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Japan
  • 日本国
  • Nippon-koku
  • Nihon-koku
Centered red circle on a white rectangle. Golden circle subdivided by golden wedges with rounded outer edges and thin black outlines.
Anthem: 

Kimi ga Yo instrumental
Government Seal of Japan
  • Goshichi no kiri
  • Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐?)
Japan (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Tokyo
35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683, 139.767
Official languages None[1]
Recognised regional languages
National language Japanese
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
Demonym Japanese
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Emperor Naruhito
 -  Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga
 -  Deputy Prime Minister Tarō Asō
Legislature National Diet
 -  Upper house House of Councillors
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
Formation
 -  National Foundation Day 11 February 660 BC[3] 
 -  Meiji Constitution November 29, 1890 
 -  Current constitution May 3, 1947 
 -  San Francisco
Peace Treaty
April 28, 1952 
Area
 -  Total 377,944 km2[4] (62nd)
145,925 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.8
Population
 -  2015 estimate 126,880,000[5] (10th)
 -  2010 census 128,056,026[6]
 -  Density 337.1/km2 (36th)
873.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $4.843 trillion[7] (4th)
 -  Per capita $38,216[7] (29th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $4.210 trillion[7] (3rd)
 -  Per capita $33,223[7] (25th)
Gini (2008)37.6[8]
medium · 76th
HDI (2013)decrease 0.890[9]
very high · 17th
Currency Yen (¥) / En (JPY)
Time zone JST (UTC+9)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+9)
Date format
  • yyyy-mm-dd
  • yyyy年m月d日
  • Era yy年m月d日 (AD−1988)
Drives on the left
Calling code +81
Internet TLD .jp
書.svg
This article contains Japanese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of kanji and kana.

Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 Loudspeaker Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, China, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", and Japan is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun".

Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Japan's population of 126 million is the world's tenth largest. Approximately 9.1 million people live in Tokyo,[10] the capital city of Japan, which is the second largest city proper in the OECD. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the world's largest metropolitan area with over 35 million residents and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy.

Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly Imperial China, followed by periods of isolation, later from Western European influence, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was only ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. Nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection followed before the Meiji Emperor was restored as head of state in 1868 and the Empire of Japan was proclaimed, with the Emperor as a divine symbol of the nation. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.

Japan is a member of the UN, the G7, the G8, and the G20. Japan is a great power.[11][12][13][14][15] Japan has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fifth-largest exporter and fifth-largest importer. Japan ranked first in the Country Brand Index.[16] Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the world's eighth largest military budget,[17] used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living, and the country is ranked high in the Human Development Index. The Japanese population enjoys the highest life expectancy of any country in the world and the third lowest infant mortality rate.[18][19][20] Japan is the highest ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index.[21]

Etymology Edit

Japan
Japanese name
Kanji 日本国
Hiragana にっぽんこく
にほんこく

The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and pronounced Nippon or Nihon.[22] Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa () and in Japan by the endonym Yamato.[23] Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese reading of the characters, is favored today for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps.[22] Nihon is typically used in everyday speech and reflects shifts in Japanese phonology during the Edo period.[23] The characters 日本 mean "sun origin", in reference to Japan's relatively eastern location.[22] It is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun".[24]

The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters Chinese: 日本國 as Cipangu.[25] The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect and encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century.[26] The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter.[27][28]

History Edit

Prehistoric to classical history Edit

Emperor Jimmu

Legendary Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu-tennō?)

A Paleolithic culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the islands of Japan.[29] This was followed from around 14,500 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture.[30] Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery.[31] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon;[32] the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farming,[33] a new style of pottery,[34] and metallurgy from China and Korea.[35] According to legend, Emperor Jimmu (grandson of Amaterasu) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial line.[36]

Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD.[37] Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China.[38] Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710).[39]

The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalized all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a household registry as the basis for a new system of taxation.[40] The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms.[41] These reforms culminated with the promulgation of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments.[40] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium.[41]

The Nara period (710–784) marked an emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki (712) and Nihon Shoki (720), as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture.[42][43] A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population.[44][43] In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) in 794.[43] This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time.[45]

