika-Manufaktur, the only art-ceramics pottery studio in Germany. Founded in 1901, it is located in the Schlossgarten. A 'blue streak' (Blauer Strahl) consisting of 1,645 ceramic tiles, connects the studio with the Palace. It is the world's largest ceramic artwork.
Another tourist attraction is the Centre for Art and Media (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or ZKM), which is located in a converted ammunition factory.
Karlsruhe is the seat of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest Court of Appeals in civil and criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The courts came to Karlsruhe after World War II, when the provinces of Baden and Württemberg were merged. Stuttgart, capital of Württemberg, became the capital of the new province (Württemberg-Baden in 1945 and Baden-Württemberg in 1952). In compensation for the state authorities relocated to Stuttgart, Karlsruhe applied to become the seat of the high court.
There are four hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level of medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken and the Diakonissen krankenhaus, connected to the Catholic and Protestant churches, respectively, offer central services, and the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according to state hospital demand planning.
Germany's largest oil refinery is located in Karlsruhe, at the western edge of the city, directly on the river Rhine. The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation of the region's cities in order to promote high tech industries; today, about 20% of the region's jobs are in research and development.
Due to the University of Karlsruhe providing services until the late 1990, Karlsruhe became known as the internet capital of Germany. The DENIC, Germany's Network Information Centre, has since moved to Frankfurt, though, where DE-CIX is located.
The library of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog, the first internet site that allowed researchers worldwide (for free) to search multiple library catalogues worldwide.
In the year 2000 the regional online "newspaper" ka‑news.de was created. As a daily newspaper, it not only provides the news, but also informs readers about upcoming events in Karlsruhe and surrounding areas.
The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the city's urban public transport network, comprising seven tram routes and a network of bus routes. This network is well developed and all city areas can be reached 24/7 by tram and a night bus system. The Turmbergbahn funicular railway, to the east of the city centre, is operated by the VBK.
The VBK is also a partner, with the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft and Deutsche Bahn, in the operation of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail system that serves a larger area around the city. This system makes it possible to reach other towns in the region, like Ettlingen, Wörth am Rhein, Pforzheim, Bad Wildbad, Bretten, Bruchsal, Heilbronn, Baden-Baden, and even Freudenstadt in the Black Forest right from the city centre. The Stadtbahn is well known in transport circles around the world for pioneering the concept of operating trams on train tracks, to achieve a more effective and attractive public transport system, to the extent that this is often known as the Karlsruhe model tram-train system.
Karlsruhe is well-connected via road and rail, with Autobahn and InterCityExpress connections going to Frankfurt, Stuttgart/Munich and Freiburg/Basel. Since June 2007 it has been connected to the TGV network, reducing travel time to Paris to only three hours (previously it had taken five hours).
The nearest airport is part of the Baden Airpark (officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Karlsruhe, with regular connections to airports in Germany and Europe in general. Frankfurt International Airport can be reached in about an hour and a half by car (one hour by InterCityExpress); Stuttgart Airport can be reached in about one hour (about an hour and a half by train and S‑Bahn).
Two interesting facts in transportation history are that both Karl Drais, the inventor of the bicycle, as well as Karl Benz, the inventor of the automobile were born in Karlsruhe. Benz was born in Mühlburg, which later became a borough of Karlsruhe (in 1886). Benz also studied at the Karlsruhe university. It also is interesting that Benz’s wife Bertha took the world's first long distance-drive with an automobile from Mannheim to Karlsruhe-Grötzingen and Pforzheim (see Bertha Benz Memorial Route). Their professional lives led both men to the neighboring city of Mannheim, where they first applied their most famous inventions.
Jews settled in Karlsruhe since its foundation. They were attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to settlers, without discrimination as to creed. Official documents attest the presence of several Jewish families at Karlsruhe in 1717. A year later the city council addressed to the margrave a report in which a question was raised as to the proportion of municipal charges to be borne by the newly arrived Jews, who in that year formed an organized congregation, with Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen of Metz at its head. A document dated 1726 gives the names of twenty-four Jews who had taken part in an election of municipal officers. As the city grew permission to settle there became less easily obtained by Jews, and the community developed more slowly. A 1752 Jewry ordinance stated Jews were forbidden to leave the city on Sundays and Christian holidays, or to go out of their houses during church services, but they were exempted from service by court summonses on Sabbaths. They could sell wine only in inns owned by Jews and graze their cattle, not on the commons, but on the wayside only. Karlsruhe was the seat of the central council of Baden Jewry. The first chief rabbi of the country Rabbi Asher Lowe was from (Durlach) Karlsruhe, Nethaneel Weil was a rabbi in Karlsruhe from 1750 until his death.
