James Francis Edward Stuart was born 10 June 1688 in St. James's Palace, London, England, United Kingdom to James II of England (1633-1701) and Maria Beatrice d'Este (1658-1718) and died 1 January 1766 Palazzo Muti, Rome, Italy of unspecified causes. He married Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702-1735) 3 September 1719 in Montefiascone, Viterbo, Italy.
|James Francis Edward|
|Prince of Wales
|James Francis Edward Stuart, "The Old Pretender"|
|Pretence||16 September 1701 – 1 January 1766|
|Predecessor||James II and VII|
|James Francis Edward Stuart|
|House||House of Stuart|
|Burial||St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City|
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (James Francis Edward Stuart; "The Old Pretender" or "The Old Chevalier"; 10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed James II of England (James VII of Scotland). As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones (as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland) from the death of his father in 1701, when he was recognized as king of England, Scotland and Ireland by his cousin Louis XIV of France. Following his death in 1766 he was succeeded by his son Charles Edward Stuart in the Jacobite Succession.
Birth and childhood
From the moment of his birth, on 10 June 1688, at St. James's Palace, the prince was the subject of controversy. He was born to the reigning king, James II of England (and VII of Scotland), and his Roman Catholic second wife, Mary of Modena, and as such was automatically Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay among other titles.
The Wars of Religion were fresh in the minds of the populace, and many British feared a revived Catholic dominance of the government. James II had two adult daughters from his first marriage who had been raised as Protestants. As long as there was a possibility of one of them succeeding him, his opponents saw his rule as only a temporary aberration. When people began to fear that James's second wife, Mary, would produce a son and heir, a movement grew to replace him with his elder daughter Princess Mary and his son-in-law/nephew, William of Orange.
When the young prince was born, a rumour immediately spread that a call for a warming pan had been the pretext for a substitution, implying that James and Mary's baby was allegedly stillborn. On 10 December, within six months of his birth, Mary of Modena took baby James to France, worried about his safety, while his father continued to fight (unsuccessfully) to retain his crown. James and his sister Louisa Maria, were brought up in France. There, James was recognised by his cousin, King Louis XIV of France, as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones and became the focus for the Jacobite movement.
Struggle for the throne
On his father's death in 1701, James declared himself King, as King James III and VIII and was recognised as such by France, Spain, the Papal States and Modena. These states refused to recognise William III, Mary II or Queen Anne as legitimate British sovereigns. As a result, he was attainted for treason on 2 March 1702, and his titles were forfeited under English law.
Having been delayed in France by an attack of measles, James attempted an invasion, trying to land at the Firth of Forth on 23 March 1708. His French ships were driven back by the fleet of Admiral Sir George Byng.
Had he renounced his Roman Catholic faith, he might have strengthened the existing support of Tory, pro-Restoration forces in England, but he refused to do so. As a result, in 1714, a German Protestant became King—George I of Great Britain.
In 1713, the War of the Spanish Succession ended indecisively. Although the French forces and allies (of which Spain was one) were in complete control of Spain itself, they failed to retake the Spanish Crown's other European territories. Louis XIV of France accepted peace with Great Britain and her allies. He signed the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, that, amongst other conditions, required him to expel James from France.
In the following year, the Jacobites started "The 'Fifteen" Jacobite rising in Scotland, aimed at putting "James III and VIII" on the throne. In 1715, James finally set foot on Scottish soil, following the indecisive Battle of Sheriffmuir, but was disappointed by the strength of support he found. Instead of going through with plans for a coronation at Scone, he returned to France, sailing from Montrose. He was not welcomed back, because his patron, Louis XIV, was dead and the government found him a political embarrassment.
Life as Pretender
Pope Clement XI offered James the Palazzo Muti in Rome as his residence, and he accepted. Innocent XIII, like his predecessor, showed much support. Thanks to the mediation of a close friend of his, Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio, James was granted a life annuity of eight thousand Roman scudi. Such help enabled him to organise a Roman Jacobite court, where the Pope's cousin, Francesco Maria Conti of Siena, was the Gentiluomo di camera (Chamberlain).
On 3 September 1719, James Francis Edward Stuart married in the Chapel of episcopal palace of Montefiascone (Viterbo - Italy), Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702–35), granddaughter of the Polish king, John III Sobieski (sister of Maria Karolina Sobieska). They had two sons:
- Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788), nicknamed "Bonnie Prince Charlie"
- Henry Benedict Stuart (11 March 1725 – 13 July 1807), Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church
Bonnie Prince Charlie
Following James's failure, attention turned to his son Charles, "the Young Pretender", whose rebellion of 1745 came closer to success than his father's. With the failure of this second rebellion, however, the Stuart hopes of regaining the British throne were effectively destroyed. James and Charles later clashed repeatedly, and relations between them broke down completely when James played a role in the election of his son Henry as a Cardinal (the celibacy required meaning that Henry would not have any children and could not carry on the line of succession) infuriating Charles who had not been consulted.
In 1759 the French government briefly considered a scheme to have James crowned King of Ireland, as part of their plans to Invade the British Isles but the offer was never formally made to James. Several separate plans also involved Charles being given control of a French-backed independent Ireland.
James died in Rome on 1 January 1766, and was buried in the crypt of St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican. His burial is marked by the Monument to the Royal Stuarts. Refusing to recognise James's eldest son Charles, from 14 January the Papacy instead accepted the Hanoverian dynasty as the legitimate rulers of Britain and Ireland. This led on to the slow reform of the anti-Catholic "Penal laws" in Britain and Ireland.
In 1792 the Papacy specifically referred to George III as the King of Great Britain and Ireland, leading to a Protest from James's second son, Henry, who was then the Jacobite claimant.
James' 64 years, 3 months and 16 days as the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland lasted longer than the reigns of any legitimate monarch of those kingdoms or their successor states. To date, the longest serving British monarch is Queen Victoria, who reigned for 63 years, 7 months and 2 days. In order to surpass the record set by the titular James III, the current monarch Queen Elizabeth II would need to remain on the throne until at least May 23, 2016.
Titles and honours
- 10 June – 4 July 1688: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall
- 4 July 1688 – 11 December 1688: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
- 11 December 1702 – 1 January 1766: James Francis Edward Stuart
- Jacobite, 11 December 1688 – 16 September 1701: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
- Jacobite, 16 September 1701 – 1 January 1766: His Majesty The King
James's full titles before his father's deposition were: His Royal Highness The Prince James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland,
- Jacobite, KG: Knight of the Garter, 1692–1766
- Monument to the Royal Stuarts
- Touch Pieces The cure of Scrofula or the King's Evil
- Correspondence with James the Pretender (High Treason) Act 1701 Parliament's response to his claim to the throne
Notes and sources
- ^ Complete Peerage. "Duke of Cornwall".
- ^ Sir Winston Churchill, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, Vol. 2, Dodd, Mead & Co., NY 1957, pp. 97-98.
- ^ a b "The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes". Princeofwales.gov.uk. http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/personalprofiles/theprinceofwales/abouttheprince/previousprincesofwales/. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- ^ Francois R. Velde. "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family". Heraldica.org. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/cadency.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766)Born: 10 June 1688 Died: 1 January 1766
| Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
by cognatic primogeniture
10 June 1688 – 11 December 1688
Title next held byWilliam III and Mary II
by Bill of Rights 1689
Title last held byCharles II of England
|Prince of Wales||Vacant|
Title next held byGeorge II of Great Britain
|Pretenders to the title|
|Glorious Revolution||— TITULAR —
Prince of Wales
James II & VII
(deposed from throne)
|— TITULAR —
King of England, Scotland, France & Ireland
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