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{{tabs person }}
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{{about|the politician and second president of the United States||John Adams (disambiguation)}}
{{Otherpeople}}
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{{Infobox Officeholder
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|name = John Adams
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|image = Johnadamsvp.flipped.jpg
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|imagesize = 245px
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|alt = A painted portrait of a man with greying hair, looking left.
  +
|office = [[List of Presidents of the United States|2nd]] [[President of the United States]]
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|vicepresident = [[Thomas Jefferson]]
  +
|term_start = March 4, 1797
  +
|term_end = March 4, 1801
  +
|predecessor = [[George Washington]]
  +
|successor = [[Thomas Jefferson]]
  +
|office2 = [[List of Vice Presidents of the United States|1st]] [[Vice President of the United States]]
  +
|president2 = [[George Washington]]
  +
|term_start2 = April 21, 1789*
  +
|term_end2 = March 4, 1797
  +
|successor2 = [[Thomas Jefferson]]
  +
|ambassador_from3 = United States
  +
|country3 = Great Britain
  +
|appointed3 = [[Congress of the Confederation]]
  +
|term_start3 = April 1, 1785
  +
|term_end3 = March 30, 1788
  +
|predecessor3 = Position established
  +
|successor3 = [[Thomas Pinckney]]
  +
|ambassador_from4 = United States
  +
|country4 = the Netherlands
  +
|appointed4 = [[Congress of the Confederation]]
  +
|term_start4 = April 19, 1782
  +
|term_end4 = March 30, 1788
  +
|predecessor4 = Position established
  +
|successor4 = [[Charles W. F. Dumas|Charles Dumas]] <small>(Acting)</small>
  +
|office5 = Delegate from [[Massachusetts]] to the [[Second Continental Congress]]
  +
|alongside5 =
  +
|term_start5 = May 10, 1775
  +
|term_end5 = June 27, 1778
  +
|predecessor5 = None
  +
|successor5 = [[Samuel Holten]]
  +
|office6 = Delegate from [[Province of Massachusetts Bay|Massachusetts Bay]] to the [[First Continental Congress]]
  +
|term_start6 = September 5, 1774
  +
|term_end6 = October 26, 1774
  +
|predecessor6 = None
  +
|successor6 = None
  +
|birth_date = {{birth date|1735|10|30}}
  +
|birth_place = [[Braintree, Massachusetts|Braintree]] [[Province of Massachusetts Bay|Massachusetts Bay]] <small>(now [[Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy]])</small>, [[British America]]
  +
|death_date = {{death date and age|1826|7|4|1735|10|30}}
  +
|death_place = [[Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy]], [[Massachusetts]], [[United States]]
  +
|party = [[Federalist Party]]
  +
|spouse = [[Abigail Adams|Abigail Smith]]
  +
|children = [[Abigail Adams Smith|Nabby]]<br>[[John Quincy Adams|John Quincy]]<br>[[Susanna Adams|Susanna]]<br>[[Charles Adams (1770–1800)|Charles]]<br>[[Thomas Boylston Adams|Thomas]]<br>Elizabeth <small>(Stillborn)</small>
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|alma_mater = [[Harvard College|Harvard University]]
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|profession = [[Lawyer]]
  +
|religion = [[Unitarianism]]
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|signature = John Adams Sig 2.svg
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|signature_alt = Cursive signature in ink
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|footnotes = *Adams' term as Vice President is sometimes listed as starting on either March 4 or April 6. March 4 is the official start of the first vice presidential term. April 6 is the date on which Congress counted the electoral votes and certified a Vice President. April 21 is the date on which Adams began presiding over the U.S. Senate.
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}}
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'''John Adams''' (October 30, 1735&nbsp;– July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the [[List of Presidents of the United States|second]] [[President of the United States]] (1797–1801). Hailing from [[New England]], Adams, a prominent lawyer and public figure in [[Boston]], was highly educated and represented [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]] values promoting [[Republicanism in the United States|republicanism]]. A [[Federalist Party|Federalist]], he was one of the most influential [[Founding Fathers of the United States]].
   
{{Infobox_President | name=John Adams
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Adams came to prominence in the early stages of the [[American Revolution]]. As a delegate from [[Massachusetts Bay Colony|Massachusetts]] to the [[Continental Congress]], he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence, and assisted [[Thomas Jefferson]] in drafting the [[United States Declaration of Independence]] in 1776. As a representative of Congress in Europe, he was a major negotiator of the eventual [[Treaty of Paris (1783)|peace treaty]] with [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]], and chiefly responsible for obtaining important loans from [[Amsterdam]] bankers. A political theorist and historian, Adams largely wrote the [[Massachusetts state constitution]] in 1780, but was in [[Europe]] when the federal Constitution was drafted on similar principles later in the decade. One of his greatest roles was as a judge of character: in 1775, he nominated [[George Washington]] to be [[commander-in-chief]], and 25 years later nominated [[John Marshall]] to be [[Chief Justice of the United States]].
| image=Johnadamsvp.flipped.jpg
 
| order=2<sup>nd</sup> {{wp|President of the United States}}
 
| term_start={{wp|March 4}}, {{wp|1797}}
 
| term_end={{wp|March 4}}, {{wp|1801}}
 
| predecessor={{wp|George Washington}}
 
| successor={{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}
 
| birth_date={{birth date|1735|10|30|mf=y}}
 
| birth_place={{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy}}, {{wp|Massachusetts}}
 
| death_date={{death date and age|1826|07|4|1735|10|30}}
 
| death_place={{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy}}, {{wp|Massachusetts}}
 
| spouse={{wp|Abigail Adams|Abigail Smith Adams}}
 
| occupation={{wp|Lawyer}}
 
| alma_mater={{wp|Harvard College}}
 
| children = Abigail Jr. (Nabby), {{wp|John Quincy Adams}}, Susanna, Charles, Thomas
 
| party={{wp|United States Federalist Party|Federalist}}
 
| vicepresident={{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}
 
| religion={{wp|Unitarian}}
 
| signature=John Adams Signature.png
 
| order2=1<sup>st</sup> {{wp|Vice President of the United States}}
 
| term_start2={{wp|April 21}}, {{wp|1789}}
 
| term_end2={{wp|March 4}}, {{wp|1797}}
 
| president2={{wp|George Washington}}
 
| predecessor2=None
 
| successor2={{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}
 
|}}
 
   
'''John Adams''' ({{wp|October 30}},{{wp|1735}} &ndash; {{wp|July 4}}, {{wp|1826}}) served as America's first {{wp|Vice President of the United States|Vice President}} (1789&ndash;1797) and as its second {{wp|President of the United States|President}} (1797&ndash;1801). He was {{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1800|defeated for re-election}} in the "{{wp|United States presidential election, 1800|Revolution of 1800}}" by {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}. Adams was also the first President to reside in the newly built {{wp|White House}} in {{wp|Washington, D.C.}}, which was completed in {{wp|1800}}.
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Adams' revolutionary credentials secured him two terms as [[George Washington]]'s vice president and his own election in 1796 as the second president. During his one term, he encountered ferocious attacks by the [[Democratic-Republican Party|Jeffersonian Republicans]], as well as the dominant faction in his own [[Federalist Party]] led by his bitter enemy [[Alexander Hamilton]]. Adams signed the controversial [[Alien and Sedition Acts]], and built up the army and navy especially in the face of an undeclared naval war (called the "[[Quasi War]]") with [[France]], 1798–1800. The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition.
   
Adams, a sponsor of the {{wp|American Revolution}} in {{wp|Massachusetts}}, was a driving force for independence in 1776; Jefferson called him the "Colossus of Independence". He represented the {{wp|Continental Congress}} in Europe. He was a major negotiator of the eventual {{wp|Treaty of Paris (1783)|peace treaty}} with Great Britain, and chiefly responsible for obtaining the loans from the Amsterdam money market necessary for the conduct of the Revolution. His prestige secured his two elections as Washington's Vice President and his election to succeed him. As President, he was frustrated by battles inside his own {{wp|United States Federalist Party|Federalist}} party against a faction led by {{wp|Alexander Hamilton}}, but he broke with them to avert a major conflict with {{wp|France}} in 1798, during the {{wp|Quasi-War}} crisis. He became the founder of an important family of politicians, diplomats and historians, and {{wp|Historical rankings of United States Presidents|in recent years his reputation has improved}}.
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In 1800 Adams was defeated for reelection by [[Thomas Jefferson]] and retired to Massachusetts. He later resumed his friendship with Jefferson. He and his wife, [[Abigail Adams]], founded an accomplished family line of politicians, diplomats, and historians now referred to as the [[Adams political family]]. Adams was the father of [[John Quincy Adams]], the [[List of Presidents of the United States|sixth]] President of the United States. His achievements have received [[Historical rankings of United States Presidents|greater recognition]] in modern times, though his contributions were not initially as celebrated as those of other Founders.
   
 
==Early life==
 
==Early life==
[[Image:John Adams birthplace, Quincy, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|right|260px|{{wp|John Adams birthplace (Quincy, Massachusetts)|Birthplace of John Adams}}, {{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts}}.]]
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John Adams, Jr., the eldest of three sons,<ref>From David McCullough, ''John Adams'', the middle brother was Peter and the youngest Elihu, who died of illness during the siege of Boston in 1775.</ref> was born on October 30, 1735 (October 19, 1735 Old Style, [[Julian calendar]]), in what is now [[Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy]], Massachusetts (then called the "north precinct" of [[Braintree, Massachusetts|Braintree]], Massachusetts), to [[John Adams, Sr]]., and [[Susanna Boylston]] Adams.<ref>[[Chambers Biographical Dictionary]], ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 8</ref> The location of Adams's birth is now part of [[Adams National Historical Park]]. His father, also named John (1691–1761), was a fifth-generation descendant of Henry Adams, who emigrated from [[Braintree, England|Braintree]], Essex, in England to [[Massachusetts Bay Colony]] in about 1638. His father was a farmer, a [[Congregationalist]] (that is, [[Puritan]]) [[deacon]], a lieutenant in the militia and a selectman, or town councilman, who supervised schools and roads. His mother, Susanna Boylston Adams,<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 1</ref> was a descendant of the Boylstons of Brookline.
John Adams was the oldest and one of the most of three brothers, born on October 30, 1735 (October 19, 1735 by the Old Style, {{wp|Julian calendar}}), in {{wp|Braintree, Massachusetts}}, though in an area which became part of {{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts}} in 1792. His birthplace is now part of {{wp|Adams National Historical Park}}. His father, a farmer, also named John (1690-1761), was a fourth-generation descendant of Henry Adams, who immigrated from {{wp|Barton St David}}, {{wp|Somerset|Somerset, England}}, to {{wp|Massachusetts Bay Colony}} in about 1636. His mother was Susanna Boylston Adams.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 1</ref>
 
   
Young Adams went to {{wp|Harvard College}} at age sixteen (in 1751).<ref>MSN Encarta, John Adams</ref> His father expected him to become a minister, but Adams had doubts. After graduating in 1755, he taught school for a few years in {{wp|Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester}}, allowing himself time to think about his career choice. After much reflection, he decided to become a lawyer, and studied law in the office of James Putnam, a prominent lawyer in Worcester. In 1758, he was admitted to the bar. From an early age, he developed the habit of writing descriptions of events and impressions of men. These litter his diary. He put the skill to good use as a lawyer, often recording cases he observed so that he could study and reflect upon them. His report of the 1761 argument of {{wp|James Otis}} in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the legality of {{wp|Writ of Assistance|Writs of Assistance}} is a good example. Otis’s argument inspired Adams with zeal for the cause of the American colonies.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 2</ref>
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Adams was born to a modest family, but he felt acutely the responsibility of living up to his family heritage: the founding generation of Puritans, who came to the American wilderness in the 1630s and established colonial presence in America. The Puritans of the great migration "believed they lived in the Bible. England under the [[House of Stuart|Stuarts]] was Egypt; they were Israel fleeing ... to establish a refuge for godliness, a city upon a hill."<ref>Brookhiser, Richard. America's First Dynasty. The Adamses, 1735–1918. The Free Press, 2002, p.13</ref> By the time of John Adams's birth in 1735, Puritan tenets such as predestination were no longer as widely accepted, and many of their stricter practices had mellowed with time, but John Adams "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." It was a value system he believed in, and a heroic model he wished to live up to.<ref>ibid, p. 13</ref>
   
In 1764, Adams married {{wp|Abigail Adams|Abigail Smith}} (1744–1818), the daughter of a {{wp|Congregationalism|Congregational}} minister, at {{wp|Weymouth, Massachusetts}}. Their children were {{wp|Abigail Adams Smith|Abigail}} (1765-1813); future president {{wp|John Quincy Adams|John Quincy}} (1767-1848); {{wp|Susanna Adams|Susanna}} (1768–1770); {{wp|Charles Adams (1770-1800)|Charles}} (1770-1800); {{wp|Thomas Boylston Adams|Thomas Boylston}} (1772-1832); and Elizabeth (1775) who died at birth.
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Young Adams went to [[Harvard College]] at age sixteen in 1751.<ref>[http://www.johnadamslibrary.org/explore/jaltimeline/colonialyouth/ Timeline:Education and the Law]&nbsp;– The John Adams Library</ref> His father expected him to become a minister, but Adams had doubts. After graduating in 1755, he taught school for a few years in [[Worcester, Massachusetts|Worcester]], allowing himself time to think about his career choice. After much reflection, he decided to become a lawyer and studied law in the office of John Putnam, a prominent lawyer in Worcester. In 1758, Adams was admitted to the bar. From an early age, he developed the habit of writing descriptions of events and impressions of men which are scattered through his diary. He put the skill to good use as a lawyer, often recording cases he observed so that he could study and reflect upon them. His report of the 1761 argument of [[James Otis, Jr.|James Otis]] in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the legality of [[Writ of Assistance|Writs of Assistance]] is a good example. Otis's argument inspired Adams with zeal for the cause of the American colonies.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 2</ref>
   
Adams was not a popular leader like his second cousin, {{wp|Samuel Adams}}; instead, his influence emerged through his work as a constitutional lawyer and his intense analysis of historical examples,<ref>Ferling (1992) p 117</ref> together with his thorough knowledge of the law and his dedication to the principles of {{wp|republicanism}}. Adams often found his inborn contentiousness to be a restraint in his political career.
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On October 25, 1764, five days before his 29th birthday, Adams married [[Abigail Adams|Abigail Smith]] (1744–1818), his third cousin<ref>[http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=197 This Day in History in 1828], ''www.history.com''. Retrieved 3-13-2008.</ref> and the daughter of a [[Congregational church|Congregational]] minister, Rev. William Smith, at [[Weymouth, Massachusetts]]. Their children were [[Abigail Adams Smith|Abigail]] (1765–1813); future president [[John Quincy Adams|John Quincy]] (1767–1848); Susanna (1768–1770); [[Charles Adams (1770–1800)|Charles]] (1770–1800); [[Thomas Boylston Adams|Thomas Boylston]] (1772–1832); and the [[stillbirth|stillborn]] Elizabeth (1777).
   
Adams wanted to secure approval from the people, and he saw his chance in the British/colonial conflict. He became well known for his essays and energetic resolutions against British taxation and regulation. In 1774 Massachusetts sent him to the {{wp|Continental Congress}}. In 1775 war broke out between the colonies and Great Britain. Adams was one of the first few delegates to recognize that a compromise with the British was pointless. In 1776 he worked hard to break away from Britain by using a formal declaration of independence. On July 2, 1776 Congress voted for the resolution, "these colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states." Two days later, they passed the {{wp|United States Declaration of Independence|Declaration of Independence}}.
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Adams was not a popular leader like his second cousin, [[Samuel Adams]]. Instead, his influence emerged through his work as a constitutional lawyer and his intense analysis of historical examples,<ref>Ferling (1992) p 117</ref> together with his thorough knowledge of the law and his dedication to the principles of [[republicanism]]. Adams often found his inborn contentiousness to be a constraint in his political career.
   
== Politics ==
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==Career before the Revolution==
[[Image:johna.jpg|frame|left|]]
 
 
===Opponent of Stamp Act 1765===
 
===Opponent of Stamp Act 1765===
Adams first rose to prominence as an opponent of the {{wp|Stamp Act 1765|Stamp Act}} of 1765. In that year, he drafted the instructions which were sent by the inhabitants of {{wp|Braintree, Massachusetts|Braintree}} to its representatives in the Massachusetts legislature, and which served as a model for other towns to draw up instructions to their representatives. In August 1765, he anonymously contributed four notable articles to the {{wp|Boston Gazette}} (republished in ''The London Chronicle'' in 1768 as ''True Sentiments of America'' and also known as ''A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law''). In the letter he suggested that there was a connection between the Protestant ideas that Adams' Puritan ancestors brought to New England and the ideas that suggested they resist the Stamp Act. In the former he explained that the opposition of the colonies to the {{wp|Stamp Act}} was because the Stamp Act deprived the American colonists of two basic rights guaranteed to all Englishmen, and which all free men deserved: rights to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one's peers. The "Braintree Instructions" were a succinct and forthright defense of colonial rights and liberties, while the Dissertation was an essay in political education.
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Adams first rose to prominence as an opponent of the [[Stamp Act of 1765]], which was imposed by the British Parliament without consulting the American legislatures. Americans protested vehemently that it violated their traditional rights as Englishmen. Popular resistance, he later observed, was sparked by an oft-reprinted sermon of the Boston minister, [[Jonathan Mayhew]], interpreting [[Epistle to the Romans|Romans 13]] to elucidate the principle of just insurrection.<ref>Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, "Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-resistance to the Higher Powers," January 30, 1750. On Adams's attribution to Rev. Mayhew refer to the [http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=905 TeachingAmericanHistory.org]</ref>
   
In December 1765, he delivered a speech before the governor and council in which he pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts, being without representation in Parliament, had not assented to it.<ref> Ferling (1992) pp 53-63</ref>
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In 1765, Adams drafted the instructions which were sent by the inhabitants of [[Braintree, Massachusetts|Braintree]] to its representatives in the Massachusetts legislature, and which served as a model for other towns to draw up instructions to their representatives. In August 1765, he anonymously contributed four notable articles to the [[Boston Gazette]] (republished in ''The London Chronicle'' in 1768 as ''True Sentiments of America'', also known as ''A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law''). In the letter he suggested that there was a connection between the Protestant ideas that Adams's Puritan ancestors brought to New England and the ideas behind their resistance to the Stamp Act. In the former he explained that the opposition of the colonies to the [[Stamp Act]] was because the Stamp Act deprived the American colonists of two basic rights guaranteed to all Englishmen, and which all free men deserved: rights to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one's peers.
   
===Boston Massacre: 1770===
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The "[[Braintree Instructions]]" were a succinct and forthright defense of colonial rights and liberties, while the Dissertation was an essay in political education.
In 1770, a street confrontation resulted in {{wp|29th Regiment of Foot|British soldiers}} killing five civilians in what became known as the {{wp|Boston Massacre}}. The soldiers involved, who were arrested on criminal charges, had trouble finding legal counsel. Finally, they asked Adams to defend them. Although he feared it would hurt his reputation, he agreed. One of the soldiers, Captain {{wp|Thomas Preston (British army officer)|Thomas Preston}} gave Adams a symbolic "single guinea" as a retaining fee,<ref>Chinard, John Adams, 58-60</ref> the only fee he received in the case. Or, as stated in the biography of John Adams by David McCullough, Adams received nothing more than a retainer of eighteen guineas.<ref>McCullough, John Adams, pg. 66</ref>
 
   
Six of the soldiers were acquitted. Two who had fired directly into the crowd were charged with {{wp|murder}} but were convicted only of {{wp|manslaughter}}.
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In December 1765, he delivered a speech before the governor and council in which he pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts, being without representation in Parliament, had not assented to it.<ref>Ferling (1992) pp 53–63</ref>
   
Despite his previous misgivings, Adams was elected to the {{wp|Massachusetts General Court}} (the colonial legislature) in June of 1770, while still in preparation for the trial.<ref>{{cite web| title =John Adams, 1st Vice President (1789-1797)| publisher ={{wp|United States Senate}}| url =http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_John_Adams.htm| accessdate = 2007-08-01 }}</ref>
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===Boston Massacre===
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In 1770, a street confrontation resulted in [[29th Regiment of Foot|British soldiers]] killing five civilians in what became known as the [[Boston Massacre]].<ref>Zobel, ''The Boston Massacre,'' (1970), 199–200.</ref> The soldiers involved were arrested on criminal charges. Not surprisingly, they had trouble finding legal counsel to represent them. Finally, they asked Adams to defend. He accepted, though he feared it would hurt his reputation. In their defense, Adams made his now famous quote regarding making decisions based on the evidence "Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence."<ref>{{cite book |title='Argument in Defense of the Soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trials' |date=December 1770|version=John Adams}}</ref> Six of the soldiers were acquitted. Two who had fired directly into the crowd were charged with murder but were convicted only of manslaughter. Adams was paid eighteen guineas by the British soldiers, or about the cost of a pair of shoes.<ref>John E. Ferling, ''Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution'' (2002) p. 77</ref>
   
==Dispute concerning Parliament's authority==
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Despite his previous misgivings, Adams was elected to the [[Massachusetts General Court]] (the colonial legislature) in June 1770, while still in preparation for the trial.<ref>{{cite web|title=John Adams, 1st Vice President (1789–1797)|publisher=[[United States Senate]]|url=http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_John_Adams.htm|accessdate=August 1, 2007 }}</ref>
   
In 1772, Massachusetts Governor {{wp|Thomas Hutchinson}} announced that he and his judges would no longer need their salaries paid by the Massachusetts legislature, because the Crown would henceforth assume payment drawn from customs revenues. Boston radicals protested and asked Adams to explain their objections. In "Two Replies of the Massachusetts House of Representatives to Governor Hutchinson" Adams argued that the colonists had never been under the sovereignty of Parliament. Their original charter was with the person of the king and their allegiance was only to him. If a workable line could not be drawn between parliamentary sovereignty and the total independence of the colonies, he continued, the colonies would have no other choice but to choose independence.
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===Dispute concerning Parliament's authority===
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In 1772, Massachusetts Governor [[Thomas Hutchinson (governor)|Thomas Hutchinson]] announced that he and his judges would no longer need their salaries paid by the Massachusetts legislature, because the Crown would henceforth assume payment drawn from customs revenues. Boston radicals protested and asked Adams to explain their objections. In "Two Replies of the Massachusetts House of Representatives to Governor Hutchinson" Adams argued that the colonists had never been under the sovereignty of Parliament. Their original charter was with the person of the king and their allegiance was only to him. If a workable line could not be drawn between parliamentary sovereignty and the total independence of the colonies, he continued, the colonies would have no other choice but to choose independence.
   