In 1783, by a decree issued by Margrave Charles Frederick of Baden, the Jews ceased to be serfs, and consequently could settle wherever they pleased. The same decree freed them from the "Todfall" tax, paid to the clergy for each Jewish burial. In commemoration of these changes special prayers were prepared by the acting rabbi Jedidiah Tiah Weill, who, succeeding his father in 1770, held the office until 1805. In 1808 the government issued regulations concerning the administration of the spiritual affairs of the Jewish community, by which the chief rabbi of Karlsruhe became the spiritual head of the Jews of the country. Complete emancipation was given in 1862, Jews were elected to city council and Baden parliament, and from 1890 were appointed judges. Jews were persecuted in riots occurring in 1819 and anti-Jewish demonstrations were held in 1843, 1848, and the 1880s. The well-known German-Israeli artist Leo Kahn studied in Karlsruhe before leaving for France and Israel in the 1920s and 1930s.
Karlsruhe has memorialized its Jewish community and notable pre-war synagogues with a memorial park.
Karlsruhe and the HolocaustEdit
In 1933, 3,358 Jews lived in Karlsruhe. The community owned buildings and property, such as two synagogues, one on Karl-Friedrich-Straße and one on Kronenstraße, two elderly citizens' homes, a Jewish school, a hospital, welfare institutions, and several Jewish cemeteries. During the first years of the Nazi regime, the community continued to function, particularly to prepare Jews for emigration. On October 28, 1938, all male Polish Jews living in Karlsruhe were deported to Poland. Synagogues were destroyed on Kristallnacht, 9–10 November 1938. Most of the men were arrested and sent to Dachau concentration camp, but were released after they had furnished proof that they intended to emigrate. In October 1940, 895 Jews were expelled during Operation Wagner-Bürckel and interned by the French Vichy authorities in Gurs in southern France. Most of these were then deported from there to Auschwitz (via the Drancy deportation camp, on the outskirts of Paris) between August and November 1942. Most of the 429 remaining Jews and other so‑called "non-Aryans" were deported to the east between 1941 and 1944. In 1945 there were only 18 Jews in Karlsruhe. More than 1,000 of them had been killed between 1933 and 1945. The Baden Central Jewish Council was reorganized in 1948. A new synagogue was built in 1969.
- Dennis Aogo, German football defender who currently plays for Hamburger SV
- Victoria of Baden (1862–1930), born in Karlsruhe, Queen consort of Sweden by her marriage to King Gustaf V of Sweden
- Christa Bauch, female Bodybuilding legend
- Hermann Billing, Art Nouveau architect, was born and lived in Karlsruhe and built his first famous works here.
- Karoline von Günderrode, a German poet, was born in Karlsruhe (1780–1806).
- Karl Drais, inventor of the two-wheeler principle basic to bicycle and motorcycle, key typewriter and earliest stenograph, was born and died in Karlsruhe (1785–1851)
- Mühlburg, since 1886 a borough of Karlsruhe, is the birthplace of Karl Benz (1844–1929), inventor of the automobile and founder of Benz & Co., now part of Daimler AG (formerly Daimler-Benz)
- Walther Bensemann is one of the founders of the first southern German soccer club Karlsruher FV and later he became one of the founders of DFB and the founder of Kicker, which still is Germany's leading soccer magazine.
- Oliver Bierhoff, retired German football striker and former national team captain for the Germany and Italian Serie A clubs Udinese, A.C. Milan and Chievo; currently working as the German national team manager
- Siegfried Buback then Attorney General of Germany fell victim to terrorists of the Rote Armee Fraktion in April 1977.
- Andi Deris, lead singer of the power metal band Helloween, was born in Karlsruhe.
- Theodor von Dusch (1824–1890), physician remembered for experiments involving cotton-wool filters for bacteria.
- Ludwig Eichrodt, writer
- Obergruppenführer SA Hans Frank (1900–1946), Gauleiter and Governor-General of Nazi occupied Poland. Hanged at Nuremberg for his crimes during World War II.