Feudal era Edit

Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba 2

Samurai warriors battling Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba

Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura.[46] After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the shōguns.[43] The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class.[47] The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo.[43] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573). However, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States").[48]

During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West.[43][49] Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyōs;[50] his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period.[51] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597.[43]

Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo).[52][53] The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs,[54] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868).[55][53] Modern Japan's economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers.[56] The study of Western sciences (rangaku) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki.[53] The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese.[57]

Modern era Edit

Meiji tenno1

Emperor Meiji (明治天皇, Meiji-tennō; 1852–1912), in whose name imperial rule was restored in 1868

In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa.[53] Subsequent similar treaties with other Western countries brought economic and political crises.[53] The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration).[58] Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet.[59] During the Meiji era (1868–1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence.[60][61][62] After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin.[63][59] The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant shift to urbanization.[64][65]

The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization.[66][67] World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to capture German possessions in the Pacific and in China.[67] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups.[65][68][69] This process accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a number of radical nationalist groups that shared a hostility to liberal democracy and a dedication to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers.[65]

The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan.[65][70] On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, as well as on British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific.[71] Throughout areas colonized by Japan during the war, many abuses were committed against locals, notably those who were forced to become comfort women.[72] After Allied victories during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender.[73] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives.[65] The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of ethnic Japanese from colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over its conquered territories.[74][75] The Allies also convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes.[75]

In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices.[75] The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952,[76] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956.[75] A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world;[75] this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an asset price bubble, beginning the "Lost Decade".[77] In the 21st century, positive growth has signaled a gradual economic recovery.[78] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.[79] On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became the new emperor, beginning the Reiwa era.[80]

Government and politicsEdit

Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko cropped Barack Obama Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko 20140424 2

Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko

Japan is a constitutional monarchy whereby the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people.[81] Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan; Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan, stands as next in line to the Chrysanthemum Throne.

Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives with 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age,[2] with a secret ballot for all elected offices.[81] The Diet is dominated by the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). The LDP has enjoyed near continuous electoral success since 1955, except for a brief 11-month period between 1993 and 1994, and from 2009 to 2012. It holds 294 seats in the lower house and 83 seats in the upper house.

The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government and is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the Diet from among its members. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet, and he appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. Following the LDP's landslide victory in the 2012 general election, Shinzō Abe replaced Yoshihiko Noda as the Prime Minister on December 26, 2012[82] and became the country's sixth prime minister to be sworn in 6 years. Although the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the Emperor, the Constitution of Japan explicitly requires the Emperor to appoint whoever is designated by the Diet.[81]

Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki.[83] However, since the late 19th century the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on a draft of the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch; with the code remaining in effect with post–World War II modifications.[84] Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature and has the rubber stamp of the Emperor. The Constitution requires that the Emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose legislation.[81] Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[85] The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes.[86]

Foreign relations and militaryEdit

SM3 from JDS Kongo

JDS Kongō (DDG-173) guided missile destroyer launching a Standard Missile 3 anti-ballistic missile

Japan is a member of the G8, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007[87] and with India in October 2008.[88] It is the world's third largest donor of official development assistance after the United States and France, donating US$9.48 billion in 2009.[89]

Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States; the US-Japan security alliance acts as the cornerstone of the nation's foreign policy.[90] A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 20 years, most recently for 2009 and 2010. It is one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.[91]

Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with South Korea over the Liancourt Rocks, with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands, and with China over the EEZ around Okinotorishima.[92] Japan also faces an ongoing dispute with North Korea over the latter's abduction of Japanese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile program (see also Six-party talks).[93]

Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world.[94] Japan contributed non-combatant troops to the Iraq War but subsequently withdrew its forces.[95] The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) is a regular participant in RIMPAC maritime exercises.[96]

Japan's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. Accordingly, Japan's Self-Defence force is a usual military that has never fired shots outside Japan.[97] It is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations; the deployment of troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II.[95] Japan Business Federation has called on the government to lift the ban on arms exports so that Japan can join multinational projects such as the Joint Strike Fighter.[98]