In ''Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin, in 1754, to the Present Time'' Adams attacked some essays by {{wp|Daniel Leonard}} that defended Hutchinson's arguments for the absolute authority of Parliament over the colonies. In ''Novanglus'' Adams gave a point-by-point refutation of Leonard's essays, and then provided one of the most extensive and learned arguments made by the colonists against British imperial policy. It was a systematic attempt by Adams to describe the origins, nature, and jurisdiction of the unwritten British constitution. Adams used his wide knowledge of English and colonial legal history to show the provincial legislatures were fully sovereign over their own internal affairs, and that the colonies were connected to Great Britain only through the King.
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In ''Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin, in 1754, to the Present Time'' Adams attacked some essays by [[Daniel Leonard]] that defended Hutchinson's arguments for the absolute authority of Parliament over the colonies. In ''Novanglus'' Adams gave a point-by-point refutation of Leonard's essays, and then provided one of the most extensive and learned arguments made by the colonists against British imperial policy.
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It was a systematic attempt by Adams to describe the origins, nature, and jurisdiction of the unwritten British constitution. Adams used his wide knowledge of English and colonial legal history to argue that the provincial legislatures were fully sovereign over their own internal affairs, and that the colonies were connected to Great Britain only through the King.
   
 
==Continental Congress==
 
==Continental Congress==
Massachusetts sent Adams to the first and second {{wp|Continental Congress}}es in 1774 and from 1775 to 1778.<ref> In 1775 he was also appointed the chief judge of the Massachusetts Superior Court.</ref> In June 1775, with a view of promoting the union of the colonies, he nominated {{wp|George Washington}} of Virginia as commander-in-chief of the {{wp|Continental Army|army}} then assembled around Boston. His influence in Congress was great, and almost from the beginning, he sought permanent separation from Britain. On {{wp|October 5}}, {{wp|1775}}, Congress created the first of a series of committees to study naval matters.<ref>{{cite news|author = Steve Bansbach|title = Reservists Honor the Father of the Navy|publisher = Navy NewsStand| date = {{wp|2005-11-02}}|url = http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=20855|accessdate = 2006-10-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title = John Adams 1735-1826: Second President, 1797-1801|publisher = {{wp|National Museum of American History}}|url = http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_663.html|accessdate = 2006-10-09}}</ref>
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Massachusetts sent Adams to the first and second [[Continental Congress]]es in 1774 and from 1775 to 1777.<ref>In 1775 he was also appointed the chief judge of the Massachusetts Superior Court.</ref> In June 1775, with a view of promoting union among the colonies, he nominated [[George Washington]] of Virginia as commander-in-chief of the [[Continental Army|army]] then assembled around Boston. His influence in Congress was great, and almost from the beginning, he sought permanent separation from Britain.
   
On {{wp|May 15}}, {{wp|1776}} the Continental Congress, in response to escalating hostilities which had climaxed a year prior at Lexington and Concord, urged that the states begin constructing their own constitutions.
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On May 15, 1776, the Continental Congress, in response to escalating hostilities which had started thirteen months earlier at the [[battles of Lexington and Concord]], urged that the colonies begin constructing their own constitutions, a precursor to becoming independent states. The resolution to draft independent constitutions was, as Adams put it, "independence itself."<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 8 p 146</ref>
   
[[Image:Declaration independence.jpg|thumb|right|300px|{{wp|John Trumbull}}'s famous painting depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress. John Adams is standing in the center of the painting.]]
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Over the next decade, Americans from every state gathered and deliberated on new governing documents. As radical as it was to write constitutions (prior convention suggested that a society's form of government needn't be codified, nor should its organic law be written down in a single document), what was equally radical was the nature of American political thought as the summer of 1776 dawned.<ref>Wood, ''The Radicalism of the American Revolution'' (1993)</ref>
Today, the Declaration of Independence is remembered as the great revolutionary act, but Adams and most of his contemporaries saw the Declaration as a mere formality. The resolution to draft independent constitutions was, as Adams put it, "independence itself."<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 8 p 146</ref>
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===Thoughts on Government===
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{{Quote box
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| quote = "The whole people must take upon themselves the education of the whole people and be willing to bear the expenses of it. There should not be a district of one mile square, without a school in it, not founded by a charitable individual, but maintained at the public expense of the people themselves."
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| source =&nbsp;– John Adams, 1785<ref>The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: With a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, Volume 9, by John Adams, Little, Brown, 1854, pg 540</ref>
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| width = 25%
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| align = right
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}}
   
Over the next decade, Americans from every state gathered and deliberated on new governing documents. As radical as it was to actually write constitutions (prior convention suggested that a society's form of government needn't be codified, nor should its organic law be written down in a single document), what was equally radical was the nature of American political thought as the summer of 1776 dawned.<ref> Wood, ''The Radicalism of the American Revolution'' (1993) </ref>
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Several representatives turned to Adams for advice about framing new governments. Adams got tired of repeating the same thing, and published the pamphlet "''[[Thoughts on Government]]''" (1776),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=snIvAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22Thoughts%20on%20Government%3A%20Applicable%20to%20the%20Present%20State%20of%20the%20American%20Colonies%22&pg=PA189#v=onepage&q=%22Thoughts%20on%20Government:%20Applicable%20to%20the%20Present%20State%20of%20the%20American%20Colonies%22&f=false |title="Thoughts on Government Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies," '&#39;The Works of John Adams'&#39; Volume IV, pages 189-200 (1851) |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref> which was subsequently influential in the writing of state constitutions.<ref>Ferling (1992) pp 155–7, 213–5</ref> Using the conceptual framework of [[Republicanism in the United States]], the patriots believed it was the corrupt and nefarious aristocrats, in the [[Parliament of Britain|British Parliament]], and their minions stationed in America, who were guilty of the British assault on American liberty.<ref>Ferling (1992) p. 452</ref>
   
==''Thoughts on Government''==
+
Adams advised that the form of government should be chosen to attain the desired ends, which are the happiness and virtue of the greatest number of people. With this goal in mind, he wrote in "''Thoughts on Government''",
At that time several Congressmen turned to Adams for advice about framing new governments. Adams tired of repeating the same thing, and published the pamphlet ''{{wp|Thoughts on Government}}'' (1776), which was subsequently influential in the writing of many state constitutions. Many historians argue that ''{{wp|Thoughts on Government}}'' should be read as an articulation of the classical theory of mixed government. Adams contended that social classes exist in every political society, and that a good government must accept that reality. For centuries, dating back to Aristotle, a mixed regime balancing monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy, or the monarch, nobles, and people was required to preserve order and liberty.<ref> Ferling (1992) pp 155-7, 213-5 </ref>
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{{quote|There is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the [[Constitution of the United Kingdom|British constitution]] is so; because the very definition of a republic is 'an empire of laws, and not of men.}}
  +
The treatise also defended [[bicameralism]], for "''a single assembly is liable to all the vices, follies, and frailties of an individual''."<ref>'Thoughts on Government", ''Works of John Adams,'' IV:195</ref> He also suggested that there should be a [[separation of powers]] between the [[executive]], the [[judicial]], and the [[legislative]] branches, and further recommended that if a continental government were to be formed then it "''should sacredly be confined''" to certain [[enumerated powers]]. "''Thoughts on Government''" was enormously influential and was referenced as an authority in every state-constitution writing hall.
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[[Image:Declaration independence.jpg|thumb|300px|left|[[Trumbull's Declaration of Independence]] depicts the five-man committee presenting the draft of the Declaration of Independence to Congress. Adams is seen standing in the center with his hand on his hip.|alt=depicts the five-man committee presenting the draft of the Declaration of Independence to Congress.]]
   
Using the tools of {{wp|Republicanism in the United States}} the patriots believed it was corrupt and nefarious aristocrats, in the {{wp|Parliament of England|English Parliament}} and stationed in America, who were guilty of the British assault on American liberty. Unlike others, Adams thought that the definition of a republic had to do with its ends, rather than its means. He wrote in ''{{wp|Thoughts on Government}}'', "there is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the {{wp|Constitution of the United Kingdom|British constitution}} is so; because the very definition of a republic is 'an empire of laws, and not of men.'" ''Thoughts on Government'' defended {{wp|bicameralism}}, for "a single assembly is liable to all the vices, follies, and frailties of an individual."<ref>Thoughts on Government, Works of John Adams, IV:195</ref> He also suggested that the executive should be independent, as should the judiciary. ''Thoughts on Government''' was enormously influential and was referenced as an authority in every state-constitution writing hall.
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===Declaration of Independence===
  +
On June 7, 1776, Adams seconded the [[resolution of independence]] introduced by [[Richard Henry Lee]] which stated, "These colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states," and championed the resolution until it was adopted by Congress on July 2, 1776.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 8.</ref>
   
==Declaration of Independence==
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He was appointed to a [[Committee of Five|committee]] with [[Thomas Jefferson]], [[Benjamin Franklin]], [[Robert Livingston (1746-1813)|Robert R. Livingston]] and [[Roger Sherman]], to draft a [[United States Declaration of Independence|Declaration of Independence]]. Although that document was written primarily by Jefferson, Adams occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption. Many years later, Jefferson hailed Adams as "the pillar of [the Declaration's] support on the floor of Congress, its <!-- Jefferson wrote "it's" --> ablest advocate and defender against the multifarious assaults it encountered."<ref>[http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php&title=807&search=%22to+William+P.+Gardner%22&chapter=88104&layout=html#a_2004946 TO WILLIAM P. GARDNER], Thomas Jefferson, ''The Works of Thomas Jefferson'', Federal Edition (New York and London, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1904-5). Vol. 11.</ref>
On {{wp|June 7}}, {{wp|1776}}, Adams seconded the resolution introduced by {{wp|Richard Henry Lee}} that "these colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states," acting as champion of these resolutions before the Congress until their adoption on {{wp|July 2}}, {{wp|1776}}.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 8. An 1813 letter by Adams, in which he said that one-third of the people supported the revolution, refers to the '''French''' revolution in the 1790s.[http://hnn.us/articles/5641.html]</ref>
 
   
He was appointed on a {{wp|Committee of Five|committee}} with {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}, {{wp|Benjamin Franklin}}, {{wp|Robert Livingston (1746-1813)|Robert R. Livingston}} and {{wp|Roger Sherman}}, to draft a {{wp|United States Declaration of Independence|Declaration of Independence}}. Although that document was largely drafted by Jefferson, Adams occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption. He deferred the writing to Jefferson believing it would be better received having been written by him. Adams believed Jefferson wrote profoundly better than any man in Congress, and he himself was "obnoxious and disliked." Many years later, Jefferson hailed Adams as, "The Colossus of that Congress&mdash;the great pillar of support to the Declaration of Independence, and its ablest advocate and champion on the floor of the House."<ref>Lipscomb & Bergh, eds. ''Writings of Thomas Jefferson'' (1903), vol 13, p xxiv</ref> In 1777, Adams resigned his seat on the Massachusetts Superior Court to serve as the head of the Board of War and Ordinance, as well as many other important committees.<ref> Marquis 1607-1896</ref>
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After the defeat of the [[Continental Army]] at the [[Battle of Long Island]] on August 27, 1776, [[General William Howe]] requested the Second Continental Congress send representatives [[Staten Island Peace Conference|to negotiate peace]]. A delegation including Adams and [[Benjamin Franklin]] met with Howe on [[Staten Island]] in [[New York Harbor]] on September 11, where Howe demanded the Declaration of Independence be rescinded before any other terms could be discussed. The delegation refused, and hostilities continued. In 1777, Adams resigned his seat on the Massachusetts Superior Court to serve as the head of the [[Board of War and Ordnance]], as well as many other important committees.<ref name="Marquis 1607-1896">{{cite book
[[Image:john adams stamp.JPG|right|thumb|John Adams, as depicted on a two-cent American president {{wp|postage stamp}}.]]
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|title=Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896
  +
|publisher=Marquis Who's Who
  +
|location=Chicago
  +
|year=1963}}</ref>
   
 
==In Europe==
 
==In Europe==
Congress chose Adams to represent the fledgling union in Europe in 1777, and again in 1779. On the second trip, he was appointed as {{wp|minister plenipotentiary}} charged with the mission of negotiating a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with Great Britain; he went to Europe in September 1779. The French government, however, did not approve of Adams’s appointment and subsequently, on the insistence of the French foreign minister, the {{wp|Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes|Comte de Vergennes}}, {{wp|Benjamin Franklin}}, {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}, {{wp|John Jay}} and {{wp|Henry Laurens}} were appointed to cooperate with Adams. In the event Jay, Adams and Franklin played the major part in the negotiations. Overruling Franklin, Jay and Adams decided not to consult with France; instead, they dealt directly with the British commissioners.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 11-12</ref>
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[[File:Passport John Adams Benjamin Franklin John Jay Ministers Plenipotentiary 1783.jpg|thumb|right|230px|[[Passport]] for [[Plenipotentiary|ministers plenipotentiary]] John Adams, [[Benjamin Franklin]], and [[John Jay]] for safe passage to negotiate treaties, 1783]]
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Congress twice dispatched Adams to represent the fledgling union in Europe, first in 1777, and again in 1779. Accompanied, on both occasions, by his eldest son, [[John Quincy Adams|John Quincy]] (who was ten years old at the time of the first voyage), Adams sailed for France aboard the [[Continental Navy]] [[frigate]] ''[[USS Boston (1777)|Boston]]'' on February 15, 1778. The trip through winter storms was treacherous, with lightning injuring 19 sailors and killing one. Adams' ship was then pursued by and successfully evaded several British frigates in the mid-Atlantic. Toward the coast of Spain, Adams himself took up arms to help capture a heavily armed British merchantman ship, the ''Martha''. Later, a cannon malfunction killed one and injured five more of Adams' crew before the ship finally arrived in France.<ref>John Adams by [[David McCullough]], Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, New York, 2001. Pg 180-187. ISBN 13:978-0-684-81363-9</ref>
   
Throughout the negotiations, Adams was especially determined that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the Atlantic coast should be recognized. The American negotiators were able to secure a favorable treaty, which gave Americans ownership of all lands east of the Mississippi, except Florida, which was transferred to Spain as its reward. The treaty was signed on November 30, 1782.
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Adams was in some regards an unlikely choice in as much as he did not speak French, the international language of diplomacy at the time.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/?id=E9TOxypjZY4C&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq=%22john+adams%22+%22speak+french%22 |title=McCullough, David. John Adams. pg 179 |publisher=Books.google.com |date=March 15, 2008 |accessdate=March 2, 2010|isbn=9780684813639}}</ref> His first stay in Europe, between April 1, 1778, and June 17, 1779, was largely unproductive, and he returned to his home in Braintree in early August 1779.
   
After these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time as the {{wp|ambassador}} in the {{wp|Netherlands}}, then the only other well-functioning Republic in the world. In July 1780, he had been authorized to execute the duties previously assigned to Laurens. With the aid of the Dutch patriot leader {{wp|Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol}}, Adams secured the recognition of the United States as an independent government at {{wp|The Hague}} on April 19, 1782.<ref>In February 1782 the {{wp|Friesland|Frisian}} states had been the first Dutch province to recognize the United States, while France had been the first European country to grant {{wp|diplomatic recognition}}, in 1778).</ref> During this visit, he also negotiated a loan of five million guilders. It was floated by {{wp|Nicolaas van Staphorst}} and {{wp|Wilhelm Willink}}.<ref>Up till 1794 a total of eleven loans were granted in Amsterdam to the United States with a value of 29 million guilders.</ref> In October 1782, a treaty of amity and commerce, the second such treaty between the United States and a foreign power (after the 1778 treaty with France). The house that Adams purchased during this stay in The Netherlands became the first American embassy on foreign soil anywhere in the world.
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Between September 1 and October 30, 1779, he drafted the [[Massachusetts Constitution]] together with [[Samuel Adams]] and [[James Bowdoin]]. He was selected in September 1779 to return to France and, following the conclusion of the Massachusetts constitutional convention, left on November 14th <ref>John Adams 1735-1784 - Vol I by Page Smith&nbsp;— pg.451 </ref> aboard the French frigate ''Sensible''.
   
In 1785, John Adams was appointed the first American minister to the {{wp|Court of St. James's}} (that is, ambassador to {{wp|Great Britain}}). When he was presented to his former sovereign, {{wp|George III of the United Kingdom|George III}}, the King intimated that he was aware of Adams's lack of confidence in the French government. Adams admitted this, stating: "I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country.
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On the second trip, Adams was appointed as [[Minister Plenipotentiary]] charged with the mission of negotiating a treaty of amity and commerce with <!-- "Britain" is correct, please do not change to "France" - see the cited material for reference. -->Britain. The French government, however, did not approve of Adams's appointment and subsequently, on the insistence of the French foreign minister, the [[Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes|Comte de Vergennes]], [[Benjamin Franklin]], [[Thomas Jefferson]], [[John Jay]] and [[Henry Laurens]] were appointed to cooperate with Adams, although Jefferson did not go to Europe and Laurens was posted to the [[Dutch Republic]]. In the event Jay, Adams, and Franklin played the major part in the negotiations. Overruling Franklin and distrustful of Vergennes, Jay and Adams decided not to consult with France. Instead, they dealt directly with the British commissioners.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 11–12</ref>
   
{{wp|Queen Elizabeth II}} of Great Britain referred to this episode in July 7, 1976 at the White House. She said, "John Adams, America's first Ambassador, said to my ancestor, King George III, that it was his desire to help with the restoration of "the old good nature and the old good humor between our peoples." That restoration has long been made, and the links of language, tradition, and personal contact have maintained it."<ref> See [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6193 http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6193].</ref>
+
Throughout the negotiations, Adams was especially determined that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the Atlantic coast should be recognized. The American negotiators were able to secure a favorable treaty, which gave Americans ownership of all lands east of the Mississippi, except [[East Florida|East]] and [[West Florida]], which were transferred to Spain. The treaty was signed on November 30, 1782.
   
==Constitutional ideas ==
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After these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time as the [[ambassador]] in the Dutch Republic, then one of the few other Republics in the world (the [[Republic of Venice]] and the [[Old Swiss Confederacy]] being the other notable ones). In July 1780, he had been authorized to execute the duties previously assigned to Laurens. With the aid of the Dutch [[Patriots (faction)|Patriot]] leader [[Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol]], Adams secured the recognition of the United States as an independent government at [[The Hague]] on April 19, 1782.<ref>In February 1782 the [[Friesland|Frisian]] states had been the first Dutch province to recognize the United States, while France had been the first European country to grant [[diplomatic recognition]], in 1778).</ref> During this visit, he also negotiated a loan of five million guilders financed by [[Nicolaas van Staphorst]] and [[Wilhelm Willink]].<ref>Up till 1794 a total of eleven loans were granted in Amsterdam to the United States with a value of 29&nbsp;million guilders.</ref> In October 1782, he negotiated with the Dutch a treaty of amity and commerce, the first such treaty between the United States and a foreign power following the 1778 treaty with France. The house that Adams bought during this stay in [[The Netherlands]] became the first American-owned embassy on foreign soil anywhere in the world.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://thehague.usembassy.gov/friendship_days2.html |title=Dutch American Friendship Day / Heritage Day&nbsp;– U.S. Embassy The Hague, Netherlands |publisher=Thehague.usembassy.gov |date=November 16, 1991 |accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</ref> For two months during 1783, Adams lodged in London with radical publisher [[John Stockdale]].<ref>{{cite book |title='Tis Treason, My Good Man! Four Revolutionary Presidents and a Piccadilly Bookshop |author=Stockdale, E. |isbn=0712306994 |year=2005 |publisher=The British Library |location=London |pages=''p.''148 }}</ref>
Massachusetts's new constitution, ratified in 1780 and written largely by Adams himself, structured its government most closely on his views of politics and society.<ref>Ronald M. Peters. ''The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: A Social Compact'' (1978) p 13 says Adams was its "principal architect."</ref> It was the first constitution written by a special committee and ratified by the people. It was also the first to feature a bicameral legislature, a clear and distinct executive with a partial (2/3) veto (although he was restrained by an executive council), and a distinct judicial branch.
 