- Reinhold Frank, a German lawyer who worked for the resistance in Nazi Germany, ran a law practice in Karlsruhe. In his honour the street in Karlsruhe where the lawyer's chambers were founded bears his name.
- Gottfried Fuchs was born in Karlsruhe and holds the record of ten goals in one single international soccer match for the German national team.
- Regina Halmich, the current female boxing flyweight world champion
- Johann Peter Hebel, writer and poet, lived in Karlsruhe for most of his life.
- In the late 1880s, professor Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovered electromagnetic waves at the University of Karlsruhe; today, a lecture room named after Hertz lies close by the very spot where the discovery was made.
- Friedrich Hund a physicist of the pioneering generation of quantum mechanics (see Hund's rules) was born here.
- Oliver Kahn, retired goalkeeper of Bayern Munich and Germany was also born in this city, in 1969.
- Sebastian Koch, German actor (born May 31, 1962, in Karlsruhe)
- Gustav Landauer, one of the leading theorists of anarchism in Germany, was born in Karlsruhe.
- Renate Lingor, former German national football player.
- Vincenzo Italiano, Italian footballer currently plays for Calcio Padova
- Markus Lüpertz worked and lives in Karlsruhe. He created the “Narrenbrunnen” (Fool's Fountain) in the city center.
- Composer Wolfgang Rihm is a resident of Karlsruhe
- In 1886, Joseph Viktor von Scheffel, a German poet and novelist, was born in Karlsruhe.
- Peter Sloterdijk, philosopher and current president of the State Academy of Design
- Mehmet Scholl, retired footballer for Bayern and the German national team
- Muhammed Suiçmez, guitarist and composer for German technical death metal band Necrophagist was born in Karlsruhe on November 23, 1975.
- Johann Gottfried Tulla, born on March 20, 1770, in Karlsruhe and died on March 27, 1828, in Paris. Tulla studied engineering at the Mining Academy in Freiberg (Saxony) during the 1790s. From 1817 on, Tulla was instrumental in stabilizing and straightening the course of the southern Rhine River, a project that continued until 1879. Tulla was also a co-founder of the Technical University in Karlsruhe (1825)
- Friedrich Weinbrenner, (1766–1826) a German architect of Neoclassicism. His tomb is situated in the main Protestant church in Karlsruhe.
- Eugene Weingand (1934–1986), actor and TV host, who claimed to be Peter Lorre Jr.
- Herbert Wetterauer, an author and artist, was born in Karlsruhe in 1957.
Karlsruhe is a renowned research and study centre, with one of Germany's finest institutions of higher education.
Technology, engineering, and businessEdit
The Karlsruhe University (Universität Karlsruhe-TH) is the oldest technical university in Germany as well as the home of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Research Center Karlsruhe), at which engineering and scientific research is performed in the areas of health, earth, and environmental sciences. The Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Karlsruhe-HS) is the largest university of technology in the state of Baden-Württemberg, offering both professional and academic education in engineering sciences and business. On October 1, 2009, the University of Karlsruhe joined the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe to form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
The State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe is one of the smallest universities in Germany with average 300 students, but it is known as one of the most significant Academies of Fine Arts. The Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design (HfG) was founded to the same time as its sister institution, the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie). The HfG teaching and research focuses on new media and media art. The Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe is a music conservatory which offers degrees in composition, music performance, education, and radio journalism. Since 1989 it has located in the Gottesaue Palace (see picture).
The Karlshochschule International University (formerly known as Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule) was founded in 2004. As a foundation owned state approved Management School Karlshochschule offers undergraduate education in both German and English focusing on international and intercultural management as well as service- and culture-related industries. Furthermore an international consecutive Master of Arts (postgraduate) in leadership studies is offered in English.
European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)Edit
Karlsruhe hosts one of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology's Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs) focusing on sustainable energy. Other co‑centres are based in Grenoble, France (CC Alps Valleys); Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and Leuven, Belgium (CC Benelux); Barcelona, Spain (CC Iberia); Kraków, Poland (CC PolandPlus); and Stockholm, Sweden (CC Sweden).
In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for Art and Media) was opened. Within a short time it built up a worldwide reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory and practice, the ZKM is located in a former weapons factory. Among the institutes related to the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung (State University of Design), whose president is philosopher Peter Sloterdijk and the Museum for Contemporary Art.