In May 2014 Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. He said Japan wanted to play a key role and offered neighboring countries Japan's support.[99]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Japan consists of forty-seven prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy. Each prefecture is further divided into cities, towns and villages.[100] The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.[101]

Template:Japan Regions and Prefectures Labelled Map

GeographyEdit

Japan topo en

Topographic map of the Japanese archipelago

Japan has a total of 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of East Asia. The country, including all of the islands it controls, lies between latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E. The main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The Ryukyu Islands, which includes Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. Together they are often known as the Japanese Archipelago.[102]

About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use.[2][103] As a result, the habitable zones, mainly located in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.[104]

The islands of Japan are located in a volcanic zone on the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are primarily the result of large oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene as a result of the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the continental Amurian Plate and Okinawa Plate to the south, and subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Okhotsk Plate to the north. Japan was originally attached to the eastern coast of the Eurasian continent. The subducting plates pulled Japan eastward, opening the Sea of Japan around 15 million years ago.[105]

Japan has 108 active volcanoes. During the twentieth century several new volcanoes emerged, including Shōwa-shinzan on Hokkaido and Myōjin-shō off the Bayonnaise Rocks in the Pacific. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century.[106] The 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people.[107] More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, a 9.0-magnitude[108] quake which hit Japan on March 11, 2011, and triggered a large tsunami.[79] Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes and tsunami, having the highest natural disaster risk in the developed world.[109]

ClimateEdit


Cherry blossoms at Yoshinoyama 01.jpg
Cherry blossoms of Mount Yoshino has been the subject of many plays and waka poetry
Kongobuji Koyasan07n3200.jpg
Autumn maple leaves (momiji) at Kongōbu-ji on Mount Kōya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones: Hokkaido, Sea of Japan, Central Highland, Seto Inland Sea, Pacific Ocean, and Ryūkyū Islands. The northernmost zone, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter.[110]

In the Sea of Japan zone on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn wind. The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night; precipitation is light, though winters are usually snowy. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round.[110]

The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season.[110]

The average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C (77.4 °F).[111] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan—40.9 °C (105.6 °F)—was recorded on August 16, 2007.[112] The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north until reaching Hokkaido in late July. In most of Honshu, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.[113]

BiodiversityEdit

Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano Japan 001

The Japanese macaques at Jigokudani hot spring are notable for visiting the spa in the winter.

Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands.[114] Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife, including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, and the Japanese giant salamander.[115] A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as thirty-seven Ramsar wetland sites.[116][117] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value.[118]

EnvironmentEdit

In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern about the problem, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970.[119] The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources.[120] Current environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.[121]

As of June 2015, more than 40 coal-fired power plants are planned or under construction in Japan. The NGO Climate Action Network announced Japan as the winner of its "Fossil of the Day" award for "doing the most to block progress on climate action."[122]

Japan ranks 26th in the 2014 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability.[123] As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, and host of the 1997 conference that created it, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change.[124]

EconomyEdit

Tokyo stock exchange

The Tokyo Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange in Asia[125]

Economic historyEdit

Some of the structural features of Japan's economic growth developed in the Edo period, such as the network of transport routes, by road and water, and the futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers.[126] During the Meiji period from 1868, Japan expanded economically with the embrace of the market economy.[127] Many of today's enterprises were founded at the time, and Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia.[128] The period of overall real economic growth from the 1960s to the 1980s has been called the Japanese post-war economic miracle: it averaged 7.5 percent in the 1960s and 1970s, and 3.2 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s.[129]

Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s during what the Japanese call the Lost Decade, largely because of the after-effects of the Japanese asset price bubble and domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered by the global slowdown in 2000.[2] The economy showed strong signs of recovery after 2005; GDP growth for that year was 2.8 percent, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.[130]

As of 2012, Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP,[131] and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity.[7] As of 2014, Japan's public debt was estimated at more than 200 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the largest of any nation in the world.[132] In August 2011, Moody's rating has cut Japan's long-term sovereign debt rating one notch from Aa3 to Aa2 inline with the size of the country's deficit and borrowing level. The large budget deficits and government debt since the 2009 global recession and followed by earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 made the rating downgrade.[133] The service sector accounts for three quarters of the gross domestic product.[134]