   
While in London, Adams published a work entitled ''{{wp|A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States}}'' (1787)[http://www.constitution.org/jadams/ja1_00.htm]. In it he repudiated the views of {{wp|Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune|Turgot}} and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of state governments. Turgot argued that countries that lacked aristocracies needn't have bicameral legislatures. He thought that republican governments feature “all authorities into one center, that of the nation.”<ref>Turgot to Richard Price, March 22, 1778, in Works of John Adams, IV:279</ref> In the book, Adams suggested that "the rich, the well-born and the able" should be set apart from other men in a senate--that would prevent them from dominating the lower house. Wood (2006) has maintained that Adams had become intellectually irrelevant by the time the Federal Constitution was ratified. By then, American political thought, transformed by more than a decade of vigorous and searching debate as well as shaping experiential pressures, had abandoned the classical conception of politics which understood government as a mirror of social estates. Americans' new conception of {{wp|popular sovereignty}} now saw the people-at-large as the sole possessors of power in the realm. All agents of the government enjoyed mere portions of the people's power and only for a limited period of time. Adams had completely missed this concept and revealed his continued attachment to the older version of politics.<ref>Wood, ''Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different'' (2006) pp 173-202; see also Wood, ''The Radicalism of the American Revolution'' (1993).</ref> Yet Wood overlooks Adams' peculiar definition of the term "republic," and his support for a constitution ratified by the people.<ref>Thompson,1999</ref> He also underplays Adams' belief in checks and balances. "Power must be opposed to power, and interest to interest,” Adams wrote.<ref> Works of John Adams, IV:557</ref> Adams did as much as anyone to put the idea of "checks and balances" on the intellectual map.
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In 1784 and 1785, he was one of the architects of far-going trade relations between the [[US]] and [[Prussia]]. The Prussian ambassador in The Hague, [[Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer]], was involved, as were Jefferson and Franklin, who were in Paris.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/?id=dmgUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA218&lpg=PA218&dq=Thulemeier+Magdeburg |title=The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=March 2, 2010|year=1833}}</ref>
   
Adams never bought a slave and declined on principle to employ slave labor.<ref>Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery." ''New York History'' 2000 81(1): p 91-132. ISSN 0146-437X</ref> Abigail Adams opposed slavery and employed free blacks in preference to her father's two domestic slaves. He spoke out against a bill to emancipate slaves in Massachusetts, opposed use of black soldiers in the Revolution, and tried to keep the issue out of national politics.<ref> Ferling (1992) pp 172-3</ref>
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In 1785, John Adams was appointed the first American minister to the [[Court of St. James's]] (ambassador to [[Great Britain]]). When he was presented to his former sovereign, [[George III of the United Kingdom|George III]], the King intimated that he was aware of Adams's lack of confidence in the French government. Adams admitted this, stating: "I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country."
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  +
[[Queen Elizabeth II]] of the [[United Kingdom]] referred to this episode on July 7, 1976, at the [[White House]]. She said:
  +
  +
<blockquote>John Adams, America's first Ambassador, said to my ancestor, King George III, that it was his desire to help with the restoration of 'the old good nature and the old good humor between our peoples.' That restoration has long been made, and the links of language, tradition, and personal contact have maintained it.<ref>See [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6193 http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6193].</ref></blockquote>
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  +
While in London, John and Abigail had to suffer the stares and hostility of the Court, and chose to escape it when they could by seeking out [[Richard Price]], minister of [[Newington Green Unitarian Church]] and instigator of the [[Revolution Controversy]]. Both admired Price very much, and Abigail took to heart the teachings of the man and his protegee [[Mary Wollstonecraft]], author of ''[[A Vindication of the Rights of Woman]]''.<ref>{{cite book|last=Gordon|first=Lyndall|title=Vindication : a life of Mary Wollstonecraft|publisher=HarperCollins|location=New York|year=2005|pages=|chapter=Chapter 3: New Life at Newington|isbn=978-0060198022}}</ref>
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  +
Adams's home in England, a house off London's [[Grosvenor Square]], still stands and is commemorated by a plaque. He returned to the United States in 1788 to continue his domestic political life.
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  +
==Constitutional ideas==
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[[Image:john adams stamp.JPG|thumb|left|John Adams, as depicted on a two-cent American president [[U.S. Presidents on U.S. postage stamps|U.S.Postage stamp]]]]
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  +
[[Massachusetts Constitution|Massachusetts's new constitution]], ratified in 1780 and written largely by Adams himself, structured its government most closely on his views of politics and society.<ref>Ronald M. Peters. ''The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: A Social Compact'' (1978) p 13 says Adams was its "principal architect."</ref> It was the first constitution written by a special committee and ratified by the people. It was also the first to feature a bicameral legislature, a clear and distinct executive with a partial (two-thirds) veto (although he was restrained by an executive council), and a distinct judicial branch.
  +
  +
While in London, Adams published a work entitled ''[[A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States]]'' (1787).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.constitution.org/jadams/ja1_00.htm |title=John Adams: Defence of the Constitutions, 1787 |publisher=Constitution.org |date= |accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</ref> In it he repudiated the views of [[Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune|Turgot]] and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of state governments. Turgot argued that countries that lacked aristocracies needn't have bicameral legislatures. He thought that republican governments feature "all authorities into one center, that of the nation."<ref>Turgot to Richard Price, March 22, 1778, in Works of John Adams, IV:279</ref> In the book, Adams suggested that "the rich, the well-born and the able" should be set apart from other men in a senate—that would prevent them from dominating the lower house. Wood (2006) has maintained that Adams had become intellectually irrelevant by the time the Federal Constitution was ratified. By then, American political thought, transformed by more than a decade of vigorous and searching debate as well as shaping experiential pressures, had abandoned the classical conception of politics which understood government as a mirror of social estates. Americans' new conception of [[popular sovereignty]] now saw the people-at-large as the sole possessors of power in the realm. All agents of the government enjoyed mere portions of the people's power and only for a limited time. Adams had completely missed this concept and revealed his continued attachment to the older version of politics.<ref>Wood, ''Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different'' (2006) pp 173–202; see also Wood, ''The Radicalism of the American Revolution'' (1993).</ref> Yet Wood overlooks Adams's peculiar definition of the term "republic," and his support for a constitution ratified by the people.<ref>Thompson,1999</ref> He also underplays Adams's belief in checks and balances. "Power must be opposed to power, and interest to interest," Adams wrote; this sentiment would later be echoed by [[James Madison]]'s famous statement that "[a]mbition must be made to counteract ambition" in [[Federalist No. 51|''The Federalist'' No. 51]], in explaining the powers of the branches of the [[United States federal government]] under the new [[Constitution of the United States|Constitution]].<ref>Works of John Adams, IV:557</ref><ref>{{cite web |last=Madison |first=James | authorlink = James Madison |title=The Federalist No. 51 |url=http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=The_Federalist_Papers/No._51&oldid=504230}}</ref> Adams did as much as anyone to put the idea of "checks and balances" on the intellectual map.
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  +
Adams's ''Defence'' can be read as an articulation of the [[classical republicanism|classical republican]] theory of [[mixed government]]. Adams contended that social classes exist in every political society, and that a good government must accept that reality. For centuries, dating back to Aristotle, a mixed regime balancing monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy—that is, the king, the nobles, and the people—was required to preserve order and liberty.<ref>George A. Peek, Jr., ed. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=5jrvsRgk5vwC&lpg=PR3&dq=%22The%20Political%20Writings%20of%20John%20Adams%3A%20Representative%20Selections%22&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false The Political Writings of John Adams: Representative Selections]'' (2003) p. xvii</ref>
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Adams never bought a slave and declined on principle to employ slave labor.<ref>Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery." ''New York History'' 2000 81(1): p 91–132. ISSN 0146-437X</ref> Abigail Adams opposed slavery and employed free blacks in preference to her father's two domestic slaves. John Adams spoke out in 1777 against a bill to emancipate slaves in Massachusetts, saying that the issue was presently too divisive, and so the legislation should "sleep for a time."<ref name=Wiencek>Wiencek, Henry. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Nwe82sFg96UC&lpg=PA215&ots=1sXNQEjXXv&dq=%22we%20have%20causes%20enough%20of%20jealousy%22%20and%20%22sleep%20for%20a%20time%22&pg=PA215#v=onepage&q=%22we%20have%20causes%20enough%20of%20jealousy%22%20and%20%22sleep%20for%20a%20time%22&f=false An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America]'', page 215 (2004).</ref> He also was against use of black soldiers in the Revolution, due to opposition from southerners.<ref name=Wiencek /> Adams generally tried to keep the issue out of national politics, because of the anticipated southern response.<ref name=Wiencek /><ref>Ferling (1992) pp 172–3</ref> Though it is difficult to pinpoint the exact date on which slavery was abolished in Massachusetts, a common view is that it was abolished no later than 1780, when it was forbidden by implication in the Declaration of Rights that John Adams wrote into the Massachusetts Constitution.<ref>Moore, George. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=ohsEAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA201&ots=G5w6Vx8Jos&dq=%22All%20men%20are%20born%20free%20and%20equal%22%20and%20Bowdoin&pg=PA201#v=onepage&q=%22All%20men%20are%20born%20free%20and%20equal%22%20and%20Bowdoin&f=false Notes on the history of slavery in Massachusetts]'', pages 200-203 (1866).</ref>
   
 
==Vice Presidency==
 
==Vice Presidency==
[[Image:adamstrumbull.jpg|thumb|right|John Adams, portrait by {{wp|John Trumbull}}.]]
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[[File:Adamstrumbull.jpg|thumb|left|Portrait of Adams by [[John Trumbull]], 1792–93]]
While Washington was the unanimous choice for president, Adams came in second in the {{wp|electoral college}} and became Vice President in the {{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1789|presidential election of 1789}}. He played a minor role in the politics of the early 1790s and was reelected in {{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1792|1792}}. Washington never asked Adams for input on policy and legal issues.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 15</ref>
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While Washington won the [[U.S. presidential election, 1789|presidential election of 1789]] with 69 votes in the [[United States Electoral College|electoral college]], Adams came in second with 34 votes and became Vice President. According to [[David McCullough]], what he really might have wanted was to be the first [[Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States]]. He presided over the Senate but otherwise played a minor role in the politics of the early 1790s; he was reelected in [[U.S. presidential election, 1792|1792]]. Washington seldom asked Adams for input on policy and legal issues during his tenure as vice president.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 15</ref>
   
One of the best known Adams quotes concluded of the institution of the Vice Presidency: ''This is the most unimportant position human ever made''.<ref>"Wizje Stanów Zjednoczonych w Pismach Ojców Założycieli", Warsaw, 1976</ref> His main task while in this office was presiding over Senate. Eventually most of the Vice Presidents after him were regarded as not powerful or significant member of Presidential administrations, in some exceptions (such as {{wp|Martin Van Buren}}, {{wp|Richard Nixon}}, {{wp|Walter Mondale}}, {{wp|George H. W. Bush}}, {{wp|Al Gore}} or {{wp|Dick Cheney}}, who were regarded as influental members of Presidential team).
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In the first year of Washington's administration, Adams became deeply involved in a month-long Senate controversy over the official title of the President. Adams favored grandiose titles such as "His Majesty the President" or "His High Mightiness" over the simple "President of the United States" that eventually won the debate. The pomposity of his stance, along with his being overweight, led to Adams earning the nickname "His Rotundity."
   
In the first year of Washington's administration, Adams became deeply involved in a month-long Senate controversy over what the official title of the President would be, favoring grandiose titles such as "His Majesty the President" or "His High Mightiness" over the simple "President of the United States" that won the issue. The pomposity of Adams's stance, and his being overweight, led to the nickname "His Rotundity."
+
As [[President of the Senate#United States|president of the Senate]], Adams cast 29 [[U.S. Vice President's tie-breaking votes|tie-breaking votes]]—a record that only [[John C. Calhoun]] came close to tying, with 28.<ref>Ferling (1992) p 311</ref> His votes protected the president's sole authority over the removal of appointees and influenced the location of the national capital. On at least one occasion, he persuaded senators to vote against legislation that he opposed, and he frequently lectured the Senate on procedural and policy matters. Adams's political views and his active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the [[George Washington|Washington]] administration. Toward the end of his first term, as a result of a threatened resolution that would have silenced him except for procedural and policy matters, he began to exercise more restraint. When the two political parties formed, he joined the [[Federalist Party (United States)|Federalist Party]], but never got on well with its dominant leader [[Alexander Hamilton]]. Because of Adams's seniority and the need for a northern president, he was elected as the Federalist nominee for president in [[U.S. presidential election, 1796|1796]], over [[Thomas Jefferson]], the leader of the opposition [[Democratic-Republican Party (United States)|Democratic-Republican Party]]. His success was due to peace and prosperity; Washington and Hamilton had averted war with Britain with the [[Jay Treaty]] of 1795.<ref>Ferling (1992) pp 316–32</ref>
   
As {{wp|president of the Senate}}, Adams cast 31 {{wp|U.S. Vice President's tie-breaking votes|tie-breaking votes}}—a record that only {{wp|John C. Calhoun}} came close to tying, with 28.<ref> Ferling (1992) p 311</ref> His votes protected the president's sole authority over the removal of appointees and influenced the location of the national capital. On at least one occasion, he persuaded senators to vote against legislation that he opposed, and he frequently lectured the Senate on procedural and policy matters. Adams's political views and his active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the {{wp|George Washington|Washington}} administration. Toward the end of his first term, as a result of a threatened resolution that would have silenced him except for procedural and policy matters, he began to exercise more restraint. When the two political parties formed, he joined the {{wp|Federalist Party (United States)|Federalist Party}}, but never got on well with its dominant leader {{wp|Alexander Hamilton}}. Because of Adams's seniority and the need for a northern president, he was elected as the Federalist nominee for president in {{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1796|1796}}, over {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}, the leader of the opposition {{wp|Democratic-Republican Party (United States)|Democratic-Republican Party}}. His success was due to peace and prosperity; Washington and Hamilton had averted war with Britain by the {{wp|Jay Treaty}} of 1795.<ref> Ferling (1992) pp 316-32</ref>
+
Adams's two terms as Vice President were frustrating experiences for a man of his vigor, intellect, and vanity. He complained to his wife Abigail, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ja2.html |title=Biography of John Adams |publisher=Whitehouse.gov |date=August 5, 2009 |accessdate=March 2, 2010}}</ref>
   
Adams' two terms as Vice President were frustrating experiences for a man of his vigor, intellect, and vanity. He complained to his wife Abigail, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."
+
==Election of 1796==
  +
{{Main|United States presidential election, 1796}}
  +
The 1796 election was the first contested election under the [[First Party System]]. Adams was the presidential candidate of the [[Federalist Party]] and [[Thomas Pinckney]], the [[Governor of South Carolina|Governor]] of [[South Carolina]], was also running as a Federalist (at this point, the vice president was whoever came in second, so no running mates existed in the modern sense). The Federalists wanted Adams as their presidential candidate to crush Thomas Jefferson's bid. Most Federalists would have preferred Hamilton to be a candidate. Although Hamilton and his followers supported Adams, they also held a grudge against him. They did consider him to be the lesser of the two evils. However, they thought Adams lacked the seriousness and popularity that had caused Washington to be successful and feared that Adams was too vain, opinionated, unpredictable, and stubborn to follow their directions.<ref>Elkins and McKitrick, ''The Age of Federalism'' (1993), pp 513–37</ref>
   
==Election of 1796==
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Adams's opponents were former [[United States Secretary of State|Secretary of State]] [[Thomas Jefferson]] of [[Virginia]], who was joined by [[United States Senate|Senator]] [[Aaron Burr]] of [[New York]] on the [[Democratic-Republican Party (United States)|Democratic-Republican]] ticket.
{{main|United States presidential election, 1796}}
 
During the {{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1796|presidential campaign of 1796}} Adams was the presidential candidate of the {{wp|Federalist Party}} and {{wp|Thomas Pinckney}}, the {{wp|Governor of South Carolina|Governor}} of {{wp|South Carolina}}, his running mate. The federalists wanted Adams as their presidential candidate to crush Thomas Jefferson's bid. Most federalists would have preferred Hamilton to be a candidate. Although Hamilton and his followers supported Adams, they also held a grudge against him. They did consider him to be the lesser of the two evils. However, they thought Adams lacked the seriousness and popularity that had caused Washington to be successful, and also feared that Adams was too vain, opinionated, unpredictable, and stubborn to follow their directions. Adams' opponents were former {{wp|United States Secretary of State|Secretary of State}} {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}} of {{wp|Virginia}}, who was joined by {{wp|United States Senate|Senator}} {{wp|Aaron Burr}} of {{wp|New York}} on the {{wp|Democratic-Republican Party (United States)|Democratic-Republican}} ticket.
 
   
As was customary, Adams stayed in his home town of {{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy}} rather than actively campaign for the Presidency. He wanted to stay out of what he called the silly and wicked game. His {{wp|Federalist Party|party}}, however, campaigned for him, while the {{wp|Democratic-Republican Party (United States)|Republicans}} campaigned for Jefferson.
+
As was customary, Adams stayed in his home town of [[Quincy, Massachusetts|Quincy]] rather than actively campaign for the Presidency. He wanted to stay out of what he called the silly and wicked game. His [[Federalist Party|party]], however, campaigned for him, while the [[Democratic-Republican Party (United States)|Democratic-Republicans]] campaigned for Jefferson.
   
It was expected that Adams would dominate the votes in New England, while Jefferson was expected to win in the Southern states. In the end, Adams won the election by a narrow margin of 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson (who became the vice president).
+
It was expected that Adams would dominate the votes in New England, while Jefferson was expected to win in the Southern states. In the end, Adams won the election by a narrow margin of 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson (who became the vice president).<ref>Arthur Meier Schlesinger, ed. ''History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–1984 (Vol 1)'' (1986), essay and primary sources on 1796</ref>
   
==Presidency: 1797-1801 ==
+
==Presidency: 1797–1801==
===Foreign Policy===
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[[File:PhiladelphiaPresidentsHouse.jpg|thumb|[[President's House (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)|President's House]], [[Philadelphia]]. The presidential mansion of George Washington before him, Adams occupied this Philadelphia mansion from March 1797 to May 1800.]]
When Adams entered office, he realized that he needed to protect Washington’s policy of staying out of the French and British war. Because the French helped secure American independence from Britain they had greater popularity with America. After the Jay treaty with Great Britain the French became angry and began seizing American merchant ships that were trading with the British. In order for Adams to avoid war he sent a commission to negotiate an understanding with France. In case the negotiation did not work Adams urged the Congress to augment the navy and army.
+
As President, Adams followed Washington's lead in making the presidency the example of republican values, and stressing [[civic virtue]]; he was never implicated in any scandal. Some historians consider his worst mistake to be keeping the old cabinet, which was controlled by Hamilton, instead of installing his own people, confirming Adams' own admission that he was a poor politician because he "was unpractised in intrigues for power."<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 16, p 333.</ref> Yet, there are those historians who feel that Adams' retention of Washington's cabinet was a statesmanlike step to soothe worries about an orderly succession. As Adams himself explained, "I had then no particular object of any of them."<ref>McCullough p 471</ref> Adams spent much of his term at his home in Massachusetts, ignoring the details of patronage and communication that were not ignored by his opponents in both parties.
   
===Domestic Policies===
+
Adams' combative spirit did not always lend itself to presidential decorum, as Adams himself admitted in his old age: "[As president] I refused to suffer in silence. I sighed, sobbed, and groaned, and sometimes screeched and screamed. And I must confess to my shame and sorrow that I sometimes swore."<ref>Ellis (1998) p 57</ref>
[[Image:John Adams Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png|150px|right|John Adams dollar, released May 2007]]
 
{{see also|John Adams' First State of the Union Address}}
 
As President Adams followed Washington's lead in making the presidency the example of republican values and stressing {{wp|civic virtue}}, he was never implicated in any scandal. Some historians consider his worst mistake to be keeping the old cabinet, which was controlled by Hamilton, instead of installing his own people, confirming Adams's own admission he was a poor politician because he "was unpractised in intrigues for power."<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 16, p 333.</ref> Yet, there are those historians who feel that Adams retention of Washington's cabinet was a statesman-like step to soothe worries about an orderly succession. As Adams himself explained, "I had then no particular object of any of them."<ref> McCullough p 471</ref> That would soon change.
 
Adams's combative spirit did not always lend itself to presidential decorum, as Adams himself admitted in his old age: "[As president] I refused to suffer in silence. I sighed, sobbed, and groaned, and sometimes screeched and screamed. And I must confess to my shame and sorrow that I sometimes swore."<ref>Ellis (1998) p 57</ref>
 
   
Adams's four years as president (1797&ndash;1801) were marked by intense disputes over foreign policy. {{wp|Napoleonic Wars|Britain and France were at war}}; Adams and the Federalists favored Britain, while Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans favored France. An undeclared naval war between the U.S. and France, called the {{wp|Quasi-War}}, broke out in 1798. The humiliation of the {{wp|XYZ Affair}}, in which the French demanded huge bribes before any discussions could begin, led to serious threats of full-scale war with France and embarrassed the Jeffersonians, who were friends to France. The Federalists built up the army under {{wp|George Washington}} and {{wp|Alexander Hamilton}}, built warships, such as the {{wp|USS Constitution}}, and raised taxes. They cracked down on political immigrants and domestic opponents with the {{wp|Alien and Sedition Acts}}, which were signed by Adams in 1798.
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Adams continued not just the Washington cabinet but all the major programs of the Washington Administration as well. Adams made no major new proposals. His economic programs were thus a continuation of those of Hamilton, who regularly consulted with key cabinet members, especially the powerful Secretary of the Treasury, [[Oliver Wolcott, Jr.]]<ref>Kurtz, ''The Presidency of John Adams'' (1957) ch 12</ref>
   
These Acts were composed of four separate and distinct units:
+
===Foreign policy===
*{{wp|Naturalization Act of 1798|The Naturalization Act}}, passed on {{wp|June 18}}
+
Adams's term (1797–1801) was marked by intense disputes over foreign policy and a limited naval war with France. [[French Revolutionary Wars|Britain and France were at war]]; Hamilton and the Federalists favored Britain, while Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans favored France.<ref>Gordon S. Wood, ''Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789–1815'' (2009)</ref>
*{{wp|Alien and Sedition Acts|The Alien Act}}, passed on {{wp|June 24}}
 
*{{wp|Alien and Sedition Acts|The Alien Enemies Act}}, passed on {{wp|July 6}}
 
*{{wp|Alien and Sedition Acts|The Sedition Act}}, passed on {{wp|July 14}}
 
   
These 4 acts were brought about to suppress Republican opposition. The Naturalization Act doubled the period required to naturalize the foreign born to American citizenship to 14 years. Since most immigrants voted republican they thought by initiating this act it would decrease the proportion of people who voted republican.
+
When Adams [[John Adams 1797 presidential inauguration|entered office]], he realized that he needed to protect Washington's policy of staying out of the French and British war. Indeed, the intense battle over the [[Jay Treaty]] in 1795 permanently polarized politics up and down the nation, marking the start of the [[First Party System]], with most elections now contested.<ref>William Chambers, ''The First Party System: Federalists and Republicans'' (1972)</ref>
The Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to deport any foreigner that he thought was dangerous to the country.
 
The Sedition Act criminalized anyone who publicly criticized the federal government. Some of the punishments included 2-5 years in prison and fines of $2,000 to $5,000. Adams had not designed or promoted any of these acts but he did sign them into law because he had no problem punishing those who abused the government.
 
