Jonathan Trumbull, Sr. (October 12, 1710 – August 17, 1785) (the original spelling, "Trumble", was changed for an unknown reason) was one of the few Americans who served as governor in both a pre-Revolutionary colony and a post-Revolutionary state. During the American Revolution he was one of a very few colonial governors who supported the American side.
Trumbull College at Yale, the town of Trumbull, Connecticut, Trumbull County, Ohio, once part of the Connecticut Western Reserve and the mascot of The University of Connecticut, is named "Jonathan" in his honor.
Trumbull was born in Lebanon, Connecticut, the son of Joseph Trumbull (1678–1755) and his wife née Hannah Higley. He graduated from Harvard College with a B.A. in 1727; three years after graduation, during which time he studied theology under the Rev. Solomon Williams at Lebanon, and was licensed to preach at Colchester, Connecticut, this became a Master of Arts degree. He became a merchant with his father in 1731, participating more fully in the business after the death of his brother at sea in 1732. From 1733-1740, he was a delegate to the general assembly, and, in 1739-40, was Speaker of the House. He was appointed lieutenant colonel in Connecticut's militia in 1739.
He married, on December 9, 1735, Faith Robinson (1718–1780), daughter of Rev. John Robinson. They were the parents of six children including:
- Joseph Trumbull (1737–1778), first commissary general of the Continental Army and an early member of the Board of War.
- Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (1740–1809), Aide-de-camp to General George Washington from 1781 to the end of the war; Governor of Connecticut 1798-1809
- Faith Trumbull (1743–1775), who married General Jedidiah Huntington
- Mary Trumbull (1745–1831), who married William Williams, signer of the Declaration of Independence
- David Trumbull (1751–1822), commissary of the Colony of Connecticut
- John Trumbull (1756–1843), "Painter of the American Revolution"; aide-de-camp of General George Washington for 19 days in 1775.
British General Thomas Gage arrived in Boston, a city with a history of violent protests against British policies, on May 13, 1774. Given the problems he was inheriting from Royal Governor Thomas Hutchinson, within a week of arriving Gage contacted Trumbull and expressed a "readiness to cooperate" with him "for the good of his Majesty's service." When Gage sent Trumbull a request for assistance after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Trumbull refused and made clear his choice to side with the Patriots. He replied that Gage's troops would "disgrace even barbarians," and he accused Gage of "a most unprovoked attack upon the lives and the property of his Majesty's subjects."
Trumbull was a friend and advisor of General Washington throughout the revolutionary period, dedicating the resources of Connecticut to the fight for independence. Washington declared him "the first of the patriots." When Washington was desperate for men or food during the war, he could turn to "Brother Jonathan." He also served as the Continental Army's Paymaster General (Northern Department) in the spring of 1778, until the untimely death of his mother forced him to resign his post. As part of his resignation, he requested that the remainder of his back pay be distributed to the soldiers of the Northern Department.
- Phelps, M. William (2008). Nathan Hale: The Life and Death of America's First Spy, St. Martin's Press.
- Lefkowitz, Arthur S.(2003). George Washington's Indispensable Men: The 32 Aides-de-Camp Who Helped Win the Revolution, Stackpole Books.
- Rose, Alexander (2006). Washington's Spies: The Story of America's First Spy Ring, Bantam Books.
- Biography, genealogy, chronology and bibliography
- Governor Jonathan Trumbull House and Wadsworth Stable
- Connecticut State Library
- The USGenWeb Project, Fairfield County
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Trumbull, Jonathan". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
William Pitkin (Colonial Governor)
| Governor of Connecticut|
| Succeeded by|
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