ExportsEdit

Prius Plug-in Hybrid-11-09-04-iaa-by-RalfR-108

A plug-in hybrid car manufactured by Toyota, one of the world's largest carmakers. Japan is the second-largest producer of automobiles in the world.[135]

Japan has a large industrial capacity, and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Agricultural businesses in Japan cultivate 13 percent of Japan's land, and Japan accounts for nearly 15 percent of the global fish catch, second only to China.[2] As of 2010, Japan's labor force consisted of some 65.9 million workers.[136] Japan has a low unemployment rate of around four percent. Some 20 million people, around 17 per cent of the population, were below the poverty line in 2007.[137] Housing in Japan is characterized by limited land supply in urban areas.[138]

Japan's exports amounted to US$4,210 per capita in 2005. As of 2012, Japan's main export markets were China (18.1 percent), the United States (17.8 percent), South Korea (7.7 percent), Thailand (5.5 percent) and Hong Kong (5.1 percent). Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts.[139] Japan's main import markets as of 2012 were China (21.3 percent), the US (8.8 percent), Australia (6.4 percent), Saudi Arabia (6.2 percent), United Arab Emirates (5.0 percent), South Korea (4.6 percent) and Qatar (4.0 percent).[2]

ImportsEdit

Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. By market share measures, domestic markets are the least open of any OECD country.[140] Junichiro Koizumi's administration began some pro-competition reforms, and foreign investment in Japan has soared.[141]

Japan ranks 27th of 189 countries in the 2014 Ease of doing business index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Japanese work environment.[140][142] Japanese companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota Way", and shareholder activism is rare.[143]

Some of the largest enterprises in Japan include Toyota, Nintendo, NTT DoCoMo, Canon, Honda, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Sony, Panasonic, Toshiba, Sharp, Nippon Steel, Nippon Oil, and Seven & I Holdings Co..[144] It has some of the world's largest banks, and the Tokyo Stock Exchange (known for its Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices) stands as the second largest in the world by market capitalization.[145] As of 2006, Japan was home to 326 companies from the Forbes Global 2000 or 16.3 percent.[146] In 2013, it was announced that Japan would be importing shale natural gas.[147]

Science and technologyEdit

Kibo PM and ELM-PS

The Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) at the International Space Station

Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget, the third largest in the world.[148] Japan is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced nineteen Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine,[149] three Fields medalists,[150] and one Gauss Prize laureate.[151] Some of Japan's more prominent technological contributions are in the fields of electronics, automobiles, machinery, earthquake engineering, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than 20% (300,000 of 1.3 million) of the world's industrial robots as of 2013[152]—though their share was historically even higher, representing one-half of all industrial robots worldwide in 2000.[153]

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is Japan's space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008.[154] Japan's plans in space exploration include: launching a space probe to Venus, Akatsuki;[155][156] developing the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter to be launched in 2016;[157] and building a moon base by 2030.[158]

On September 14, 2007, it launched lunar explorer "SELENE" (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) on an H-IIA (Model H2A2022) carrier rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. SELENE is also known as Kaguya, after the lunar princess of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter.[159] Kaguya is the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program. Its purpose is to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. It entered a lunar orbit on October 4,[160][161] flying at an altitude of about 100 km (62 mi).[162] The probe's mission was ended when it was deliberately crashed by JAXA into the Moon on June 11, 2009.[163]

InfrastructureEdit

JR west N700series N1 maibara

A high-speed Shinkansen "Bullet train"

As of 2011, 46.1 percent of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 21.3 percent from coal, 21.4 percent from natural gas, 4.0 percent from nuclear power, and 3.3 percent from hydropower. Nuclear power produced 9.2 percent of Japan's electricity, as of 2011, down from 24.9 percent the previous year.[164] However, by May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some of Japan's 50 nuclear reactors to service.[165] As of November 2014, two reactors at Sendai are likely to restart in early 2015.[166] Given its heavy dependence on imported energy,[167] Japan has aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.[168]