   
Those Acts, and the high-profile prosecution of a number of newspaper editors and one Congressman by the Federalists, became highly controversial. Some historians have noted that the Alien and Sedition Acts were relatively rarely enforced, as only 10 convictions under the {{wp|Sedition Act}} have been identified and as Adams never signed a deportation order, and that the furor over the Alien and Sedition Acts was mainly stirred up by the Democratic-Republicans. However, other historians emphasize that the Acts were highly controversial from the outset, resulted in many aliens leaving the country voluntarily, and created an atmosphere where opposing the Federalists, even on the floor of Congress, could and did result in prosecution. The election of 1800 became a bitter and volatile battle, with each side expressing extraordinary fear of the other party and its policies.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 17</ref>
+
The French saw America as Britain's junior partner and [[Quasi-War|began seizing American merchant ships]] that were trading with the British in what became known as the "[[Quasi-War]]." Neither nation declared war officially, but the risk was high and the Federalists re-armed the nation in preparation for war—and perhaps in preparation for suppressing the anti-war Republicans.<ref>Kurtz, ''The Presidency of John Adams'' (1957) ch 13; Miller, ''The Federalist Era'' (1960), ch. 12</ref>
   
The deep division in the Federalist party came on the army issue. Adams was forced to name Washington as commander of the new army, and Washington demanded that Hamilton be given the second position. Adams reluctantly gave in. Major General Hamilton virtually took control of the War department. The rift between Adams and the High Federalists (as Adams's opponents were called) grew wider. The High Federalists refused to consult Adams over the key legislation of 1798; they changed the defense measures which he had called for, demanded that Hamilton control the army, and refused to recognize the necessity of giving key Democratic-Republicans (like {{wp|Aaron Burr}}) senior positions in the army (which Adams wanted to do in order to gain some Democratic-Republican support). By building a large {{wp|standing army}} the High Federalists raised popular alarms and played into the hands of the Democratic-Republicans. They also alienated Adams and his large personal following. They shortsightedly viewed the Federalist party as their own tool and ignored the need to pull together the entire nation in the face of war with France.<ref>Kurtz (1967) yyoaoaoaschwing! p 331</ref>
+
The humiliation of the [[XYZ Affair]], in which the French demanded huge bribes (specifically $250,000 to French foreign minister Talleyrand) before any discussions could begin, led to serious threats of full-scale war with France and embarrassed the Jeffersonians, who were friends to France. An undeclared naval war between the U.S. and France, called the [[Quasi-War]], broke out in 1798, and there was danger of invasion from the much larger and more powerful French forces. The Federalists built up the army, bringing back Washington as its head and Hamilton as its leading force. Adams rebuilt the Navy, adding [[six original United States frigates|six fast, powerful frigates]], such as [[USS Constitution|USS ''Constitution'']]. To pay for it all, Congress raised taxes.<ref>Kurtz, ''The Presidency of John Adams'' (1957) ch 13; Miller, ''The Federalist Era'' (1960), ch. 13</ref> Nevertheless, Adams was extremely proud of having kept the nation out of war; later in life he even asked that his tombstone read "Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the responsibility of Peace with France in the year 1800." <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.presidentialpetmuseum.com/presidents/02JA.htm |title=2nd President, John Adams |publisher=Presidentialpetmuseum.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
   
For long stretches, Adams withdrew to his home in Massachusetts. In February 1799, Adams stunned the country by sending diplomat {{wp|William Vans Murray}} on a peace mission to France. {{wp|Napoleon}}, realizing the animosity of the United States was doing no good, signaled his readiness for friendly relations. The {{wp|Treaty of Alliance (1778)|Treaty of Alliance of 1778}} was superseded and the United States could now be free of foreign entanglements, as Washington advised in his own Farewell Letter. Adams avoided war, but deeply split his own party in the process. He brought in {{wp|John Marshall}} as Secretary of State and demobilized the emergency army.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 18</ref>
+
[[Image:John Adams Presidential $1 Coin obverse.png|left|thumb|[[Presidential Dollar]] of John Adams]]
  +
{{See also|1797 State of the Union Address}}
   
===Re-election campaign 1800===
+
===Alien and Sedition Acts===
{{main|United States presidential election, 1800}}
+
Federalists in Congress passed the [[Alien and Sedition Acts]], which were signed by Adams in 1798.<ref>Elkins and McKitrick, ''The Age of Federalism'' (1993) ch. 15</ref><ref>James Morton Smith, ''Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties'' (1967)</ref>
The death of Washington, in 1799, weakened the Federalists, as they lost the one man who symbolized and united the party. In the {{wp|presidential election of 1800}}, Adams ran and lost the electoral vote narrowly. Among the causes of his defeat was distrust of him by "High Federalists" led by Hamilton, the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the popularity of his opponent, {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}, and the effective politicking of {{wp|Aaron Burr}} in {{wp|New York|New York State}}, where the legislature (which selected the electoral college) shifted from Federalist to Republican on the basis of a few wards in {{wp|New York City}} controlled by Burr's machine.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 19; Ferling (2004)</ref>
 
   
In the election of 1800 John Adams and his running mate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney went against the Republican duo of Jefferson and Burr. Hamilton tried his hardest to sabotage Adams campaign in hopes of boosting Pinckney's chances of winning the presidency. In the end, Adams lost narrowly to Jefferson by 65 to 73 electoral votes.
+
There were four separate acts:
  +
* [[Naturalization Act of 1798|The Naturalization Act]], passed on June 18
  +
* The Alien Act, passed on June 24
  +
* The Alien Enemies Act, passed on July 6
  +
* The Sedition Act, passed on July 14
  +
  +
These four acts were passed to suppress Republican opposition. The Naturalization Act changed the period of residence required before an immigrant could attain American citizenship to 14 years (naturalized citizens tended to vote for the Democratic-Republicans).
  +
The Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to deport any foreigner he thought dangerous to the country. The Sedition Act made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. Punishments included 2–5 years in prison and fines of up to $5,000. Although Adams had not originated or promoted any of these acts, he nevertheless signed them into law.
  +
  +
Those acts, and the high-profile prosecution of a number of newspaper editors and one member of Congress by the Federalists, became highly controversial. Some historians{{Who|date=February 2010}} have noted that the Alien and Sedition Acts were relatively rarely enforced, as only 10 convictions under the Sedition Act have been identified and as Adams never signed a deportation order, and that the furor over the Alien and Sedition Acts was mainly stirred up by the Democratic-Republicans. However, other historians{{Who|date=February 2010}} emphasize that the Acts were highly controversial from the outset, resulting in many aliens leaving the country voluntarily, and created an atmosphere where opposing the Federalists, even on the floor of Congress, could and did result in prosecution. The election of 1800 became a bitter and volatile battle, with each side expressing extraordinary fear of the other party and its policies.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 17</ref>
  +
  +
===Army===
  +
The Federalist party was deeply divided over the leadership of the Army. Adams was forced to name Washington as commander of the new army, and Washington demanded that Hamilton be his second-in-command. Adams reluctantly gave in.<ref>Elkins and McKitrick, ''The Age of Federalism'' (1993) pp. 714–19</ref> Major General Hamilton assumed a high degree of control over the War department. The rift between Adams and the High Federalists (as Adams's opponents were called) grew wider. The High Federalists refused to consult Adams over the key legislation of 1798;{{Clarify|date=February 2010}} they changed the defense measures which he had called for, demanded that Hamilton control the army, and refused to recognize the necessity of giving key Democratic-Republicans (like [[Aaron Burr]]) senior positions in the army (which Adams wanted to do to gain some Democratic-Republican support). By building a large [[standing army]] the High Federalists raised popular alarms and played into the hands of the Democratic-Republicans. They also alienated Adams and his large personal following. They shortsightedly viewed the Federalist party as their own tool and ignored the need to pull together the entire nation in the face of war with France.<ref>Kurtz (1967) p 331</ref>
  +
  +
For long stretches, Adams withdrew to his home in Massachusetts. In February 1799, Adams stunned the country by sending diplomat [[William Vans Murray]] on a peace mission to France. [[Napoleon]], realizing the animosity of the United States was doing no good, signaled his readiness for friendly relations. The [[Treaty of Alliance (1778)|Treaty of Alliance of 1778]] was superseded and the United States could now be free of foreign entanglements, as Washington advised in his own Farewell Letter. Adams avoided war, but deeply split his own party in the process. He brought in [[John Marshall]] as Secretary of State and demobilized the emergency army.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 18</ref>
  +
  +
===Fries's Rebellion===
  +
To pay for the new Army, Congress imposed new taxes on property: the Direct Tax of 1798. It was the first (and last) such federal tax. Taxpayers were angry, nowhere more so than in southeast Pennsylvania, where the bloodless [[Fries's Rebellion]] broke out among rural German-speaking farmers who protested what they saw as a threat to their republican liberties and to their churches.<ref>Elkins and McKitrick ''The Age of Federalism'' pp 696–700; Paul Douglas Newman, ''Fries's Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution'' (2004).</ref>
  +
  +
===Reelection campaign 1800===
  +
{{Main|United States presidential election, 1800}}
  +
The death of Washington, in 1799, weakened the Federalists, as they lost the one man who symbolized and united the party. In the [[presidential election of 1800]], Adams and his fellow Federalist candidate, [[Charles Cotesworth Pinckney]], went against the Republican duo of Jefferson and Burr. Hamilton tried his hardest to sabotage Adams's campaign in hopes of boosting Pinckney's chances of winning the presidency. In the end, Adams lost narrowly to Jefferson by 65 to 73 electoral votes, with New York casting the decisive vote.
  +
  +
Adams was defeated because of better organization by the Republicans and Federalist disunity; by the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the popularity of his opponent, Jefferson, and the effective politicking of [[Aaron Burr]] in [[New York|New York State]], where the legislature (which selected the electoral college) shifted from Federalist to Democratic-Republican on the basis of a few wards in [[New York City]] controlled by Burr's machine.<ref>Ferling (1992) ch 19; Ferling (2004)</ref>
  +
  +
In the closing months of his term Adams became the first President to occupy the new, but unfinished [[White House|President's Mansion]] (later known as the White House), beginning November 1, 1800.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.whitehousemuseum.org/overview.htm|title=Overview of the White House|accessdate=July 16, 2008 |publisher=White House Museum}}</ref> Since 1800 was not a leap year, he served one less day in office than all other one-term Presidents.
   
 
===Midnight Judges===
 
===Midnight Judges===
As his term was expiring, Adams appointed a series of judges, called the "{{wp|Midnight Judges}}" because most of them were formally appointed days before the presidential term expired. Most of the judges were eventually unseated when the Jeffersonians abolished their offices. But {{wp|John Marshall}} remained, and his long tenure as {{wp|Chief Justice of the United States}} represents the most lasting influence of the Federalists, as Marshall refashioned the Constitution into a nationalizing force and established the Judicial Branch as the equal of the Executive and Legislative branches.<ref>Ferling (1992) p 409</ref>
+
The lame-duck session of Congress enacted the Judiciary Act of 1801, which created a set of federal appeals courts between the district courts and the Supreme Court. The purpose of the statute was twofold -- first, to remedy the defects in the federal judicial system inherent in the [[Judiciary Act of 1789]], and, second, to enable the defeated Federalists to staff the new judicial offices with loyal Federalists in the face of the party's defeat in presidential and congressional elections in 1800.<ref>See generally Kathryn Preyer (Maeva Marcus, R. Kent Newmyer, and Mary Sarah Bilder, eds.), ''Blackstone in America'' (Cambridge, Eng., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).</ref> As his term was expiring, Adams filled the vacancies created by this statute by appointing a series of judges, whom his opponents called the "[[Midnight Judges]]" because most of them were formally appointed days before the presidential term expired. Most of these judges lost their posts when the Jeffersonian Republicans enacted the Judiciary Act of 1802, abolishing the courts created by the Judiciary Act of 1801 and returning the structure of the federal courts to its original structure as specified in the 1789 statute. Adams's greatest legacy was his naming of [[John Marshall]] as the fourth [[Chief Justice of the United States]] to succeed [[Oliver Ellsworth]], who had retired due to ill health. Marshall's long tenure represents the most lasting influence of the Federalists, as Marshall infused the Constitution with a judicious and carefully reasoned nationalistic interpretation and established the Judicial Branch as the equal of the Executive and Legislative branches.<ref>Ferling (1992) p 409.</ref>
   
=== Major presidential actions ===
+
===Major presidential actions===
* Built up the {{wp|United States Navy|U.S. Navy}}
+
* Built up the [[United States Navy|U.S. Navy]]
* Fought the {{wp|Quasi War}} with France
+
* Fought the [[Quasi War]] with France, 1798-1800
* Signed {{wp|Alien and Sedition Acts}} of 1798
+
* Signed [[Alien and Sedition Acts]] of 1798
* Ended war with France through diplomacy
+
* Ended war with France through diplomacy, 1799-1800
  +
* Appointed [[John Marshall]] to Supreme Court, 1801
   
 
===Speeches===
 
===Speeches===
===={{wp|Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States|Inaugural Addresses}}====
+
====Inaugural Addresses====
*===={{wp|State of the Union Address}}====
+
* [[:s:John Adams' Inaugural Address|Inaugural Address]] (March 4, 1797)
****
+
===Administration and Cabinet===
+
====State of the Union Address====
{{Infobox U.S. Cabinet
+
* [[:s:John Adams' First State of the Union Address|First State of the Union Address]] (November 22, 1797)
|align=left
+
* [[:s:John Adams' Second State of the Union Address|Second State of the Union Address]], (December 8, 1798)
|clear=yes
+
* [[:s:John Adams' Third State of the Union Address|Third State of the Union Address]], (December 3, 1799)
|Name=Adams
+
* [[:s:John Adams' Fourth State of the Union Address|Fourth State of the Union Address]], (November 22, 1800)
|President=John Adams
+
|President start=1797
+
==Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court Appointments 1797–1801==
|President end=1801
+
{{Col-begin}}
|Vice President={{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}
+
{{Col-1-of-3}}
|Vice President start=1797
+
{{Infobox U.S. Cabinet |align=left |clear=yes |Name=Adams
|Vice President end=1801
+
|President=John Adams |President start=1797 |President end=1801
|State={{wp|Timothy Pickering}}
+
|Vice President=[[Thomas Jefferson]] |Vice President start=1797 |Vice President end=1801
|State start=1797
+
|State=[[Timothy Pickering]] |State start=1797 |State end=1800
|State end=1800
+
|State 2=[[John Marshall]] |State start 2=1800 |State end 2=1801
|State 2={{wp|John Marshall}}
+
|Treasury=[[Oliver Wolcott, Jr.]] |Treasury start=1797 |Treasury end=1801
|State start 2=1800
+
|Treasury 2=[[Samuel Dexter]] |Treasury date 2=1801
|State end 2=1801
+
|War=[[James McHenry]] |War start=1796 |War end=1800
|Treasury={{wp|Oliver Wolcott, Jr.}}
+
|War 2=[[Samuel Dexter]] |War start 2=1800 |War end 2=1801
|Treasury start=1797
+
|Justice=[[Charles Lee (Attorney General)|Charles Lee]] |Justice start=1797 |Justice end=1801
|Treasury end=1801
+
|Navy=[[Benjamin Stoddert]] |Navy start=1798 |Navy end=1801
|Treasury 2={{wp|Samuel Dexter}}
 
|Treasury date 2=1801
 
|War={{wp|James McHenry}}
 
|War start=1796
 
|War end=1800
 
|War 2={{wp|Samuel Dexter}}
 
|War start 2=1800
 
|War end 2=1801
 
|Justice={{wp|Charles Lee (Attorney General)|Charles Lee}}
 
|Justice start=1797
 
|Justice end=1801
 
|Post={{wp|Joseph Habersham}}
 
|Post start=1797
 
|Post end=1801
 
|Navy={{wp|Benjamin Stoddert}}
 
|Navy start=1798
 
|Navy end=1801
 
 
}}
 
}}
  +
{{Col-2-of-3}}
   
=== Supreme Court appointments ===
+
{{Col-3-of-3}}
Adams appointed the following Justices to the {{wp|Supreme Court of the United States}}:
 
   
*{{wp|Bushrod Washington}} &ndash; 1799
+
{{Infobox SCOTUS Appointments
*{{wp|Alfred Moore}} &ndash; 1800
+
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*{{wp|John Marshall}} ({{wp|Chief Justice of the United States|Chief Justice}}) &ndash; 1801
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|clear=
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|President=
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|Chief Justice = [[John Jay]]
  +
|Chief Justice date = 1800 (declined)
  +
|Chief Justice start =
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|Chief Justice end =
  +
|Chief Justice 2 = [[John Marshall]]
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|Chief Justice 2 start = 1801
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|Chief Justice 2 end = 1835
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|Associate = [[Bushrod Washington]]
  +
|Associate start = 1799
  +
|Associate end = 1829
  +
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  +
|Associate 2 = [[Alfred Moore]]
  +
|Associate 2 start = 1800
  +
|Associate 2 end = 1804
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}}
  +
{{col-end}}
  +
[[File:Brooklyn Museum - Portrait of John Adams - Samuel Finley Breese Morse - overall.jpg|thumb|John Adams, ca 1816, by [[Samuel F.B. Morse]] ([[Brooklyn Museum of Art|Brooklyn Museum]])|alt=An unsmiling elderly man sits in a red chair, slightly pointing left.]]
  +
==Post presidency==
  +
Following his 1800 defeat, Adams retired into private life. Depressed when he left office, he did not attend Jefferson's inauguration, making him one of only four surviving presidents (i.e., those who did not die in office) not to attend his successor's inauguration. Adams's correspondence with Jefferson at the time of the transition suggests that he did not feel the animosity or resentment that later scholars have attributed to him. He left Washington before Jefferson's inauguration as much out of sorrow at the death of his son Charles Adams (due in part to the younger man's alcoholism) and his desire to rejoin his wife Abigail, who had left for Massachusetts months before the inauguration. Adams resumed farming at his home, [[Peacefield]], near the town of Quincy, which had absorbed his birthplace, [[Quincy, Massachusetts|Braintree]]. He began to work on an autobiography (which he never finished), and resumed correspondence with such old friends as [[Benjamin Waterhouse]] and [[Benjamin Rush]]. He also began a bitter and resentful correspondence with an old family friend, [[Mercy Otis Warren]], protesting how in her 1805 history of the American Revolution she had, in his view, caricatured his political beliefs and misrepresented his services to the country.<ref name="Ferling 1992 ch 20">Ferling (1992) ch 20</ref>
   
=== States admitted to the Union ===
+
After Jefferson's retirement from public life in 1809 after two terms as President, Adams became more vocal. For three years he published a stream of letters in the [[Boston Patriot]] newspaper, presenting a long and almost line-by-line refutation of an 1800 pamphlet by Hamilton attacking his conduct and character. Though Hamilton had died in 1804 from a mortal wound sustained in his notorious duel with [[Aaron Burr]], Adams felt the need to vindicate his character against the New Yorker's vehement attacks.<ref>Ferling (1992) p. 429</ref>
''None''
 
   
==Post Presidency==
+
In early 1812, Adams reconciled with Jefferson. Their mutual friend [[Benjamin Rush]], a fellow signer of the [[United States Declaration of Independence|Declaration of Independence]] who had been corresponding with both, encouraged each man to reach out to the other. On New Year's Day 1812, Adams sent a brief, friendly note to Jefferson to accompany the delivery of "two pieces of homespun," a two-volume collection of lectures on rhetoric by [[John Quincy Adams]]. Jefferson replied immediately with a warm, friendly letter, and the two men revived their friendship, which they conducted by mail. The correspondence that they resumed in 1812 lasted the rest of their lives, and thereafter has been hailed as one of their greatest legacies and a monument of American literature.<ref name="Cappon 1988">Cappon (1988)</ref>
[[Image:OlderJohnAdams.jpg|thumb|right|Portrait of an elderly John Adams by {{wp|Gilbert Stuart}} (1823).]]
+
[[Image:Gilbert Stuart John Adams.jpg|thumb|left|John Adams was nearly 89 when, at the request of his son, John Quincy Adams, he posed a final time for [[Gilbert Stuart]] (1823).|alt=An elderly man sits in a red chair with his arms crossed, looking slightly left.]]
Following his 1800 defeat, Adams retired into private life. Depressed when he left office, he did not attend Jefferson's inauguration. He went back to farming in the Quincy area.
 
   
In 1812, Adams reconciled with Jefferson. Their mutual friend {{wp|Benjamin Rush}}, who had been corresponding with both, encouraged Adams to reach out to Jefferson. Adams sent a brief note to Jefferson, which resulted in a resumption of their friendship, and initiated a correspondence which lasted the rest of their lives. Their letters are rich in insight into both the period and the minds of the two Presidents and revolutionary leaders. Their correspondence lasted fourteen years, and consisted of 158 letters.<ref> Cappon (1988)</ref> It was in these years that they two men discussed "natural aristocracy." Jefferson said that "“The natural aristocracy I consider as the most precious gift of nature for the instruction, the trusts, and government of society. And indeed it would have been inconsistent in creation to have formed man for the social state, and not to have provided virtue and wisdom enough to manage the concerns of society. May we not even say that the form of government is best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural aristoi into the offices of government?"<ref>Cappon, ed., 387</ref> Adams wondered if it ever would be so clear who these people were, "Your distinction between natural and artificial aristocracy does not appear to me well founded. Birth and wealth are conferred on some men as imperiously by nature, as genius, strength, or beauty. . . . When aristocracies, are established by human laws and honour wealth and power are made hereditary by municipal laws and political institutions, then I acknowledge artificial aristocracy to commence."<ref> Cappon, ed. 400</ref> It would always be true, Adams argued, that fate would bestow influence on some men for reasons other than true wisdom and virtue. That being the way of nature, he thought such "talents" were natural. A good government, therefore, had to account for that reality.
+
Their letters are rich in insight into both the period and the minds of the two Presidents and revolutionary leaders. Their correspondence lasted fourteen years, and consisted of 158 letters.<ref name="Cappon 1988"/> It was in these years that the two men discussed "natural aristocracy." Jefferson said, "The natural aristocracy I consider as the most precious gift of nature for the instruction, the trusts, and government of society. And indeed it would have been inconsistent in creation to have formed man for the social state, and not to have provided virtue and wisdom enough to manage the concerns of society. May we not even say that the form of government is best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural aristoi into the offices of government?"<ref>Cappon, ed., 387</ref> Adams wondered if it ever would be so clear who these people were, "Your distinction between natural and artificial aristocracy does not appear to me well founded. Birth and wealth are conferred on some men as imperiously by nature, as genius, strength, or beauty. . . . When aristocracies are established by human laws and honour, wealth, and power are made hereditary by municipal laws and political institutions, then I acknowledge artificial aristocracy to commence."<ref>Cappon, ed. 400</ref> It would always be true, Adams argued, that fate would bestow influence on some men for reasons other than true wisdom and virtue. That being the way of nature, he thought such "talents" were natural. A good government, therefore, had to account for that reality.
   
Sixteen months before his death, his son, {{wp|John Quincy Adams}}, became the sixth President of the United States (1825&ndash;1829), the only son of a former President to hold the office until {{wp|George W. Bush}} in 2001.
+
Sixteen months before John Adams's death, his son, [[John Quincy Adams]], became the sixth President of the United States (1825–1829), the only son of a former President to hold the office until [[George W. Bush]] in 2001.
   