Twin towns / Sister citiesEdit
- Nottingham, England, United Kingdom
- Nancy, France
- Krasnodar, Russia
- Timişoara, Romania
- Halle, Germany
Every year in July there is a large open air festival lasting three days called Das Fest ("The Festival").
The Baden State Theatre has sponsored the Händel festival since 1978.
The city hosted the 23rd and 31st European Juggling Conventions (EJC) in 2000 and 2008.
In July the African Summer Festival is held in the city's Nordstadt. Markets, drumming workshops, exhibitions, a varied children's programme, and musical performances take place during the three days festival.
Visitors and locals watched the total solar eclipse at noon on August 11, 1999. The city was not only located within the eclipse path but was one of the few within Germany not plagued by bad weather.
Tennis TC Rueppurr (TCR), [Tennis-Bundesliga] (women's first division)
Baseball and Softball Karlsruhe Cougars, Regional League South-East (men's baseball), 1st Bundesliga South (women's softball I) and State League South (women's softball II)
American Football Badener Greifs, currently competing in the Regional League Central but formerly a member of the GFL's 1st Bundesliga, lost to the Berlin Adler in the 1987 German Bowl (see also: German Football League)
- ^ History of the German Reichsgericht http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsgericht
- ^ Karlsruhe considers itself the Residence of the Law http://ka.stadtwiki.net/Residenz_des_Rechts
- ^ V. C. Ihle, Karlsruhe und die USA (and the United States), p. 15.
- ^ Rashid Bin Muhammad. "Karlsruhe-Metric Voronoi Diagram". Personal.kent.edu. http://www.personal.kent.edu/~rmuhamma/Compgeometry/MyCG/CG-Applets/VoroKarlsruhe/karlcli.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
- ^ http://www.wetter.im-licht-der-natur.de/Wetterstation.htm
- ^ "Karlsruhe historic weather averages". Intellicast. http://www.intellicast.com/Local/History.aspx?location=GMXX0063. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- ^ "U.S. Military Installations". Stadtwiki Karlsruhe. http://en.ka.stadtwiki.net/U.S._Military_Installations. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- ^ Elkins, Walter. "U.S. Army Installations - Karlsruhe". U.S. Army in Germany. http://www.usarmygermany.com/Sont.htm?http&&&www.usarmygermany.com/USAREUR_City_Karlsruhe.htm. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- ^ Staatliche Majolika Manufaktur Karlsruhe GmbH. "Majolika-Manufaktur". Majolika-karlsruhe.com. http://www.majolika-karlsruhe.com/. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
- ^ Stadt Karlsruhe Stadtarchiv (ed.): Karlsruhe. Die Stadtgeschichte. Badenia, Karlsruhe 1998, ISBN 3-7617-0353-8, p. 591–594
- ^ http://www.chabad.org/centers/default.asp?AID=118668
- ^ http://www.alemannia-judaica.de/images/Images%2021/ka%20syn.jpg
- ^ "Karlsruhe condolence book". Karlsruhe.de. 2006-12-20. http://www.karlsruhe.de/kultur/stadtgeschichte/gedenkbuch.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
- ^ a b c d e Dr. Bräunche, Ernst Otto; Dr. Koch, Manfred (2003-11-17). "Kurze Karlsruher Stadtgeschichte" (in German). Stadtarchiv & Historische Museen. Stadt Karlsruhe. http://www.karlsruhe.de/kultur/stadtgeschichte/stadtarchiv/kurzestadtgeschichte.de. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- ^ "Eingliederung ehemals selbständiger Gemeinden" (in German). Amt für Stadtentwicklung. Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-06-07. http://www1.karlsruhe.de/Stadtentwicklung/afsta/Statistik/Index.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- ^ http://eit.europa.eu/fileadmin/Content/Downloads/PDF/news_items/Summary_InnoEnergy.pdf
- ^ "Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-12-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20100724221530/http://www.karlsruhe.de/stadt/international/partnerstaedte.de. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- ^ "das FEST" (in German). http://www.dasfest.net/. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- ^ "Karlsruhe Afrikamarkt & Festival 2011". Africansummerfestival.de. http://www.africansummerfestival.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
- ^ http://lac.zkm.de/
- Map of Karlsruhe
- List of English websites
- Official website (in German)
- City wiki of Karlsruhe (English and German)
- Karlsruhe travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Karlsruhe. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|