Japan's road spending has been extensive.[169] Its 1.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation.[170] A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. However, at just 50 percent of all distance traveled, car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.[171]

Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu Corporation, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their safety and punctuality.[172][173] Proposals for a new Maglev route between Tokyo and Osaka are at an advanced stage.[174] There are 175 airports in Japan;[2] the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's second-busiest airport.[175] The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport and Chūbu Centrair International Airport.[176] Nagoya Port is the country's largest and busiest port, accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value.[177]

DemographicsEdit

Bjs48 02 Ainu

Ainu, an ethnic minority people from Japan

Meiji-jingu wedding procession - P1000847

A Japanese wedding at the Meiji Shrine

Japan's population is estimated at around 127.1 million,[2] with 80% of the population living on Honshū. Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous,[178] composed of 98.5% ethnic Japanese,[2] with small populations of foreign workers.[178] Zainichi Koreans,[179] Zainichi Chinese, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent,[180] and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent are among the small minority groups in Japan.[181] In 2003, there were about 134,700 non-Latin American Western and 345,500 Latin American expatriates, 274,700 of whom were Brazilians (said to be primarily Japanese descendants, or nikkeijin, along with their spouses),[180] the largest community of Westerners.[182]

The most dominant native ethnic group is the Yamato people; primary minority groups include the indigenous Ainu[183] and Ryukyuan peoples, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin.[184] There are persons of mixed ancestry incorporated among the Yamato, such as those from Ogasawara Archipelago.[185] In spite of the widespread belief that Japan is ethnically homogeneous (in 2009, foreign-born non-naturalized workers made up only 1.7% of the total population),[186] also because of the absence of ethnicity and/or race statistics for Japanese nationals, at least one analysis describes Japan as a multiethnic society, for example, John Lie.[187] However, this statement is refused by many sectors of Japanese society, who still tend to preserve the idea of Japan being a monocultural society and with this ideology of homogeneity, has traditionally rejected any need to recognize ethnic differences in Japan, even as such claims have been rejected by such ethnic minorities as the Ainu and Ryukyuan people. Former Japanese Prime Minister Tarō Asō has once described Japan as being a nation of "one race, one civilization, one language and one culture".[188]

Japan has the second longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world: 83.5 years for persons born in the period 2010–2015.[19][20] The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. In 2012, about 24.1 percent of the population was over 65, and the proportion is projected to rise to almost 40 percent by 2050.[189]

The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits like the public pension plan.[190] A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless.[191] In 2011, Japan's population dropped for a fifth year, falling by 204,000 people to 126.24 million people. This was the greatest decline since at least 1947, when comparable figures were first compiled.[192] This decline was made worse by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami, which killed nearly 16,000 people with approximately another 2,600 still listed as missing as of 2014.[193]

Japan's population is expected to drop to 95 million by 2050;[189][194] demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem.[191] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population.[195][196] Japan accepts a steady flow of 15,000 new Japanese citizens by naturalization (帰化) per year.[197] According to the UNHCR, in 2012 Japan accepted just 18 refugees for resettlement,[198] while the US took in 76,000.[199]

Japan suffers from a high suicide rate.[200][201] In 2009, the number of suicides exceeded 30,000 for the twelfth straight year.[202] Suicide is the leading cause of death for people under 30.[203]

Template:Largest cities of Japan

ReligionEdit

Itsukushima torii distance

The torii of Itsukushima Shrine near Hiroshima, one of the Three Views of Japan and a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Japan has full religious freedom based on Article 20 of its Constitution. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Buddhism or Shinto, including a large number of followers of a syncretism of both religions.[2][204] However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Other studies have suggested that only 30 percent of the population identify themselves as belonging to a religion.[205] According to Edwin Reischauer and Marius Jansen, some 70–80% of the Japanese do not consider themselves believers in any religion.[206]