His daughter Abigail ("Nabby") was married to {{wp|Congressman}} {{wp|William Stephens Smith}} and died of cancer in 1816. His son Charles died as an alcoholic in 1800. His son Thomas and his family lived with Adams and Louisa Smith (Abigail's niece by her brother William) to the end of Adams's life.<ref> Ferling (1992) ch 20</ref>
+
Adams's daughter [[Abigail "Nabby" Adams Smith|Abigail ("Nabby")]] was married to [[Congressman|Representative]] [[William Stephens Smith]], but she returned to her parents' home after the failure of her marriage. She died of breast cancer in 1813. His son Charles died as an alcoholic in 1800. Abigail, his wife, died of [[typhoid]] on October 28, 1818. His son Thomas and his family lived with Adams and Louisa Smith (Abigail's niece by her brother William) to the end of Adams's life.<ref name="Ferling 1992 ch 20"/>
   
== Death ==
+
==Death==
[[Image:Graves of the Adams, Quincy, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|150px|right|Tombs of Presidents John Adams (distance) and {{wp|John Quincy Adams}} (foreground) and their wives, in a family crypt beneath the {{wp|United First Parish Church, Quincy, Massachusetts|United First Parish Church}}.]]
+
[[Image:Graves of the Adams, Quincy, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|Tombs of Presidents John Adams (distance) and [[John Quincy Adams]] (foreground) and their wives, in a family crypt beneath the [[United First Parish Church, Quincy, Massachusetts|United First Parish Church]].|alt=3 marble sarcophagi, one in the foreground, 2 in the background are seen. 2 are seen with flags of the United States at the top.]]
On {{wp|July 4}}, {{wp|1826}}, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died at his home in Quincy. His last words are often quoted as "Thomas Jefferson survives." Only the words "Thomas Jefferson" were clearly intelligible among his last, however.<ref>[http://historynewsnetwork.org/articles/article.html?id=634 Jefferson Still Survives.] Retrieved on {{wp|2006}}-{{wp|December 26|12-26}}.</ref> Adams was unaware that Jefferson, his great political rival — and later friend and correspondent — had died a few hours earlier on that same day.[[Image:Adams' Burial Site 002.jpg|250px|left|thumb|United First Parish Church]] The fact that Adams and Jefferson, both of whom had been so instrumental in creating the Declaration of Independence, died on the fiftieth anniversary of the date of its publication, is one of the more remarkable coincidences in history.
 
   
His crypt lies at {{wp|United First Parish Church}} (also known as the ''Church of the Presidents'') in Quincy. Until his record was broken by {{wp|Ronald Reagan}} in 2001, he was the nation's longest-living President (90 years, 247 days) maintaining that record for 175 years. The record is currently held by former President {{wp|Gerald Ford}}, who served less than one term, and who died {{wp|December 26}}, {{wp|2006}} at 93 years, 165 days.
+
Less than a month before his death, John Adams issued a statement about the destiny of the United States, which historians such as [[Joy Hakim]] have characterized as a "warning" for his fellow citizens. Adams said:
   
John Adams remains the longest-lived person ever elected to both of the highest offices in the United States.
+
<blockquote>My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: a memorable epoch in the annals of the human race, destined in future history to form the brightest or the blackest page, according to the use or the abuse of those political institutions by which they shall, in time to come, be shaped by the human mind.<ref>Hakim. Joy. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=SaJFp7aV7QwC&pg=PA97&dq=%22destined+in+future+history+to+form+the+brightest+or+the+blackest+page%22&ei=HNm9SZ_-EYuYMruQiMYL The New Nation]'', page 97 (Oxford University Press 2003).</ref></blockquote>
  +
  +
On July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died at his home in Quincy. Told that it was the Fourth, he answered clearly, "It is a great day. It is a ''good'' day." His last words have been reported as "Thomas Jefferson survives". His death left [[Charles Carroll of Carrollton]] as the last surviving signatory of the Declaration of Independence. John Adams died while his son [[John Quincy Adams]] was president.<ref>Ferling, ''John Adams: A Life'' (2010) p. 444</ref>
  +
  +
His crypt lies at [[United First Parish Church]] (also known as the ''Church of the Presidents'') in Quincy. Originally, he was buried in [[Hancock Cemetery]], across the road from the Church. Until his record was broken by [[Ronald Reagan]] in 2001, he was the nation's longest-living President (90 years, 247 days) maintaining that record for 175 years.
   
 
==Religious views==
 
==Religious views==
Adams was raised a {{wp|Congregational church|Congregationalist}}, becoming a {{wp|Unitarian}} at a time when most of the Congregational churches around Boston were turning to {{wp|Unitarianism}}. Everett (1966) argues that Adams was not a deist, but he used deistic terms in his speeches and writing. He believed in the essential goodness of the creation, but did not believe in the divinity of Christ or that God intervened in the affairs of individuals. Although not anti-clerical, he advocated the separation of church and state. He also believed that regular church service was beneficial to man's moral sense. Everett concludes that "Adams strove for a religion based on a common sense sort of reasonableness" and maintained that religion must change and evolve toward perfection.<ref>Robert B. Everett, "The Mature Religious Thought of John Adams," ''Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association'' (1966), p 49-57; [ISSN 0361-6207].</ref>
+
Adams was raised a [[Congregational church|Congregationalist]], becoming a [[Unitarianism|Unitarian]] at a time when most of the Congregational churches around Boston were turning to Unitarianism. Adams was educated at Harvard when the influence of [[deism]] was growing there, and used deistic terms in his speeches and writing.<ref>Vivian Trow Thayer, ''Religion in public education'' (Greenwood Press, 1979) p 16 </ref> He believed in the essential goodness of the creation, but, being a Unitarian, his beliefs excluded the divinity of Christ. He also believed that regular church service was beneficial to man's moral sense. Everett (1966) concludes that "Adams strove for a religion based on a common sense sort of reasonableness" and maintained that religion must change and evolve toward perfection.<ref>Robert B. Everett, "The Mature Religious Thought of John Adams," ''Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association'' (1966), p 49–57; [ISSN 0361-6207].</ref> Fielding (1940) shows that Adams's beliefs synthesized Puritan, deist, and [[humanism|humanist]] concepts. Adams thought Christianity had originally been [[revelation|revelatory]], but was being misinterpreted and misused in the service of superstition, fraud, and unscrupulous power.<ref>Howard Ioan Fielding, "John Adams: Puritan, Deist, Humanist," ''Journal of Religion,'' Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan. 1940), pp. 33–46 [http://www.jstor.org/stable/1198647 in JSTOR]</ref> Goff (1993) acknowledges Fielding's "persuasive argument that Adams never was a deist because he allowed the suspension of the laws of nature and believed that evil was internal, not the result of external institutions."<ref>Philip Kevin Goff, The Religious World of the Revolutionary John Adams (PhD dissertation), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1993, p. 382.</ref> Frazer (2004) notes that, while Adams shared many perspectives with deists, "Adams clearly was not a deist. Deism rejected any and all supernatural activity and intervention by God; consequently, deists did not believe in miracles or God's providence....Adams, however, did believe in miracles, providence, and, to a certain extent, the Bible as revelation."<ref>Gregg L. Frazer, The Political Theology of the American Founding (PhD dissertation), Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California, 2004, p. 46</ref> Fraser concludes that Adams's "theistic rationalism, like that of the other Founders, was a sort of middle ground between Protestantism and deism."<ref>Gregg L. Frazer, The Political Theology of the American Founding (PhD dissertation), Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California, 2004, p. 50.</ref> By contrast, David L. Holmes has argued that John Adams, beginning as a Congregationalist, ended his days as a Christian Unitarian, accepting central tenets of the Unitarian creed but also accepting Jesus as the redeemer of humanity and the biblical account of his miracles as true.<ref>David L. Holmes, ''The Faiths of the Founding Fathers'' (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 73-78.</ref>
   
Adams often railed against what he saw as overclaiming of authority by the Catholic church.<ref>See [http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?documentprint=43 TeachingAmericanHistory.org: " A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law", John Adams, 1765]</ref>
+
[[Image:Adams' Burial Site 002.jpg|thumb|upright|United First Parish Church|alt=A tall, grey brick building with four columns before the entrance. In the foreground, a black lightpost is seen with a banner featuring a version of the flag of the United States.]]
   
In {{wp|1796}}, Adams denounced the deism of political opponent {{wp|Thomas Paine}}, saying, "The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity, let the Blackguard Paine say what he will."<ref>''The Works of John Adams'' (1854), vol III, p 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.</ref>
+
In common with many of his contemporaries, Adams criticized the claims to universal authority made by the Roman Catholic Church.<ref>See [http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?documentprint=43 TeachingAmericanHistory.org: " A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law", John Adams, 1765]</ref>
   
The Unitarian Universalist Historical Society sheds some light on Adams’s religious beliefs.<ref>[http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/johnadams.html Unitarian Universalist Historical Society Biography]</ref> They point out that Adams was clearly no atheist by quoting from his letter to {{wp|Benjamin Rush}}, an early promoter of Universalist thought, “I have attended public worship in all countries and with all sects and believe them all much better than no religion, though I have not thought myself obliged to believe all I heard.” The Society also relates how Rush reconciled Adams to his former friend {{wp|Thomas Jefferson}} in 1812, after many bitter political battles. This resulted in correspondence between Adams and Jefferson about many topics, including philosophy and religion. In one of these communications, Adams told Jefferson, "The Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount contain my religion." In another letter, Adams reveals his sincere devotion to God, “My Adoration of the Author of the Universe is too profound and too sincere. The Love of God and his Creation; delight, Joy, Tryumph, Exaltation in my own existence, tho' but an Atom, a molecule Organique, in the Universe, are my religion.” He continues by revealing his Universalist sympathies, rejection of orthodox Christian dogma, and his personal belief that he was a true Christian for not accepting such dogma, “Howl, Snarl, bite, Ye Calvinistick! Ye Athanasian Divines, if You will. Ye will say, I am no Christian: I say Ye are no Christians: and there the Account is ballanced. Yet I believe all the honest men among you, are Christians in my Sense of the Word." The Society also demonstrates that Adams rejected orthodox Christian doctrines of the trinity, predestination, yet equated human understanding and the human conscience to “celestial communication” or personal revelation from God. It is also shown that Adams held a strong conviction in life after death or otherwise, as he explained, “you might be ashamed of your Maker.
+
In 1796, Adams denounced political opponent [[Thomas Paine]]'s criticisms of Christianity in his book ''[[The Age of Reason]]'', saying, "The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity, let the Blackguard Paine say what he will."<ref>''The Works of John Adams'' (1854), vol III, p 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.</ref>
   
==Notes==
+
The Unitarian Universalist Historical Society provides information about Adams's religious beliefs.<ref name=UUHS-JAdams>{{cite web |url=http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/johnadams.html |title=Unitarian Universalist Historical Society Biography|accessdate=December 11, 2007}}</ref> They quote from his letter to [[Benjamin Rush]], an early promoter of Universalist thought, "I have attended public worship in all countries and with all sects and believe them all much better than no religion, though I have not thought myself obliged to believe all I heard." The Society also relates how Rush reconciled Adams to his former friend [[Thomas Jefferson]] in 1812, after many bitter political battles. This resulted in correspondence between Adams and Jefferson about many topics, including philosophy and religion. In one of these communications, Adams told Jefferson, "The [[Ten Commandments]] and the [[Sermon on the Mount]] contain my religion." In another letter, Adams reveals his sincere devotion to God, "My Adoration of the Author of the Universe is too profound and too sincere. The Love of God and his Creation; delight, Joy, Tryumph, Exaltation in my own existence, tho' but an Atom, a molecule Organique, in the Universe, are my religion." He continues by revealing his Universalist sympathies, rejection of orthodox Christian dogma, and his personal belief that he was a true Christian for not accepting such dogma, "Howl, Snarl, bite, Ye Calvinistick! Ye Athanasian Divines, if You will. Ye will say, I am no Christian: I say Ye are no Christians: and there the Account is ballanced. Yet I believe all the honest men among you, are Christians in my Sense of the Word." The Society also demonstrates that Adams rejected orthodox Christian doctrines of the trinity, predestination, yet equated human understanding and the human conscience to "celestial communication" or personal revelation from God. It is also shown that Adams held a strong conviction in life after death or otherwise, as he explained, "You might be ashamed of your Maker."<ref name=UUHS-JAdams/>
{{reflist|2}}
+
  +
==Ancestry==
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|1= 1. '''President John Adams'''
  +
|2= 2. [[John Adams, Sr]].<ref name="Vinton300">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA300#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=The Vinton Memorial, page 300, John Adams Vinton, 1858 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
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|3= 3. [[Susanna Boylston]]<ref name="Vinton300" /><ref name="Vinton309">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA309#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=The Vinton Memorial, page 309, John Adams Vinton, 1858 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
  +
|4= 4. Joseph Adams<ref name="Vinton298">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA298#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=The Vinton Memorial, page 298, John Adams Vinton, 1858 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
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|5= 5. Hannah Bass<ref name="Vinton298" />
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|6= 6. Peter Boylston<ref name="Vinton309" />
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|7= 7. Ann White<ref name="Vinton309" />
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|8= 8. Joseph Adams<ref name="Vinton297">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA297#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=The Vinton Memorial, page 297, John Adams Vinton, 1858 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
  +
|9= 9. Abigail Baxter<ref name="Vinton297" />
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|10= 10. John Bass<ref name="Vinton298" />
  +
|11= 11. Ruth Alden<ref name="Vinton298" />
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|12= 12. Thomas Boylston<ref name="Vinton308">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA308#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=The Vinton Memorial, page 308, John Adams Vinton, 1858 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
  +
|13= 13. Mary Gardner<ref name="Vinton308" />
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|14= 14. Benjamin White<ref name="Vinton309" />
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|15= 15. Susanna
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|16= 16. Henry Adams<ref name="Vinton296">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA296#v=onepage&q&f=false |title=The Vinton Memorial, page 296, John Adams Vinton, 1858 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2011-06-12}}</ref>
  +
|17=
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|18= 18. Gregory Baxter<ref name="Vinton297" />
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|19= 19. Margaret Paddy<ref name="Vinton297" />
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|20=
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|21=
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|22=
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|23=
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|24= 24. Thomas Boylston<ref name="Vinton308" />
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|25= 25. Sarah<ref name="Vinton308" />
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|26= 26. Thomas Gardner<ref name="Vinton308" />
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|27=
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|28= 28. John White<ref name="Vinton309" />
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|29= 29. Frances<ref name="Vinton309" />
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|30=
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|31=
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}}</center>
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==Biographies==
  +
  +
The first notable biography of John Adams appeared as the first two volumes of ''The Works of John Adams, Esq., Second President of the United States'', edited by Charles Francis Adams and published between 1850 and 1856 by Charles C. Little and James Brown in Boston. This biography's first seven chapters were the work of [[John Quincy Adams]], but the rest of the biography was the work of [[Charles Francis Adams]]{{dn}}. The first modern biography was ''Honest John Adams'', a 1933 biography by the noted French specialist in American history [[Gilbert Chinard]], who came to Adams after writing his acclaimed 1929 biography of [[Thomas Jefferson]]. For a generation, Chinard's work was regarded as the best life of Adams, and it is still a key factor in determining the themes of Adams biographical and historical scholarship. Following the opening of the Adams family papers in the 1950s, [[Page Smith]] published the first major biography to use these previously inaccessible primary sources; his biography won a 1962 [[Bancroft Prize]] but was criticized for its scanting of Adams's intellectual life and its diffuseness. In 1975, [[Peter Shaw]] published ''The Character of John Adams,'' a thematic biography noted for its graceful prose and its psychological insight into Adams's life. The 1992 character study by [[Joseph J. Ellis]], ''Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams,'' was Ellis's first major publishing success and remains one of the most useful and insightful studies of Adams's personality. In 1993, the Revolutionary War historian and biographer [[John E. Ferling]] published his acclaimed ''John Adams,'' also noted for its psychological sensitivity; many scholars regard it as the best biography to date. In 2001, the popular historian [[David McCullough]] published a large biography of John Adams that won various awards and general acclaim and was developed into a 2008 [[John Adams (TV miniseries)|TV miniseries]]). The most recent life, and one of the most thoughtful and accessible biographies of Adams, was ''John Adams, Party of One,'' a 2005 study by [[James Grant (financial writer and biographer)|James Grant]].
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
  +
{{Ibid|date=June 2010}}
  +
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
  +
  +
==Bibliography==
 
* Brown, Ralph A. ''The Presidency of John Adams.'' (1988). Political narrative.
 
* Brown, Ralph A. ''The Presidency of John Adams.'' (1988). Political narrative.
* Chinard, Gilbert. ''Honest John Adams.'' (1933). short life
+
* Chinard, Gilbert. ''Honest John Adams.'' (1933). Dated but still-valuable biography.
 
* Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick, ''The Age of Federalism''. (1993), highly detailed political interpretation of 1790s
 
* Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick, ''The Age of Federalism''. (1993), highly detailed political interpretation of 1790s
* Ellis, Joseph J. ''Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams'' (1993), interpretative essay by Pulitzer prize winning scholar.
+
* Ellis, Joseph J. ''Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams'' (1993), interpretative essay by Pulitzer Prize winning scholar.
* Ferling, John. ''Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800.'' (2004), narrative history of the election .
+
* [[John E. Ferling|Ferling, John.]] ''Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800.'' (2004), narrative history of the election.
* Ferling, John. ''John Adams: A Life.'' (1992), full scale biography
+
* Ferling, John. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=1iU49o9z8osC&lpg=PP1&dq=Ferling%20and%20%22John%20Adams%3A%20A%20Life%22&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false John Adams: A Life]'' (1992), full scale biography
* Grant, James. ''John Adams: Party of One.''(2005), short biography
+
* Freeman, Joanne B. ''Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic.'' (2001)&nbsp;– chapters 2 [on John Adams and print culture] and 5 [on the election of 1800] are of special relevance.
* Haraszti, Zoltan. ''John Adams and the Prophets of Progress''. (1952). Adams's political comments on numerous authors
+
* [[James Grant (financial writer and biographer)|Grant, James]]. ''John Adams: Party of One.''(2005), one-volume biography, notable for its modesty and for its grasp of finances as well as politics.
* Knollenberg, Bernard. ''Growth of the American Revolution: 1766-1775,''(2003). [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/Book.php?recordID=0485 Online edition.]
+
* Haraszti, Zoltan. ''John Adams and the Prophets of Progress''. (1952). Incisive analysis of John Adams's political comments on numerous authors through examining his marginalia in his copies of their books.
* Kurtz, Stephen G. ''The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800'' (1957). Detailed political narrative.
+
* Howe, John R., Jr. ''The Changing Political Thought of John Adams''. (1966). Stressing change over time in Adams's thought, this book is still a valuable and clearly written treatment of the subject.
* McCullough, David. ''John Adams.'' (2002). Best-selling popular biography, stressing Adams's character and his marriage with Abigail over his ideas and constitutional thoughts. Winner of the 2002 Pulitzer Prize in Biography.
+
* Knollenberg, Bernard. ''Growth of the American Revolution: 1766–1775,''(2003). [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/Book.php?recordID=0485 Online edition.]
* Miller, John C. ''The Federalist Era: 1789-1801.'' (1960). Thorough survey of politics in decade.
+
* Kurtz, Stephen G. ''The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795–1800'' (1957). Detailed political narrative.
* Ryerson, Richard Alan, ed. ''John Adams and the Founding of the Republic'' (2001). Essays by scholars: "John Adams and the Massachusetts Provincial Elite," by William Pencak; "Before Fame: Young John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by John Ferling; "John Adams and the 'Bolder Plan,'" by Gregg L. Lint; "In the Shadow of Washington: John Adams as Vice President," by Jack D. Warren; "The Presidential Election of 1796," by Joanne B. Freeman; "The Disenchantment of a Radical Whig: John Adams Reckons with Free Speech," by Richard D. Brown; "'Splendid Misery': Abigail Adams as First Lady," by Edith B. Gelles; "John Adams and the Science of Politics," by C. Bradley Thompson; and "Presidents as Historians: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by Herbert Sloan.
+
* [[David McCullough|McCullough, David]]. ''[[John Adams (book)|John Adams]].'' (2002). Best-selling popular biography, stressing Adams's character and his marriage with Abigail while scanting his ideas and constitutional thoughts. Winner of the [[2002 Pulitzer Prize]] in Biography.
* Sharp, James. ''American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis.'' (1995), detailed political narrative of 1790s.
+
* Miller, John C. ''The Federalist Era: 1789–1801.'' (1960). Slightly dated but still-valuable, thorough survey of politics between 1789 and 1801.
  +
* Ryerson, Richard Alan, ed. ''John Adams and the Founding of the Republic'' (2001). Essays by scholars: "John Adams and the Massachusetts Provincial Elite," by William Pencak; "Before Fame: Young John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by John Ferling; "John Adams and the 'Bolder Plan,'" by Gregg L. Lint; "In the Shadow of Washington: John Adams as Vice President," by Jack D. Warren; "The Presidential Election of 1796," by Joanne B. Freeman; "The Disenchantment of a Radical Whig: John Adams Reckons with Free Speech," by Richard D. Brown; "'Splendid Misery': Abigail Adams as First Lady," by Edith B. Gelles; "John Adams and the Science of Politics," by C. Bradley Thompson; and "Presidents as Historians: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by Herbert Sloan.
  +
* Sharp, James Roger. ''American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis.'' (1995), detailed political narrative of 1790s, stressing the emergence of "proto-parties."
  +
* Shaw, Peter. ''The Character of John Adams''. (1975). Elegant short life, infused with psychological insight and sensitivity to Adams's inner life as well as his intellectual life.
 
* Smith, Page. ''John Adams''. (1962) 2 volume; full-scale biography, winner of the Bancroft Prize
 
* Smith, Page. ''John Adams''. (1962) 2 volume; full-scale biography, winner of the Bancroft Prize
* Thompson, C. Bradley. ''John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty''. (1998). Analysis of Adams's political thought; insists Adams was the greatest political thinker among the Founding Generation and anticipated many of the ideas in ''The Federalist.''
+
* Thompson, C. Bradley. ''John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty''. (1998). Acclaimed analysis of Adams's political thought; insisting Adams was the greatest political thinker among the Founding Generation and anticipated many of the ideas in ''The Federalist.''
 
* White, Leonard D. ''The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History'' (1956), thorough analysis of the mechanics of government in 1790s
 
* White, Leonard D. ''The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History'' (1956), thorough analysis of the mechanics of government in 1790s
* Gordon S. Wood. ‘’ Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different’’ (2006)
+
* Wood, Gordon S. ''Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789–1815'' (2009), major new survey of the era in the Oxford History of the United States
  +
* Wood, Gordon S.. ''Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different'' (2006). The chapter on Adams, a slightly revised version of chapter XIV of the author's ''The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787'' (1969), may be the most influential short treatment of John Adams's political thought ever written.
  +
 
===Primary sources===
 
===Primary sources===
*Adams, C.F. ''The Works of John Adams, with Life'' (10 vols., Boston, 1850-1856)
+
* Adams, C.F. ''The Works of John Adams, with Life'' (10 vols., Boston, 1850–1856)
* Butterfield, L. H. et al., eds., ''The Adams Papers'' (1961- ). Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete [http://www.masshist.org/adams_editorial/volumes_published.cfm].
+
* Butterfield, L. H. et al., eds., ''The Adams Papers'' (1961– ). Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete. {{cite web|url=http://www.masshist.org/adams_editorial/volumes_published.cfm |title=The Adams Family Papers Editorial Project |publisher=Masshist.org |date= |accessdate=March 2, 2010}}
 
* Cappon, Lester J. ed. ''The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams'' (1988).
 
* Cappon, Lester J. ed. ''The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams'' (1988).
 
* Carey, George W., ed. ''The Political Writings of John Adams''. (2001). Compilation of extracts from Adams's major political writings.
 
* Carey, George W., ed. ''The Political Writings of John Adams''. (2001). Compilation of extracts from Adams's major political writings.
 
* Diggins, John P., ed. ''The Portable John Adams''. (2004)
 
* Diggins, John P., ed. ''The Portable John Adams''. (2004)
* John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair, eds. ''Spur of Fame, The Dialogues of John Adams and Benjamin Rush, 1805–1813'' (1966) ISBN 978-0-86597-287-2
+
* John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair, eds. ''Spur of Fame, The Dialogues of John Adams and Benjamin Rush, 1805–1813'' (1966) ISBN 978-0-86597-287-2
* C. Bradley Thompson, ed. ''Revolutionary Writings of John Adams,'' (2001) ISBN 978-0-86597-285-8
+
* C. Bradley Thompson, ed. ''Revolutionary Writings of John Adams,'' (2001) ISBN 978-0-86597-285-8
 
* John Adams, ''Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America'' (1774) [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/Book.php?recordID=0284 online version]
 
* John Adams, ''Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America'' (1774) [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/Book.php?recordID=0284 online version]
*Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer. The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, 2004.
+
* Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer. The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, 2004.
  +
* Hogan, Margaret and C. James Taylor, eds. [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/ADAMYD.html ''My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams.''] Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  +
* Taylor, Robert J. et al., eds. [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/ADAPJA.html ''Papers of John Adams.''] Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  +
* Wroth, L. Kinvin and Hiller B. Zobel, eds. [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/ADALEG.html ''The Legal Papers of John Adams.''] Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  +
* Butterfield, L. H., ed. [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/ADAADA.html ''Adams Family Correspondence.''] Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  +
{{Refimprove|date=October 2009|talk=yes}}
   
== External links ==
+
==External links==
{{Wikisource author|John Adams}}
+
{{Spoken Wikipedia-3|2008-05-13|John Adams 1.ogg|John Adams 2.ogg|John Adams 3.ogg}}
{{Wikiquote|John Adams}}
+
{{Wikipedia-Books|Presidents of the United States (1789–1860)}}
{{Commons|John Adams}}
+
{{wikisource author}}
*[http://www.american-presidents.com/john-adams John Adams Biography] as well as quotes, gallery and speeches
+
{{wikiquote}}
*[http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=767&letter=A&search=john%20adams John Adams] @ the {{wp|Jewish Encyclopedia}}
+
{{Commons}}
  +
{{Wikisource1911Enc|Adams, John}}
  +
* [http://www.american-presidents.com/john-adams John Adams Biography] as well as quotes, gallery and speeches
  +
* [http://www.mass.gov/courts/sjc/john-adams-b.html John Adams and the Massachusetts Constitution&nbsp;– Mass.gov]
  +
* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=767&letter=A&search=john%20adams John Adams] @ the [[Jewish Encyclopedia]]
 
* [http://theamericanrevolution.org/ipeople/jadams.asp John Adams]
 
* [http://theamericanrevolution.org/ipeople/jadams.asp John Adams]
 
* [http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ja2.html White House biography]
 
* [http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ja2.html White House biography]
 
* State of the Union Addresses: [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29439 1797], [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29440 1798], [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29441 1799], [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29442 1800]
 
* State of the Union Addresses: [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29439 1797], [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29440 1798], [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29441 1799], [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29442 1800]
* [http://www.american-presidents.com/john-adams/1797-inaugural-address Inaugural Address],
+
* [http://www.american-presidents.com/john-adams/1797-inaugural-address Inaugural Address],
 
* [http://quotes.liberty-tree.ca/quotes_by/john+adams John Adams Quotes] at Liberty-Tree.ca
 
* [http://quotes.liberty-tree.ca/quotes_by/john+adams John Adams Quotes] at Liberty-Tree.ca
 
* [http://www.constitution.org/jadams/thoughts.htm "Thoughts on Government" Adams, April 1776]
 
* [http://www.constitution.org/jadams/thoughts.htm "Thoughts on Government" Adams, April 1776]
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/adamspap.htm The Papers of John Adams] from the Avalon Project (includes Inaugural Address, State of the Union Addresses, and other materials)
+
* [http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/adamspap.asp The Papers of John Adams] from the Avalon Project (includes Inaugural Address, State of the Union Addresses, and other materials)
 
* [http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/aea/ Adams Family Papers: An electronic archive] Captured December 16, 2004.
 
* [http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/aea/ Adams Family Papers: An electronic archive] Captured December 16, 2004.
*{{gutenberg author|id=John_Adams|name=John Adams}}
+
* {{gutenberg author|id=John_Adams_(1735-1826)|name=John Adams}}
*[http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g02.htm Medical and Health History of John Adams]
+
* [http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g02.htm Medical and Health History of John Adams]
*Quotes on the preservation of freedom: [http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/president/gallery/detail.cfm?prez_ID=2]
+
* Quotes on the preservation of freedom: {{cite web|url=http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/president/gallery/detail.cfm?prez_ID=2 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070928001209/http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/president/gallery/detail.cfm?prez_ID=2 |archivedate=September 28, 2007 |title=Mr. President |publisher=Web.archive.org |date=September 28, 2007}}
* The [http://johnadamslibrary.org John Adams Library], housed at the Boston Public Library, contains Adams's personal collection of more than 3,500 volumes in eight languages, many of which are extensively annotated by Adams.
+
* The [http://johnadamslibrary.org/ John Adams Library], housed at the Boston Public Library, contains Adams's personal collection of more than 3,500 volumes in eight languages, many of which are extensively annotated by Adams.
* Official NPS website: [http://www.nps.gov/adam/ Adams National Historical Park]
 
 
* [http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/index.php/academic/americanpresident/adams Extensive essay on John Adams and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs]
 
* [http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/index.php/academic/americanpresident/adams Extensive essay on John Adams and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs]
 
* [http://www.zeios.com/ourrepublic/Authors.aspx?AuthorId=56 Quotes from John Adams on the proper role, and divine purpose of government] at Our Republic
 
* [http://www.zeios.com/ourrepublic/Authors.aspx?AuthorId=56 Quotes from John Adams on the proper role, and divine purpose of government] at Our Republic
  +
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n79-105675}}
  +
* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/presidents/adams/ John Adams: A Resource Guide] from the Library of Congress
  +
* [http://www.familytales.org/results.php?tla=jod John Adams letters to Abigail Adams, Vol. 1]
  +
* {{Find a Grave|6}}
  +
* [http://www.librarything.com/profile/JohnAdams Online catalog of John Adams' personal library], online at [[LibraryThing]]
  +
* [http://www.archive.org/details/lettersofjohnada00adam Letters of John Adams to his wife (1841)]- at the Internet Archive
  +
* {{CongBio|A000039}}
   
+
{| class="navbox collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%; margin:auto;"
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|-
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! style="background:#ccf;"|<span style="float:left;width:6em;">&nbsp;</span>Titles and Succession
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|-
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|
 
{{s-start}}
 
{{s-start}}
  +
{{s-dip}}
  +
{{s-new|office|rows=2}}
  +
{{s-ttl|title=[[United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom|United States Minister to Great Britain]]|years=1785–1788}}
  +
{{s-aft|after=[[Thomas Pinckney]]}}
  +
|-
  +
{{s-ttl|title=[[United States Ambassador to the Netherlands|United States Minister to the Netherlands]]|years=1782–1788}}
  +
{{s-aft|after=[[Charles W. F. Dumas|Charles Dumas]]<br><small>Acting</small>}}
  +
|-
 
{{s-off}}
 
{{s-off}}
{{s-new}}
+
{{s-new|office}}
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|Vice President of the United States}}|years=April 21, 1789¹ – March 4, 1797}}
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{{s-ttl|title=[[Vice President of the United States]]|years=1789–1797}}
{{s-aft|rows=2|after={{wp|Thomas Jefferson}}}}
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{{s-aft|rows=2|after=[[Thomas Jefferson]]}}
{{s-bef|before={{wp|George Washington}}}}
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|-
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|President of the United States}}|years=March 4, 1797 &ndash; March 4, 1801}}
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{{s-bef|before=[[George Washington]]}}
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{{s-ttl|title=[[President of the United States]]|years=1797–1801}}
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|-
 
{{s-ppo}}
 
{{s-ppo}}
{{s-new|rows=2|reason=First candidate}}
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{{s-new|rows=2|party}}
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|United States Federalist Party|Federalist Party}} {{wp|Vice President of the United States|vice presidential}} candidate|years={{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1792|1792}}² ³}}
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{{s-ttl|title=[[Federalist Party|Federalist]] nominee for [[Vice President of the United States]]|years=[[United States presidential election, 1792|1792]]¹²}}
{{s-aft|after={{wp|Thomas Pinckney}}³}}
+
{{s-aft|after=[[Thomas Pinckney]]²}}
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|United States Federalist Party|Federalist Party}} {{wp|President of the United States|presidential}} candidate|years={{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1796|1796}}, {{wp|U.S. presidential election, 1800|1800}}}}
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|-
{{s-aft|after={{wp|Charles Cotesworth Pinckney}}}}
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{{s-ttl|title=[[Federalist Party|Federalist]] nominee for [[President of the United States]]|years=[[United States presidential election, 1796|1796]], [[United States presidential election, 1800|1800]]}}
{{s-dip}}
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{{s-aft|after=[[Charles Cotesworth Pinckney|Charles Pinckney]]}}
{{s-new|rows=2}}
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|-
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|United States Ambassador to the Netherlands|United States Minister to the Netherlands}}|years=1782 &ndash; 1788}}
 
{{s-aft|after={{wp|Charles W.F. Dumas}}}}
 
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|United States Ambassador to Great Britain|United States Minister to Great Britain}}|years=1785 &ndash; 1788}}
 
{{s-aft|after={{wp|Thomas Pinckney}}}}
 
 
{{s-hon}}
 
{{s-hon}}
{{s-bef|before={{wp|George Washington}}}}
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{{s-bef|before=[[George Washington]]}}
{{s-ttl|title={{wp|Oldest living United States president|Oldest U.S. President still living}}|years=December 14, 1799 &ndash; July 4, 1826}}
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{{s-ttl|title=[[Oldest living United States president|Oldest living President of the United States]]|years=1799–1826}}
{{s-aft|after={{wp|James Madison}}}}
+
{{s-aft|after=[[James Madison]]}}
{{s-ref|Adams' term as Vice President is sometimes listed as starting on either March 4 or April 6. March 4 is the official start of the first vice presidential term. April 6 is the date on which Congress counted the electoral votes and certified a Vice President. April 21 is the date on which Adams took the oath of office.|While Adams won the Vice Presidency in {{wp|United States presidential election, 1789|1789}} as well, he was not the candidate of the Federalist Party, which had not yet formed.|Technically, Adams was a presidential candidate in 1792 and Pinckney was a presidential candidate in 1796. Prior to the passage of the {{wp|Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Twelfth Amendment}} in 1804, each presidential elector could cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President. Thus, in 1792, with {{wp|George Washington}} as the prohibitive favorite for President, the Federalist party fielded Adams as a presidential candidate, with the intention that he be elected to the Vice Presidency. Similarly, in 1796 and 1800, the Federalist party fielded two candidates, Adams and Thomas Pinckney in 1796 and Adams and {{wp|Charles Cotesworth Pinckney}} in 1800, with the intention that Adams be elected President and Pinckney be elected Vice President.}}
+
{{s-ref|While Adams won the Vice Presidency in [[United States presidential election, 1789|1789]] as well, he was not the candidate of the Federalist Party, which had not yet formed.|Technically, Adams was a presidential candidate in 1792 and Pinckney was a presidential candidate in 1796. Prior to the passage of the [[Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution|Twelfth Amendment]] in 1804, each presidential elector could cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President. Thus, in 1792, with [[George Washington]] as the prohibitive favorite for President, the Federalist party fielded Adams as a presidential candidate, with the intention that he be elected to the Vice Presidency. Similarly, in 1796 and 1800, the Federalist party fielded two candidates, Adams and Thomas Pinckney in 1796 and Adams and [[Charles Cotesworth Pinckney|Charles Pinckney]] in 1800, with the intention that Adams be elected President and Pinckney be elected Vice President.
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|ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
 
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|SHORT DESCRIPTION=2nd U.S. President
 
|SHORT DESCRIPTION=2nd U.S. President
|DATE OF BIRTH={{wp|October 30}} {{wp|1735}}
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|DATE OF BIRTH=October 30, 1735
|PLACE OF BIRTH={{wp|John Adams birthplace (Quincy, Massachusetts)}}, {{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts}}
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|PLACE OF BIRTH=[[John Adams birthplace (Quincy, Massachusetts)]], [[Quincy, Massachusetts]]
|DATE OF DEATH={{wp|July 4}} {{wp|1826}}
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|DATE OF DEATH=July 4, 1826
|PLACE OF DEATH={{wp|Quincy, Massachusetts}}
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|PLACE OF DEATH=[[Quincy, Massachusetts]]
 
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<noinclude><small>{{usedwp|John Adams}}</small></noinclude>
 

Latest revision as of 07:59, February 7, 2016

John Adams
A painted portrait of a man with greying hair, looking left.

In office
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Vice President Thomas Jefferson
Preceded by George Washington
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson

In office
April 21, 1789* – March 4, 1797
President George Washington
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson

In office
April 1, 1785 – March 30, 1788
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Thomas Pinckney

In office
April 19, 1782 – March 30, 1788
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Charles Dumas (Acting)

In office
May 10, 1775 – June 27, 1778
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Samuel Holten

In office
September 5, 1774 – October 26, 1774
Preceded by None
Succeeded by None

Born October 30, 1735(1735-10-30)
Braintree Massachusetts Bay (now Quincy), British America
Died July 4, 1826 (age 90)
Quincy, Massachusetts, United States
Political party Federalist Party
Spouse(s) Abigail Smith
Children Nabby
John Quincy
Susanna
Charles
Thomas
Elizabeth (Stillborn)
Alma mater Harvard University
Profession Lawyer
Religion Unitarianism
Signature Cursive signature in ink
*Adams' term as Vice President is sometimes listed as starting on either March 4 or April 6. March 4 is the official start of the first vice presidential term. April 6 is the date on which Congress counted the electoral votes and certified a Vice President. April 21 is the date on which Adams began presiding over the U.S. Senate.

John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States (1797–1801). Hailing from New England, Adams, a prominent lawyer and public figure in Boston, was highly educated and represented Enlightenment values promoting republicanism. A Federalist, he was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States.

Adams came to prominence in the early stages of the American Revolution. As a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence, and assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776. As a representative of Congress in Europe, he was a major negotiator of the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and chiefly responsible for obtaining important loans from Amsterdam bankers. A political theorist and historian, Adams largely wrote the Massachusetts state constitution in 1780, but was in Europe when the federal Constitution was drafted on similar principles later in the decade. One of his greatest roles was as a judge of character: in 1775, he nominated George Washington to be commander-in-chief, and 25 years later nominated John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the United States.

Adams' revolutionary credentials secured him two terms as George Washington's vice president and his own election in 1796 as the second president. During his one term, he encountered ferocious attacks by the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party led by his bitter enemy Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy especially in the face of an undeclared naval war (called the "Quasi War") with France, 1798–1800. The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition.

In 1800 Adams was defeated for reelection by Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts. He later resumed his friendship with Jefferson. He and his wife, Abigail Adams, founded an accomplished family line of politicians, diplomats, and historians now referred to as the Adams political family. Adams was the father of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States. His achievements have received greater recognition in modern times, though his contributions were not initially as celebrated as those of other Founders.

Early lifeEdit

John Adams, Jr., the eldest of three sons,[1] was born on October 30, 1735 (October 19, 1735 Old Style, Julian calendar), in what is now Quincy, Massachusetts (then called the "north precinct" of Braintree, Massachusetts), to John Adams, Sr., and Susanna Boylston Adams.[2] The location of Adams's birth is now part of Adams National Historical Park. His father, also named John (1691–1761), was a fifth-generation descendant of Henry Adams, who emigrated from Braintree, Essex, in England to Massachusetts Bay Colony in about 1638. His father was a farmer, a Congregationalist (that is, Puritan) deacon, a lieutenant in the militia and a selectman, or town councilman, who supervised schools and roads. His mother, Susanna Boylston Adams,[3] was a descendant of the Boylstons of Brookline.

Adams was born to a modest family, but he felt acutely the responsibility of living up to his family heritage: the founding generation of Puritans, who came to the American wilderness in the 1630s and established colonial presence in America. The Puritans of the great migration "believed they lived in the Bible. England under the Stuarts was Egypt; they were Israel fleeing ... to establish a refuge for godliness, a city upon a hill."[4] By the time of John Adams's birth in 1735, Puritan tenets such as predestination were no longer as widely accepted, and many of their stricter practices had mellowed with time, but John Adams "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." It was a value system he believed in, and a heroic model he wished to live up to.[5]

Young Adams went to Harvard College at age sixteen in 1751.[6] His father expected him to become a minister, but Adams had doubts. After graduating in 1755, he taught school for a few years in Worcester, allowing himself time to think about his career choice. After much reflection, he decided to become a lawyer and studied law in the office of John Putnam, a prominent lawyer in Worcester. In 1758, Adams was admitted to the bar. From an early age, he developed the habit of writing descriptions of events and impressions of men which are scattered through his diary. He put the skill to good use as a lawyer, often recording cases he observed so that he could study and reflect upon them. His report of the 1761 argument of James Otis in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the legality of Writs of Assistance is a good example. Otis's argument inspired Adams with zeal for the cause of the American colonies.[7]

On October 25, 1764, five days before his 29th birthday, Adams married Abigail Smith (1744–1818), his third cousin[8] and the daughter of a Congregational minister, Rev. William Smith, at Weymouth, Massachusetts. Their children were Abigail (1765–1813); future president John Quincy (1767–1848); Susanna (1768–1770); Charles (1770–1800); Thomas Boylston (1772–1832); and the stillborn Elizabeth (1777).

Adams was not a popular leader like his second cousin, Samuel Adams. Instead, his influence emerged through his work as a constitutional lawyer and his intense analysis of historical examples,[9] together with his thorough knowledge of the law and his dedication to the principles of republicanism. Adams often found his inborn contentiousness to be a constraint in his political career.

Career before the RevolutionEdit

Opponent of Stamp Act 1765Edit

Adams first rose to prominence as an opponent of the Stamp Act of 1765, which was imposed by the British Parliament without consulting the American legislatures. Americans protested vehemently that it violated their traditional rights as Englishmen. Popular resistance, he later observed, was sparked by an oft-reprinted sermon of the Boston minister, Jonathan Mayhew, interpreting Romans 13 to elucidate the principle of just insurrection.[10]

In 1765, Adams drafted the instructions which were sent by the inhabitants of Braintree to its representatives in the Massachusetts legislature, and which served as a model for other towns to draw up instructions to their representatives. In August 1765, he anonymously contributed four notable articles to the Boston Gazette (republished in The London Chronicle in 1768 as True Sentiments of America, also known as A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law). In the letter he suggested that there was a connection between the Protestant ideas that Adams's Puritan ancestors brought to New England and the ideas behind their resistance to the Stamp Act. In the former he explained that the opposition of the colonies to the Stamp Act was because the Stamp Act deprived the American colonists of two basic rights guaranteed to all Englishmen, and which all free men deserved: rights to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one's peers.

The "Braintree Instructions" were a succinct and forthright defense of colonial rights and liberties, while the Dissertation was an essay in political education.

In December 1765, he delivered a speech before the governor and council in which he pronounced the Stamp Act invalid on the ground that Massachusetts, being without representation in Parliament, had not assented to it.[11]

Boston MassacreEdit

In 1770, a street confrontation resulted in British soldiers killing five civilians in what became known as the Boston Massacre.[12] The soldiers involved were arrested on criminal charges. Not surprisingly, they had trouble finding legal counsel to represent them. Finally, they asked Adams to defend. He accepted, though he feared it would hurt his reputation. In their defense, Adams made his now famous quote regarding making decisions based on the evidence "Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence."[13] Six of the soldiers were acquitted. Two who had fired directly into the crowd were charged with murder but were convicted only of manslaughter. Adams was paid eighteen guineas by the British soldiers, or about the cost of a pair of shoes.[14]

Despite his previous misgivings, Adams was elected to the Massachusetts General Court (the colonial legislature) in June 1770, while still in preparation for the trial.[15]

Dispute concerning Parliament's authorityEdit

In 1772, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson announced that he and his judges would no longer need their salaries paid by the Massachusetts legislature, because the Crown would henceforth assume payment drawn from customs revenues. Boston radicals protested and asked Adams to explain their objections. In "Two Replies of the Massachusetts House of Representatives to Governor Hutchinson" Adams argued that the colonists had never been under the sovereignty of Parliament. Their original charter was with the person of the king and their allegiance was only to him. If a workable line could not be drawn between parliamentary sovereignty and the total independence of the colonies, he continued, the colonies would have no other choice but to choose independence.

In Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America, From Its Origin, in 1754, to the Present Time Adams attacked some essays by Daniel Leonard that defended Hutchinson's arguments for the absolute authority of Parliament over the colonies. In Novanglus Adams gave a point-by-point refutation of Leonard's essays, and then provided one of the most extensive and learned arguments made by the colonists against British imperial policy.

It was a systematic attempt by Adams to describe the origins, nature, and jurisdiction of the unwritten British constitution. Adams used his wide knowledge of English and colonial legal history to argue that the provincial legislatures were fully sovereign over their own internal affairs, and that the colonies were connected to Great Britain only through the King.

Continental CongressEdit

Massachusetts sent Adams to the first and second Continental Congresses in 1774 and from 1775 to 1777.[16] In June 1775, with a view of promoting union among the colonies, he nominated George Washington of Virginia as commander-in-chief of the army then assembled around Boston. His influence in Congress was great, and almost from the beginning, he sought permanent separation from Britain.