Nevertheless, the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs.[207] Japanese streets are decorated on Tanabata, Obon and Christmas. Fewer than one percent of Japanese are Christian.[208] Other minority religions include Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism, and since the mid-19th century numerous new religious movements have emerged in Japan.[209]

LanguagesEdit

More than 99 percent of the population speaks Japanese as their first language.[2] Japanese is an agglutinative language distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary indicating the relative status of speaker and listener. Japanese writing uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on cursive script and radical of kanji), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals.[210]

Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. Few children learn these languages,[211] but in recent years the local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. The Okinawan Japanese dialect is also spoken in the region. The Ainu language, which has no proven relationship to Japanese or any other language, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido.[212] Public and private schools generally require students to take Japanese language classes as well as English language courses.[213][214]

EducationEdit

Tokyo University Entrance Exam Results 6

Announcement of the results of the entrance examinations to the University of Tokyo

Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.[215] Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and middle school, which together last for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, as of 2005 about 75.9 percent of high school graduates attended a university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution.[216]

The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.[217][218] The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as sixth best in the world.[219]

HealthEdit

In Japan, health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.[220] Patients are free to select the physicians or facilities of their choice.[221]

CultureEdit

Kinkaku-ji 01

Kinkaku-ji or 'The Temple of the Golden Pavilion' in Kyoto, Special Historic Site, Special Place of Scenic Beauty, and UNESCO World Heritage Site; its torching by a monk in 1950 is the subject of a novel by Mishima.

Japanese culture has evolved greatly from its origins. Contemporary culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures.[222] Nineteen sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, fifteen of which are of cultural significance.[118]

ArtEdit

The Great Wave off Kanagawa

19th-century Ukiyo-e woodblock printing The Great Wave off Kanagawa, one of the best recognized works of Japanese art in the world.

The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture.[223] Largely of wood, traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space.[224] Japanese sculpture, largely of wood, and Japanese painting are among the oldest of the Japanese arts, with early figurative paintings dating back to at least 300 BC. The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas.[225]

The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism.[225] Famous ukiyo-e artists include Hokusai and Hiroshige. The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan.[226] Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have been popular since the 1980s.[227]

MusicEdit

Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh drama dates from the 14th century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth.[228] Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, now forms an integral part of Japanese culture. The imperial court ensemble Gagaku has influenced the work of some modern Western composers.[229]

Notable classical composers from Japan include Toru Takemitsu and Rentarō Taki. Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop, or Japanese popular music.[230] Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity in Japan. A 1993 survey by the Cultural Affairs Agency found that more Japanese had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional pursuits such as flower arranging (ikebana) or tea ceremonies.[231]

LiteratureEdit

Genji emaki 01003 001

12th-century illustrated handscroll of The Tale of Genji, a National Treasure

The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters.[232][233] In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana (Hiragana and Katakana) was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Japanese narrative.[234] An account of Heian court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel.[235][236]

During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi.[237] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were the first "modern" novelists of Japan, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Yukio Mishima and, more recently, Haruki Murakami. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors—Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994).[234]

CuisineEdit

Breakfast at Tamahan Ryokan, Kyoto

Breakfast at a ryokan or inn

Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically Japanese rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu — dishes made from fish, vegetable, tofu and the like – to add flavor to the staple food. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food,[238] quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The Michelin Guide has awarded restaurants in Japan more Michelin stars than the rest of the world combined.[239]

SportsEdit

Sumo ceremony

Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony

Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport.[240] Japanese martial arts such as judo, karate and kendo are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country. After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Japan and began to spread through the education system.[241] Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964. Japan has hosted the Winter Olympics twice: Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998.[242] Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice.[243] Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country, winning the Asian Five Nations a record 6 times and winning the newly formed IRB Pacific Nations Cup in 2011. Japan will host the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup.[244]

Baseball is currently the most popular spectator sport in the country. Japan's top professional league, now known as Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936.[245] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has also gained a wide following.[246] Japan was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea.[247] Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times.[248] Also, Japan recently won the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011.[249] Golf is also popular in Japan,[250] as are forms of auto racing like the Super GT series and Formula Nippon.[251] The country has produced one NBA player, Yuta Tabuse.[252]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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