On May 15, 1776, the Continental Congress, in response to escalating hostilities which had started thirteen months earlier at the battles of Lexington and Concord, urged that the colonies begin constructing their own constitutions, a precursor to becoming independent states. The resolution to draft independent constitutions was, as Adams put it, "independence itself."[17]

Over the next decade, Americans from every state gathered and deliberated on new governing documents. As radical as it was to write constitutions (prior convention suggested that a society's form of government needn't be codified, nor should its organic law be written down in a single document), what was equally radical was the nature of American political thought as the summer of 1776 dawned.[18]

Thoughts on GovernmentEdit

"The whole people must take upon themselves the education of the whole people and be willing to bear the expenses of it. There should not be a district of one mile square, without a school in it, not founded by a charitable individual, but maintained at the public expense of the people themselves."

 – John Adams, 1785[19]

Several representatives turned to Adams for advice about framing new governments. Adams got tired of repeating the same thing, and published the pamphlet "Thoughts on Government" (1776),[20] which was subsequently influential in the writing of state constitutions.[21] Using the conceptual framework of Republicanism in the United States, the patriots believed it was the corrupt and nefarious aristocrats, in the British Parliament, and their minions stationed in America, who were guilty of the British assault on American liberty.[22]

Adams advised that the form of government should be chosen to attain the desired ends, which are the happiness and virtue of the greatest number of people. With this goal in mind, he wrote in "Thoughts on Government",

There is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the British constitution is so; because the very definition of a republic is 'an empire of laws, and not of men.

The treatise also defended bicameralism, for "a single assembly is liable to all the vices, follies, and frailties of an individual."[23] He also suggested that there should be a separation of powers between the executive, the judicial, and the legislative branches, and further recommended that if a continental government were to be formed then it "should sacredly be confined" to certain enumerated powers. "Thoughts on Government" was enormously influential and was referenced as an authority in every state-constitution writing hall.

depicts the five-man committee presenting the draft of the Declaration of Independence to Congress.

Trumbull's Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man committee presenting the draft of the Declaration of Independence to Congress. Adams is seen standing in the center with his hand on his hip.

Declaration of IndependenceEdit

On June 7, 1776, Adams seconded the resolution of independence introduced by Richard Henry Lee which stated, "These colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states," and championed the resolution until it was adopted by Congress on July 2, 1776.[24]

He was appointed to a committee with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston and Roger Sherman, to draft a Declaration of Independence. Although that document was written primarily by Jefferson, Adams occupied the foremost place in the debate on its adoption. Many years later, Jefferson hailed Adams as "the pillar of [the Declaration's] support on the floor of Congress, its ablest advocate and defender against the multifarious assaults it encountered."[25]

After the defeat of the Continental Army at the Battle of Long Island on August 27, 1776, General William Howe requested the Second Continental Congress send representatives to negotiate peace. A delegation including Adams and Benjamin Franklin met with Howe on Staten Island in New York Harbor on September 11, where Howe demanded the Declaration of Independence be rescinded before any other terms could be discussed. The delegation refused, and hostilities continued. In 1777, Adams resigned his seat on the Massachusetts Superior Court to serve as the head of the Board of War and Ordnance, as well as many other important committees.[26]

In EuropeEdit

Passport John Adams Benjamin Franklin John Jay Ministers Plenipotentiary 1783

Passport for ministers plenipotentiary John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay for safe passage to negotiate treaties, 1783

Congress twice dispatched Adams to represent the fledgling union in Europe, first in 1777, and again in 1779. Accompanied, on both occasions, by his eldest son, John Quincy (who was ten years old at the time of the first voyage), Adams sailed for France aboard the Continental Navy frigate Boston on February 15, 1778. The trip through winter storms was treacherous, with lightning injuring 19 sailors and killing one. Adams' ship was then pursued by and successfully evaded several British frigates in the mid-Atlantic. Toward the coast of Spain, Adams himself took up arms to help capture a heavily armed British merchantman ship, the Martha. Later, a cannon malfunction killed one and injured five more of Adams' crew before the ship finally arrived in France.[27]

Adams was in some regards an unlikely choice in as much as he did not speak French, the international language of diplomacy at the time.[28] His first stay in Europe, between April 1, 1778, and June 17, 1779, was largely unproductive, and he returned to his home in Braintree in early August 1779.

Between September 1 and October 30, 1779, he drafted the Massachusetts Constitution together with Samuel Adams and James Bowdoin. He was selected in September 1779 to return to France and, following the conclusion of the Massachusetts constitutional convention, left on November 14th [29] aboard the French frigate Sensible.

On the second trip, Adams was appointed as Minister Plenipotentiary charged with the mission of negotiating a treaty of amity and commerce with Britain. The French government, however, did not approve of Adams's appointment and subsequently, on the insistence of the French foreign minister, the Comte de Vergennes, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay and Henry Laurens were appointed to cooperate with Adams, although Jefferson did not go to Europe and Laurens was posted to the Dutch Republic. In the event Jay, Adams, and Franklin played the major part in the negotiations. Overruling Franklin and distrustful of Vergennes, Jay and Adams decided not to consult with France. Instead, they dealt directly with the British commissioners.[30]

Throughout the negotiations, Adams was especially determined that the right of the United States to the fisheries along the Atlantic coast should be recognized. The American negotiators were able to secure a favorable treaty, which gave Americans ownership of all lands east of the Mississippi, except East and West Florida, which were transferred to Spain. The treaty was signed on November 30, 1782.

After these negotiations began, Adams had spent some time as the ambassador in the Dutch Republic, then one of the few other Republics in the world (the Republic of Venice and the Old Swiss Confederacy being the other notable ones). In July 1780, he had been authorized to execute the duties previously assigned to Laurens. With the aid of the Dutch Patriot leader Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, Adams secured the recognition of the United States as an independent government at The Hague on April 19, 1782.[31] During this visit, he also negotiated a loan of five million guilders financed by Nicolaas van Staphorst and Wilhelm Willink.[32] In October 1782, he negotiated with the Dutch a treaty of amity and commerce, the first such treaty between the United States and a foreign power following the 1778 treaty with France. The house that Adams bought during this stay in The Netherlands became the first American-owned embassy on foreign soil anywhere in the world.[33] For two months during 1783, Adams lodged in London with radical publisher John Stockdale.[34]

In 1784 and 1785, he was one of the architects of far-going trade relations between the US and Prussia. The Prussian ambassador in The Hague, Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer, was involved, as were Jefferson and Franklin, who were in Paris.[35]

In 1785, John Adams was appointed the first American minister to the Court of St. James's (ambassador to Great Britain). When he was presented to his former sovereign, George III, the King intimated that he was aware of Adams's lack of confidence in the French government. Adams admitted this, stating: "I must avow to your Majesty that I have no attachment but to my own country."

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom referred to this episode on July 7, 1976, at the White House. She said:

John Adams, America's first Ambassador, said to my ancestor, King George III, that it was his desire to help with the restoration of 'the old good nature and the old good humor between our peoples.' That restoration has long been made, and the links of language, tradition, and personal contact have maintained it.[36]

While in London, John and Abigail had to suffer the stares and hostility of the Court, and chose to escape it when they could by seeking out Richard Price, minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church and instigator of the Revolution Controversy. Both admired Price very much, and Abigail took to heart the teachings of the man and his protegee Mary Wollstonecraft, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.[37]

Adams's home in England, a house off London's Grosvenor Square, still stands and is commemorated by a plaque. He returned to the United States in 1788 to continue his domestic political life.

Constitutional ideasEdit

John adams stamp

John Adams, as depicted on a two-cent American president U.S.Postage stamp

Massachusetts's new constitution, ratified in 1780 and written largely by Adams himself, structured its government most closely on his views of politics and society.[38] It was the first constitution written by a special committee and ratified by the people. It was also the first to feature a bicameral legislature, a clear and distinct executive with a partial (two-thirds) veto (although he was restrained by an executive council), and a distinct judicial branch.

While in London, Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States (1787).[39] In it he repudiated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of state governments. Turgot argued that countries that lacked aristocracies needn't have bicameral legislatures. He thought that republican governments feature "all authorities into one center, that of the nation."[40] In the book, Adams suggested that "the rich, the well-born and the able" should be set apart from other men in a senate—that would prevent them from dominating the lower house. Wood (2006) has maintained that Adams had become intellectually irrelevant by the time the Federal Constitution was ratified. By then, American political thought, transformed by more than a decade of vigorous and searching debate as well as shaping experiential pressures, had abandoned the classical conception of politics which understood government as a mirror of social estates. Americans' new conception of popular sovereignty now saw the people-at-large as the sole possessors of power in the realm. All agents of the government enjoyed mere portions of the people's power and only for a limited time. Adams had completely missed this concept and revealed his continued attachment to the older version of politics.[41] Yet Wood overlooks Adams's peculiar definition of the term "republic," and his support for a constitution ratified by the people.[42] He also underplays Adams's belief in checks and balances. "Power must be opposed to power, and interest to interest," Adams wrote; this sentiment would later be echoed by James Madison's famous statement that "[a]mbition must be made to counteract ambition" in The Federalist No. 51, in explaining the powers of the branches of the United States federal government under the new Constitution.[43][44] Adams did as much as anyone to put the idea of "checks and balances" on the intellectual map.

Adams's Defence can be read as an articulation of the classical republican theory of mixed government. Adams contended that social classes exist in every political society, and that a good government must accept that reality. For centuries, dating back to Aristotle, a mixed regime balancing monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy—that is, the king, the nobles, and the people—was required to preserve order and liberty.[45]

Adams never bought a slave and declined on principle to employ slave labor.[46] Abigail Adams opposed slavery and employed free blacks in preference to her father's two domestic slaves. John Adams spoke out in 1777 against a bill to emancipate slaves in Massachusetts, saying that the issue was presently too divisive, and so the legislation should "sleep for a time."[47] He also was against use of black soldiers in the Revolution, due to opposition from southerners.[47] Adams generally tried to keep the issue out of national politics, because of the anticipated southern response.[47][48] Though it is difficult to pinpoint the exact date on which slavery was abolished in Massachusetts, a common view is that it was abolished no later than 1780, when it was forbidden by implication in the Declaration of Rights that John Adams wrote into the Massachusetts Constitution.[49]

Vice PresidencyEdit

Adamstrumbull

Portrait of Adams by John Trumbull, 1792–93

While Washington won the presidential election of 1789 with 69 votes in the electoral college, Adams came in second with 34 votes and became Vice President. According to David McCullough, what he really might have wanted was to be the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He presided over the Senate but otherwise played a minor role in the politics of the early 1790s; he was reelected in 1792. Washington seldom asked Adams for input on policy and legal issues during his tenure as vice president.[50]

In the first year of Washington's administration, Adams became deeply involved in a month-long Senate controversy over the official title of the President. Adams favored grandiose titles such as "His Majesty the President" or "His High Mightiness" over the simple "President of the United States" that eventually won the debate. The pomposity of his stance, along with his being overweight, led to Adams earning the nickname "His Rotundity."

As president of the Senate, Adams cast 29 tie-breaking votes—a record that only John C. Calhoun came close to tying, with 28.[51] His votes protected the president's sole authority over the removal of appointees and influenced the location of the national capital. On at least one occasion, he persuaded senators to vote against legislation that he opposed, and he frequently lectured the Senate on procedural and policy matters. Adams's political views and his active role in the Senate made him a natural target for critics of the Washington administration. Toward the end of his first term, as a result of a threatened resolution that would have silenced him except for procedural and policy matters, he began to exercise more restraint. When the two political parties formed, he joined the Federalist Party, but never got on well with its dominant leader Alexander Hamilton. Because of Adams's seniority and the need for a northern president, he was elected as the Federalist nominee for president in 1796, over Thomas Jefferson, the leader of the opposition Democratic-Republican Party. His success was due to peace and prosperity; Washington and Hamilton had averted war with Britain with the Jay Treaty of 1795.[52]

Adams's two terms as Vice President were frustrating experiences for a man of his vigor, intellect, and vanity. He complained to his wife Abigail, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."[53]

Election of 1796Edit

The 1796 election was the first contested election under the First Party System. Adams was the presidential candidate of the Federalist Party and Thomas Pinckney, the Governor of South Carolina, was also running as a Federalist (at this point, the vice president was whoever came in second, so no running mates existed in the modern sense). The Federalists wanted Adams as their presidential candidate to crush Thomas Jefferson's bid. Most Federalists would have preferred Hamilton to be a candidate. Although Hamilton and his followers supported Adams, they also held a grudge against him. They did consider him to be the lesser of the two evils. However, they thought Adams lacked the seriousness and popularity that had caused Washington to be successful and feared that Adams was too vain, opinionated, unpredictable, and stubborn to follow their directions.[54]

Adams's opponents were former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, who was joined by Senator Aaron Burr of New York on the Democratic-Republican ticket.

As was customary, Adams stayed in his home town of Quincy rather than actively campaign for the Presidency. He wanted to stay out of what he called the silly and wicked game. His party, however, campaigned for him, while the Democratic-Republicans campaigned for Jefferson.

It was expected that Adams would dominate the votes in New England, while Jefferson was expected to win in the Southern states. In the end, Adams won the election by a narrow margin of 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson (who became the vice president).[55]

Presidency: 1797–1801Edit

PhiladelphiaPresidentsHouse

President's House, Philadelphia. The presidential mansion of George Washington before him, Adams occupied this Philadelphia mansion from March 1797 to May 1800.

As President, Adams followed Washington's lead in making the presidency the example of republican values, and stressing civic virtue; he was never implicated in any scandal. Some historians consider his worst mistake to be keeping the old cabinet, which was controlled by Hamilton, instead of installing his own people, confirming Adams' own admission that he was a poor politician because he "was unpractised in intrigues for power."[56] Yet, there are those historians who feel that Adams' retention of Washington's cabinet was a statesmanlike step to soothe worries about an orderly succession. As Adams himself explained, "I had then no particular object of any of them."[57] Adams spent much of his term at his home in Massachusetts, ignoring the details of patronage and communication that were not ignored by his opponents in both parties.

Adams' combative spirit did not always lend itself to presidential decorum, as Adams himself admitted in his old age: "[As president] I refused to suffer in silence. I sighed, sobbed, and groaned, and sometimes screeched and screamed. And I must confess to my shame and sorrow that I sometimes swore."[58]

Adams continued not just the Washington cabinet but all the major programs of the Washington Administration as well. Adams made no major new proposals. His economic programs were thus a continuation of those of Hamilton, who regularly consulted with key cabinet members, especially the powerful Secretary of the Treasury, Oliver Wolcott, Jr.[59]

Foreign policyEdit

Adams's term (1797–1801) was marked by intense disputes over foreign policy and a limited naval war with France. Britain and France were at war; Hamilton and the Federalists favored Britain, while Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans favored France.[60]

When Adams entered office, he realized that he needed to protect Washington's policy of staying out of the French and British war. Indeed, the intense battle over the Jay Treaty in 1795 permanently polarized politics up and down the nation, marking the start of the First Party System, with most elections now contested.[61]

The French saw America as Britain's junior partner and began seizing American merchant ships that were trading with the British in what became known as the "Quasi-War." Neither nation declared war officially, but the risk was high and the Federalists re-armed the nation in preparation for war—and perhaps in preparation for suppressing the anti-war Republicans.[62]

The humiliation of the XYZ Affair, in which the French demanded huge bribes (specifically $250,000 to French foreign minister Talleyrand) before any discussions could begin, led to serious threats of full-scale war with France and embarrassed the Jeffersonians, who were friends to France. An undeclared naval war between the U.S. and France, called the Quasi-War, broke out in 1798, and there was danger of invasion from the much larger and more powerful French forces. The Federalists built up the army, bringing back Washington as its head and Hamilton as its leading force. Adams rebuilt the Navy, adding six fast, powerful frigates, such as USS Constitution. To pay for it all, Congress raised taxes.[63] Nevertheless, Adams was extremely proud of having kept the nation out of war; later in life he even asked that his tombstone read "Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the responsibility of Peace with France in the year 1800." [64]

John Adams Presidential $1 Coin obverse

Presidential Dollar of John Adams

Alien and Sedition ActsEdit

Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were signed by Adams in 1798.[65][66]

There were four separate acts:

  • The Naturalization Act, passed on June 18
  • The Alien Act, passed on June 24
  • The Alien Enemies Act, passed on July 6
  • The Sedition Act, passed on July 14

These four acts were passed to suppress Republican opposition. The Naturalization Act changed the period of residence required before an immigrant could attain American citizenship to 14 years (naturalized citizens tended to vote for the Democratic-Republicans). The Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to deport any foreigner he thought dangerous to the country. The Sedition Act made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. Punishments included 2–5 years in prison and fines of up to $5,000. Although Adams had not originated or promoted any of these acts, he nevertheless signed them into law.

Those acts, and the high-profile prosecution of a number of newspaper editors and one member of Congress by the Federalists, became highly controversial. Some historians have noted that the Alien and Sedition Acts were relatively rarely enforced, as only 10 convictions under the Sedition Act have been identified and as Adams never signed a deportation order, and that the furor over the Alien and Sedition Acts was mainly stirred up by the Democratic-Republicans. However, other historians emphasize that the Acts were highly controversial from the outset, resulting in many aliens leaving the country voluntarily, and created an atmosphere where opposing the Federalists, even on the floor of Congress, could and did result in prosecution. The election of 1800 became a bitter and volatile battle, with each side expressing extraordinary fear of the other party and its policies.[67]

ArmyEdit

The Federalist party was deeply divided over the leadership of the Army. Adams was forced to name Washington as commander of the new army, and Washington demanded that Hamilton be his second-in-command. Adams reluctantly gave in.[68] Major General Hamilton assumed a high degree of control over the War department. The rift between Adams and the High Federalists (as Adams's opponents were called) grew wider. The High Federalists refused to consult Adams over the key legislation of 1798; they changed the defense measures which he had called for, demanded that Hamilton control the army, and refused to recognize the necessity of giving key Democratic-Republicans (like Aaron Burr) senior positions in the army (which Adams wanted to do to gain some Democratic-Republican support). By building a large standing army the High Federalists raised popular alarms and played into the hands of the Democratic-Republicans. They also alienated Adams and his large personal following. They shortsightedly viewed the Federalist party as their own tool and ignored the need to pull together the entire nation in the face of war with France.[69]

For long stretches, Adams withdrew to his home in Massachusetts. In February 1799, Adams stunned the country by sending diplomat William Vans Murray on a peace mission to France. Napoleon, realizing the animosity of the United States was doing no good, signaled his readiness for friendly relations. The Treaty of Alliance of 1778 was superseded and the United States could now be free of foreign entanglements, as Washington advised in his own Farewell Letter. Adams avoided war, but deeply split his own party in the process. He brought in John Marshall as Secretary of State and demobilized the emergency army.[70]

Fries's RebellionEdit

To pay for the new Army, Congress imposed new taxes on property: the Direct Tax of 1798. It was the first (and last) such federal tax. Taxpayers were angry, nowhere more so than in southeast Pennsylvania, where the bloodless Fries's Rebellion broke out among rural German-speaking farmers who protested what they saw as a threat to their republican liberties and to their churches.[71]

Reelection campaign 1800Edit

The death of Washington, in 1799, weakened the Federalists, as they lost the one man who symbolized and united the party. In the presidential election of 1800, Adams and his fellow Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, went against the Republican duo of Jefferson and Burr. Hamilton tried his hardest to sabotage Adams's campaign in hopes of boosting Pinckney's chances of winning the presidency. In the end, Adams lost narrowly to Jefferson by 65 to 73 electoral votes, with New York casting the decisive vote.

Adams was defeated because of better organization by the Republicans and Federalist disunity; by the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the popularity of his opponent, Jefferson, and the effective politicking of Aaron Burr in New York State, where the legislature (which selected the electoral college) shifted from Federalist to Democratic-Republican on the basis of a few wards in New York City controlled by Burr's machine.[72]

In the closing months of his term Adams became the first President to occupy the new, but unfinished President's Mansion (later known as the White House), beginning November 1, 1800.[73] Since 1800 was not a leap year, he served one less day in office than all other one-term Presidents.

Midnight JudgesEdit

The lame-duck session of Congress enacted the Judiciary Act of 1801, which created a set of federal appeals courts between the district courts and the Supreme Court. The purpose of the statute was twofold -- first, to remedy the defects in the federal judicial system inherent in the Judiciary Act of 1789, and, second, to enable the defeated Federalists to staff the new judicial offices with loyal Federalists in the face of the party's defeat in presidential and congressional elections in 1800.[74] As his term was expiring, Adams filled the vacancies created by this statute by appointing a series of judges, whom his opponents called the "Midnight Judges" because most of them were formally appointed days before the presidential term expired. Most of these judges lost their posts when the Jeffersonian Republicans enacted the Judiciary Act of 1802, abolishing the courts created by the Judiciary Act of 1801 and returning the structure of the federal courts to its original structure as specified in the 1789 statute. Adams's greatest legacy was his naming of John Marshall as the fourth Chief Justice of the United States to succeed Oliver Ellsworth, who had retired due to ill health. Marshall's long tenure represents the most lasting influence of the Federalists, as Marshall infused the Constitution with a judicious and carefully reasoned nationalistic interpretation and established the Judicial Branch as the equal of the Executive and Legislative branches.[75]

Major presidential actionsEdit

SpeechesEdit

Inaugural AddressesEdit

State of the Union AddressEdit

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court Appointments 1797–1801Edit

</tr> </tr> </tr>
The Adams Cabinet
Office Name Term
President John Adams1797–1801
Vice President Thomas Jefferson1797–1801
Secretary of State Timothy Pickering1797–1800
John Marshall1800–1801
Secretary of Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr.1797–1801
Samuel Dexter1801
Secretary of War James McHenry1796–1800
Samuel Dexter1800–1801
Attorney General Charles Lee1797–1801
Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert1798–1801

Template:Infobox SCOTUS Appointments

An unsmiling elderly man sits in a red chair, slightly pointing left.

John Adams, ca 1816, by Samuel F.B. Morse (Brooklyn Museum)

Post presidencyEdit

Following his 1800 defeat, Adams retired into private life. Depressed when he left office, he did not attend Jefferson's inauguration, making him one of only four surviving presidents (i.e., those who did not die in office) not to attend his successor's inauguration. Adams's correspondence with Jefferson at the time of the transition suggests that he did not feel the animosity or resentment that later scholars have attributed to him. He left Washington before Jefferson's inauguration as much out of sorrow at the death of his son Charles Adams (due in part to the younger man's alcoholism) and his desire to rejoin his wife Abigail, who had left for Massachusetts months before the inauguration. Adams resumed farming at his home, Peacefield, near the town of Quincy, which had absorbed his birthplace, Braintree. He began to work on an autobiography (which he never finished), and resumed correspondence with such old friends as Benjamin Waterhouse and Benjamin Rush. He also began a bitter and resentful correspondence with an old family friend, Mercy Otis Warren, protesting how in her 1805 history of the American Revolution she had, in his view, caricatured his political beliefs and misrepresented his services to the country.[76]

After Jefferson's retirement from public life in 1809 after two terms as President, Adams became more vocal. For three years he published a stream of letters in the Boston Patriot newspaper, presenting a long and almost line-by-line refutation of an 1800 pamphlet by Hamilton attacking his conduct and character. Though Hamilton had died in 1804 from a mortal wound sustained in his notorious duel with Aaron Burr, Adams felt the need to vindicate his character against the New Yorker's vehement attacks.[77]

In early 1812, Adams reconciled with Jefferson. Their mutual friend Benjamin Rush, a fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence who had been corresponding with both, encouraged each man to reach out to the other. On New Year's Day 1812, Adams sent a brief, friendly note to Jefferson to accompany the delivery of "two pieces of homespun," a two-volume collection of lectures on rhetoric by John Quincy Adams. Jefferson replied immediately with a warm, friendly letter, and the two men revived their friendship, which they conducted by mail. The correspondence that they resumed in 1812 lasted the rest of their lives, and thereafter has been hailed as one of their greatest legacies and a monument of American literature.[78]

An elderly man sits in a red chair with his arms crossed, looking slightly left.

John Adams was nearly 89 when, at the request of his son, John Quincy Adams, he posed a final time for Gilbert Stuart (1823).

Their letters are rich in insight into both the period and the minds of the two Presidents and revolutionary leaders. Their correspondence lasted fourteen years, and consisted of 158 letters.[78] It was in these years that the two men discussed "natural aristocracy." Jefferson said, "The natural aristocracy I consider as the most precious gift of nature for the instruction, the trusts, and government of society. And indeed it would have been inconsistent in creation to have formed man for the social state, and not to have provided virtue and wisdom enough to manage the concerns of society. May we not even say that the form of government is best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural aristoi into the offices of government?"[79] Adams wondered if it ever would be so clear who these people were, "Your distinction between natural and artificial aristocracy does not appear to me well founded. Birth and wealth are conferred on some men as imperiously by nature, as genius, strength, or beauty. . . . When aristocracies are established by human laws and honour, wealth, and power are made hereditary by municipal laws and political institutions, then I acknowledge artificial aristocracy to commence."[80] It would always be true, Adams argued, that fate would bestow influence on some men for reasons other than true wisdom and virtue. That being the way of nature, he thought such "talents" were natural. A good government, therefore, had to account for that reality.

Sixteen months before John Adams's death, his son, John Quincy Adams, became the sixth President of the United States (1825–1829), the only son of a former President to hold the office until George W. Bush in 2001.

Adams's daughter Abigail ("Nabby") was married to Representative William Stephens Smith, but she returned to her parents' home after the failure of her marriage. She died of breast cancer in 1813. His son Charles died as an alcoholic in 1800. Abigail, his wife, died of typhoid on October 28, 1818. His son Thomas and his family lived with Adams and Louisa Smith (Abigail's niece by her brother William) to the end of Adams's life.[76]

DeathEdit

3 marble sarcophagi, one in the foreground, 2 in the background are seen. 2 are seen with flags of the United States at the top.

Tombs of Presidents John Adams (distance) and John Quincy Adams (foreground) and their wives, in a family crypt beneath the United First Parish Church.

Less than a month before his death, John Adams issued a statement about the destiny of the United States, which historians such as Joy Hakim have characterized as a "warning" for his fellow citizens. Adams said:

My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: a memorable epoch in the annals of the human race, destined in future history to form the brightest or the blackest page, according to the use or the abuse of those political institutions by which they shall, in time to come, be shaped by the human mind.[81]

On July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died at his home in Quincy. Told that it was the Fourth, he answered clearly, "It is a great day. It is a good day." His last words have been reported as "Thomas Jefferson survives". His death left Charles Carroll of Carrollton as the last surviving signatory of the Declaration of Independence. John Adams died while his son John Quincy Adams was president.[82]

His crypt lies at United First Parish Church (also known as the Church of the Presidents) in Quincy. Originally, he was buried in Hancock Cemetery, across the road from the Church. Until his record was broken by Ronald Reagan in 2001, he was the nation's longest-living President (90 years, 247 days) maintaining that record for 175 years.

Religious viewsEdit

Adams was raised a Congregationalist, becoming a Unitarian at a time when most of the Congregational churches around Boston were turning to Unitarianism. Adams was educated at Harvard when the influence of deism was growing there, and used deistic terms in his speeches and writing.[83] He believed in the essential goodness of the creation, but, being a Unitarian, his beliefs excluded the divinity of Christ. He also believed that regular church service was beneficial to man's moral sense. Everett (1966) concludes that "Adams strove for a religion based on a common sense sort of reasonableness" and maintained that religion must change and evolve toward perfection.[84] Fielding (1940) shows that Adams's beliefs synthesized Puritan, deist, and humanist concepts. Adams thought Christianity had originally been revelatory, but was being misinterpreted and misused in the service of superstition, fraud, and unscrupulous power.[85] Goff (1993) acknowledges Fielding's "persuasive argument that Adams never was a deist because he allowed the suspension of the laws of nature and believed that evil was internal, not the result of external institutions."[86] Frazer (2004) notes that, while Adams shared many perspectives with deists, "Adams clearly was not a deist. Deism rejected any and all supernatural activity and intervention by God; consequently, deists did not believe in miracles or God's providence....Adams, however, did believe in miracles, providence, and, to a certain extent, the Bible as revelation."[87] Fraser concludes that Adams's "theistic rationalism, like that of the other Founders, was a sort of middle ground between Protestantism and deism."[88] By contrast, David L. Holmes has argued that John Adams, beginning as a Congregationalist, ended his days as a Christian Unitarian, accepting central tenets of the Unitarian creed but also accepting Jesus as the redeemer of humanity and the biblical account of his miracles as true.[89]

A tall, grey brick building with four columns before the entrance. In the foreground, a black lightpost is seen with a banner featuring a version of the flag of the United States.

United First Parish Church

In common with many of his contemporaries, Adams criticized the claims to universal authority made by the Roman Catholic Church.[90]

In 1796, Adams denounced political opponent Thomas Paine's criticisms of Christianity in his book The Age of Reason, saying, "The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity, let the Blackguard Paine say what he will."[91]

The Unitarian Universalist Historical Society provides information about Adams's religious beliefs.[92] They quote from his letter to Benjamin Rush, an early promoter of Universalist thought, "I have attended public worship in all countries and with all sects and believe them all much better than no religion, though I have not thought myself obliged to believe all I heard." The Society also relates how Rush reconciled Adams to his former friend Thomas Jefferson in 1812, after many bitter political battles. This resulted in correspondence between Adams and Jefferson about many topics, including philosophy and religion. In one of these communications, Adams told Jefferson, "The Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount contain my religion." In another letter, Adams reveals his sincere devotion to God, "My Adoration of the Author of the Universe is too profound and too sincere. The Love of God and his Creation; delight, Joy, Tryumph, Exaltation in my own existence, tho' but an Atom, a molecule Organique, in the Universe, are my religion." He continues by revealing his Universalist sympathies, rejection of orthodox Christian dogma, and his personal belief that he was a true Christian for not accepting such dogma, "Howl, Snarl, bite, Ye Calvinistick! Ye Athanasian Divines, if You will. Ye will say, I am no Christian: I say Ye are no Christians: and there the Account is ballanced. Yet I believe all the honest men among you, are Christians in my Sense of the Word." The Society also demonstrates that Adams rejected orthodox Christian doctrines of the trinity, predestination, yet equated human understanding and the human conscience to "celestial communication" or personal revelation from God. It is also shown that Adams held a strong conviction in life after death or otherwise, as he explained, "You might be ashamed of your Maker."[92]

AncestryEdit

BiographiesEdit

The first notable biography of John Adams appeared as the first two volumes of The Works of John Adams, Esq., Second President of the United States, edited by Charles Francis Adams and published between 1850 and 1856 by Charles C. Little and James Brown in Boston. This biography's first seven chapters were the work of John Quincy Adams, but the rest of the biography was the work of Charles Francis Adams. The first modern biography was Honest John Adams, a 1933 biography by the noted French specialist in American history Gilbert Chinard, who came to Adams after writing his acclaimed 1929 biography of Thomas Jefferson. For a generation, Chinard's work was regarded as the best life of Adams, and it is still a key factor in determining the themes of Adams biographical and historical scholarship. Following the opening of the Adams family papers in the 1950s, Page Smith published the first major biography to use these previously inaccessible primary sources; his biography won a 1962 Bancroft Prize but was criticized for its scanting of Adams's intellectual life and its diffuseness. In 1975, Peter Shaw published The Character of John Adams, a thematic biography noted for its graceful prose and its psychological insight into Adams's life. The 1992 character study by Joseph J. Ellis, Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams, was Ellis's first major publishing success and remains one of the most useful and insightful studies of Adams's personality. In 1993, the Revolutionary War historian and biographer John E. Ferling published his acclaimed John Adams, also noted for its psychological sensitivity; many scholars regard it as the best biography to date. In 2001, the popular historian David McCullough published a large biography of John Adams that won various awards and general acclaim and was developed into a 2008 TV miniseries). The most recent life, and one of the most thoughtful and accessible biographies of Adams, was John Adams, Party of One, a 2005 study by James Grant.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ From David McCullough, John Adams, the middle brother was Peter and the youngest Elihu, who died of illness during the siege of Boston in 1775.
  2. ^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 8
  3. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 1
  4. ^ Brookhiser, Richard. America's First Dynasty. The Adamses, 1735–1918. The Free Press, 2002, p.13
  5. ^ ibid, p. 13
  6. ^ Timeline:Education and the Law – The John Adams Library
  7. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 2
  8. ^ This Day in History in 1828, www.history.com. Retrieved 3-13-2008.
  9. ^ Ferling (1992) p 117
  10. ^ Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, "Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission and Non-resistance to the Higher Powers," January 30, 1750. On Adams's attribution to Rev. Mayhew refer to the TeachingAmericanHistory.org
  11. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 53–63
  12. ^ Zobel, The Boston Massacre, (1970), 199–200.
  13. ^ 'Argument in Defense of the Soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trials'. John Adams. December 1770. 
  14. ^ John E. Ferling, Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution (2002) p. 77
  15. ^ "John Adams, 1st Vice President (1789–1797)". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_John_Adams.htm. Retrieved August 1, 2007. 
  16. ^ In 1775 he was also appointed the chief judge of the Massachusetts Superior Court.
  17. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 8 p 146
  18. ^ Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1993)
  19. ^ The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: With a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, Volume 9, by John Adams, Little, Brown, 1854, pg 540
  20. ^ ""Thoughts on Government Applicable to the Present State of the American Colonies," ''The Works of John Adams'' Volume IV, pages 189-200 (1851)". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=snIvAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22Thoughts%20on%20Government%3A%20Applicable%20to%20the%20Present%20State%20of%20the%20American%20Colonies%22&pg=PA189#v=onepage&q=%22Thoughts%20on%20Government:%20Applicable%20to%20the%20Present%20State%20of%20the%20American%20Colonies%22&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  21. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 155–7, 213–5
  22. ^ Ferling (1992) p. 452
  23. ^ 'Thoughts on Government", Works of John Adams, IV:195
  24. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 8.
  25. ^ TO WILLIAM P. GARDNER, Thomas Jefferson, The Works of Thomas Jefferson, Federal Edition (New York and London, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1904-5). Vol. 11.
  26. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963. 
  27. ^ John Adams by David McCullough, Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, New York, 2001. Pg 180-187. ISBN 13:978-0-684-81363-9
  28. ^ McCullough, David. John Adams. pg 179. Books.google.com. March 15, 2008. ISBN 9780684813639. http://books.google.com/?id=E9TOxypjZY4C&pg=PA179&lpg=PA179&dq=%22john+adams%22+%22speak+french%22. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  29. ^ John Adams 1735-1784 - Vol I by Page Smith — pg.451
  30. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 11–12
  31. ^ In February 1782 the Frisian states had been the first Dutch province to recognize the United States, while France had been the first European country to grant diplomatic recognition, in 1778).
  32. ^ Up till 1794 a total of eleven loans were granted in Amsterdam to the United States with a value of 29 million guilders.
  33. ^ "Dutch American Friendship Day / Heritage Day – U.S. Embassy The Hague, Netherlands". Thehague.usembassy.gov. November 16, 1991. http://thehague.usembassy.gov/friendship_days2.html. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  34. ^ Stockdale, E. (2005). 'Tis Treason, My Good Man! Four Revolutionary Presidents and a Piccadilly Bookshop. London: The British Library. pp. p.148. ISBN 0712306994. 
  35. ^ The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America. Books.google.com. 1833. http://books.google.com/?id=dmgUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA218&lpg=PA218&dq=Thulemeier+Magdeburg. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  36. ^ See http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=6193.
  37. ^ Gordon, Lyndall (2005). "Chapter 3: New Life at Newington". Vindication : a life of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060198022. 
  38. ^ Ronald M. Peters. The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: A Social Compact (1978) p 13 says Adams was its "principal architect."
  39. ^ "John Adams: Defence of the Constitutions, 1787". Constitution.org. http://www.constitution.org/jadams/ja1_00.htm. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  40. ^ Turgot to Richard Price, March 22, 1778, in Works of John Adams, IV:279
  41. ^ Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (2006) pp 173–202; see also Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1993).
  42. ^ Thompson,1999
  43. ^ Works of John Adams, IV:557
  44. ^ Madison, James. "The Federalist No. 51". http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=The_Federalist_Papers/No._51&oldid=504230. 
  45. ^ George A. Peek, Jr., ed. The Political Writings of John Adams: Representative Selections (2003) p. xvii
  46. ^ Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery." New York History 2000 81(1): p 91–132. ISSN 0146-437X
  47. ^ a b c Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America, page 215 (2004).
  48. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 172–3
  49. ^ Moore, George. Notes on the history of slavery in Massachusetts, pages 200-203 (1866).
  50. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 15
  51. ^ Ferling (1992) p 311
  52. ^ Ferling (1992) pp 316–32
  53. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. August 5, 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ja2.html. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  54. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993), pp 513–37
  55. ^ Arthur Meier Schlesinger, ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–1984 (Vol 1) (1986), essay and primary sources on 1796
  56. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 16, p 333.
  57. ^ McCullough p 471
  58. ^ Ellis (1998) p 57
  59. ^ Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams (1957) ch 12
  60. ^ Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)
  61. ^ William Chambers, The First Party System: Federalists and Republicans (1972)
  62. ^ Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams (1957) ch 13; Miller, The Federalist Era (1960), ch. 12
  63. ^ Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams (1957) ch 13; Miller, The Federalist Era (1960), ch. 13
  64. ^ "2nd President, John Adams". Presidentialpetmuseum.com. http://www.presidentialpetmuseum.com/presidents/02JA.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  65. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993) ch. 15
  66. ^ James Morton Smith, Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties (1967)
  67. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 17
  68. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (1993) pp. 714–19
  69. ^ Kurtz (1967) p 331
  70. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 18
  71. ^ Elkins and McKitrick The Age of Federalism pp 696–700; Paul Douglas Newman, Fries's Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution (2004).
  72. ^ Ferling (1992) ch 19; Ferling (2004)
  73. ^ "Overview of the White House". White House Museum. http://www.whitehousemuseum.org/overview.htm. Retrieved July 16, 2008. 
  74. ^ See generally Kathryn Preyer (Maeva Marcus, R. Kent Newmyer, and Mary Sarah Bilder, eds.), Blackstone in America (Cambridge, Eng., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  75. ^ Ferling (1992) p 409.
  76. ^ a b Ferling (1992) ch 20
  77. ^ Ferling (1992) p. 429
  78. ^ a b Cappon (1988)
  79. ^ Cappon, ed., 387
  80. ^ Cappon, ed. 400
  81. ^ Hakim. Joy. The New Nation, page 97 (Oxford University Press 2003).
  82. ^ Ferling, John Adams: A Life (2010) p. 444
  83. ^ Vivian Trow Thayer, Religion in public education (Greenwood Press, 1979) p 16
  84. ^ Robert B. Everett, "The Mature Religious Thought of John Adams," Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1966), p 49–57; [ISSN 0361-6207].
  85. ^ Howard Ioan Fielding, "John Adams: Puritan, Deist, Humanist," Journal of Religion, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan. 1940), pp. 33–46 in JSTOR
  86. ^ Philip Kevin Goff, The Religious World of the Revolutionary John Adams (PhD dissertation), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1993, p. 382.
  87. ^ Gregg L. Frazer, The Political Theology of the American Founding (PhD dissertation), Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California, 2004, p. 46
  88. ^ Gregg L. Frazer, The Political Theology of the American Founding (PhD dissertation), Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California, 2004, p. 50.
  89. ^ David L. Holmes, The Faiths of the Founding Fathers (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 73-78.
  90. ^ See TeachingAmericanHistory.org: " A Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law", John Adams, 1765
  91. ^ The Works of John Adams (1854), vol III, p 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.
  92. ^ a b "Unitarian Universalist Historical Society Biography". http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/johnadams.html. Retrieved December 11, 2007. 
  93. ^ "The Vinton Memorial, page 296, John Adams Vinton, 1858". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA296#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  94. ^ a b c d "The Vinton Memorial, page 297, John Adams Vinton, 1858". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA297#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  95. ^ a b c d "The Vinton Memorial, page 298, John Adams Vinton, 1858". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA298#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  96. ^ a b "The Vinton Memorial, page 300, John Adams Vinton, 1858". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA300#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  97. ^ a b c d e "The Vinton Memorial, page 308, John Adams Vinton, 1858". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA308#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 
  98. ^ a b c d e f "The Vinton Memorial, page 309, John Adams Vinton, 1858". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=IV8hPxRANm8C&dq=Thomas%20Boylston%20Sarah%201615&pg=PA309#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-12. 

BibliographyEdit

  • Brown, Ralph A. The Presidency of John Adams. (1988). Political narrative.
  • Chinard, Gilbert. Honest John Adams. (1933). Dated but still-valuable biography.
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism. (1993), highly detailed political interpretation of 1790s
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams (1993), interpretative essay by Pulitzer Prize winning scholar.
  • Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800. (2004), narrative history of the election.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life (1992), full scale biography
  • Freeman, Joanne B. Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic. (2001) – chapters 2 [on John Adams and print culture] and 5 [on the election of 1800] are of special relevance.
  • Grant, James. John Adams: Party of One.(2005), one-volume biography, notable for its modesty and for its grasp of finances as well as politics.
  • Haraszti, Zoltan. John Adams and the Prophets of Progress. (1952). Incisive analysis of John Adams's political comments on numerous authors through examining his marginalia in his copies of their books.
  • Howe, John R., Jr. The Changing Political Thought of John Adams. (1966). Stressing change over time in Adams's thought, this book is still a valuable and clearly written treatment of the subject.
  • Knollenberg, Bernard. Growth of the American Revolution: 1766–1775,(2003). Online edition.
  • Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795–1800 (1957). Detailed political narrative.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. (2002). Best-selling popular biography, stressing Adams's character and his marriage with Abigail while scanting his ideas and constitutional thoughts. Winner of the 2002 Pulitzer Prize in Biography.
  • Miller, John C. The Federalist Era: 1789–1801. (1960). Slightly dated but still-valuable, thorough survey of politics between 1789 and 1801.
  • Ryerson, Richard Alan, ed. John Adams and the Founding of the Republic (2001). Essays by scholars: "John Adams and the Massachusetts Provincial Elite," by William Pencak; "Before Fame: Young John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by John Ferling; "John Adams and the 'Bolder Plan,'" by Gregg L. Lint; "In the Shadow of Washington: John Adams as Vice President," by Jack D. Warren; "The Presidential Election of 1796," by Joanne B. Freeman; "The Disenchantment of a Radical Whig: John Adams Reckons with Free Speech," by Richard D. Brown; "'Splendid Misery': Abigail Adams as First Lady," by Edith B. Gelles; "John Adams and the Science of Politics," by C. Bradley Thompson; and "Presidents as Historians: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson," by Herbert Sloan.
  • Sharp, James Roger. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. (1995), detailed political narrative of 1790s, stressing the emergence of "proto-parties."
  • Shaw, Peter. The Character of John Adams. (1975). Elegant short life, infused with psychological insight and sensitivity to Adams's inner life as well as his intellectual life.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams. (1962) 2 volume; full-scale biography, winner of the Bancroft Prize
  • Thompson, C. Bradley. John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. (1998). Acclaimed analysis of Adams's political thought; insisting Adams was the greatest political thinker among the Founding Generation and anticipated many of the ideas in The Federalist.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1956), thorough analysis of the mechanics of government in 1790s
  • Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009), major new survey of the era in the Oxford History of the United States
  • Wood, Gordon S.. Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (2006). The chapter on Adams, a slightly revised version of chapter XIV of the author's The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 (1969), may be the most influential short treatment of John Adams's political thought ever written.

Primary sourcesEdit

  • Adams, C.F. The Works of John Adams, with Life (10 vols., Boston, 1850–1856)
  • Butterfield, L. H. et al., eds., The Adams Papers (1961– ). Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete. "The Adams Family Papers Editorial Project". Masshist.org. http://www.masshist.org/adams_editorial/volumes_published.cfm. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  • Cappon, Lester J. ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams (1988).
  • Carey, George W., ed. The Political Writings of John Adams. (2001). Compilation of extracts from Adams's major political writings.
  • Diggins, John P., ed. The Portable John Adams. (2004)
  • John A. Schutz and Douglass Adair, eds. Spur of Fame, The Dialogues of John Adams and Benjamin Rush, 1805–1813 (1966) ISBN 978-0-86597-287-2
  • C. Bradley Thompson, ed. Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, (2001) ISBN 978-0-86597-285-8
  • John Adams, Novanglus; or, A History of the Dispute with America (1774) online version
  • Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer. The American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company, 2004.
  • Hogan, Margaret and C. James Taylor, eds. My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Taylor, Robert J. et al., eds. Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  • Wroth, L. Kinvin and Hiller B. Zobel, eds. The Legal Papers of John Adams. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
  • Butterfield, L. H., ed. Adams Family Correspondence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press


External linksEdit

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NAME Adams, John
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 2nd U.S. President
DATE OF BIRTH October 30, 1735
PLACE OF BIRTH John Adams birthplace (Quincy, Massachusetts), Quincy, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH July 4, 1826
PLACE OF DEATH Quincy, Massachusetts


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