|— Neighborhood of Los Angeles —|
as delineated by the Los Angeles Times
|Elevation||108 m (354 ft)|
Hollywood ( // HOL-ee-wuud) is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. This ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood is notable as the home of the U.S. film industry, including several of its historic studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.
Hollywood was a small community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Adjacent neighborhoods
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Radio and television
- 6 Government
- 7 Education
- 8 Notable places
- 9 Special events
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
History[edit | edit source]
Early history and development[edit | edit source]
In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera (Nopal field), named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north.
According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the "Father of Hollywood," on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning 'hauling wood.' H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States.
Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres (194 ha) E.C. Hurd ranch. They agreed on a price and shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, and Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area.
Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon (now Lake Hollywood) and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's. She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. H. Wilcox who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887. It wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year.
By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.
The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, which, still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years.
Whitley's company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass. The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue. His 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him.
Incorporation and merger[edit | edit source]
Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve wine or liquor before or after meals.
In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L.A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were also changed.
Motion picture industry[edit | edit source]
By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production near or in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, and filmmakers were often sued to stop their productions. To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west, where Edison's patents could not be enforced. Also, the weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry.
Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood. His 17-minute short film In Old California (1910) was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction. The first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, and the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO, and Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation.
Development[edit | edit source]
In 1923, a large sign, reading HOLLYWOODLAND, was erected in the Hollywood Hills. Its purpose was to advertise a housing development. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce entered a contract with the City of Los Angeles to repair and rebuild the sign. The agreement stipulated that "LAND" be removed to spell "HOLLYWOOD" so the sign would now refer to the district, rather than the housing development.
During the early 1950s, the Hollywood Freeway was constructed through the northeast corner of Hollywood.
The Capitol Records Building on Vine Street, just north of Hollywood Boulevard, was built in 1956, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists and other significant contributors to the entertainment industry. The official opening was on February 8, 1960.
The Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
In June 1999, the Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Red Line subway opened from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue (Hollywood/Western Metro station), Vine Street (Hollywood/Vine Metro station), and Highland Avenue (Hollywood/Highland Metro station).
Revitalization[edit | edit source]
After years of serious decline in the 1980s, many Hollywood landmarks were threatened with demolition. Columbia Square, at the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street, is part of the ongoing rebirth of Hollywood. The Art Deco-style studio complex completed in 1938, which was once the Hollywood headquarters for CBS, became home to a new generation of broadcasters when cable television networks MTV, Comedy Central, BET and Spike TV consolidated their offices here in 2014 as part of a $420-million office, residential and retail complex. Since 2000, Hollywood has been increasingly gentrified due to revitalization by private enterprise and public planners.
Secession movement[edit | edit source]
In 2002, some Hollywood voters began a campaign for the area to secede from Los Angeles and become a separate municipality. In June of that year, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors placed secession referendums for both Hollywood and the San Fernando Valley on the ballot. To pass, they required the approval of a majority of voters in the proposed new municipality as well as a majority of voters in all of Los Angeles. In the November election, both measures failed by wide margins in the citywide vote.
Geography[edit | edit source]
According to the Mapping L.A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Hollywood is flanked by Hollywood Hills to the north, Los Feliz to the northeast, East Hollywood or Virgil Village to the east, Larchmont and Hancock Park to the south, Fairfax to the southwest, West Hollywood to the west and Hollywood Hills West to the northwest.
Street limits of the Hollywood neighborhood are: north, Hollywood Boulevard from La Brea Avenue to the east boundary of Wattles Garden Park and Franklin Avenue between Bonita and Western avenues; east, Western Avenue; south, Melrose Avenue, and west, La Brea Avenue or the West Hollywood city line.
In 1918, H. J. Whitley commissioned architect A. S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean-style village on the hills above Hollywood Boulevard, and it became the first celebrity community.
Climate[edit | edit source]
|Climate data for Hollywood, Los Angeles, California|
|Record high °F (°C)||91
|Average high °F (°C)||66.5
|Average low °F (°C)||50.5
|Record low °F (°C)||30
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.99
|Source: The Weather Channel|
Adjacent neighborhoods[edit | edit source]
|Hollywood Hills West||Hollywood Hills||Los Feliz|
|West Hollywood||East Hollywood|
|Fairfax||Larchmont and Hancock Park||East Hollywood|
Demographics[edit | edit source]
The 2000 U.S. census counted 77,818 residents in the 3.51-square-mile (9.1 km2) Hollywood neighborhood—an average of 22,193 people per square mile (8,569 per km2), the seventh-densest neighborhood in all of Los Angeles County. In 2008 the city estimated that the population had increased to 85,489. The median age for residents was 31, about the city's average.
Hollywood was said to be "highly diverse" when compared to the city at large. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was: Latino or Hispanic, 42.2%, Non-Hispanic Whites, 41%; Asian, 7.1%; blacks, 5.2%, and others, 4.5%. Mexico (21.3%) and Guatemala (13%) were the most common places of birth for the 53.8% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure that was considered high for the city as a whole.
The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,694, considered low for Los Angeles. The average household size of 2.1 people was also lower than the city norm. Renters occupied 92.4% of the housing units, and home- or apartment owners the rest.
The percentages of never-married men (55.1%), never-married women (39.8%) and widows (9.6%) were among the county's highest. There were 2,640 families headed by single parents, about average for Los Angeles.
In 2000, there were 2,828 military veterans, or 4.5%, a low rate for the city as a whole. Template:High-density neighborhoods in Los Angeles County
Radio and television[edit | edit source]
On January 22, 1947, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, KTLA, began operating in Hollywood. In December of that year, The Public Prosecutor became the first network television series to be filmed in Hollywood.Television stations KTLA and KCET, both on Sunset Boulevard, are the last broadcasters (television or radio) with Hollywood addresses, but KCET has since sold its studios on Sunset and plans to move to another location. KNBC moved in 1962 from the former NBC Radio City Studios at the northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street to NBC Studios in Burbank. KTTV moved in 1996 from its former home at Metromedia Square on Sunset Boulevard to West Los Angeles, and KCOP left its home on La Brea Avenue to join KTTV on the Fox lot. KCBS-TV and KCAL-TV moved from their longtime home at CBS Columbia Square on Sunset Boulevard to a new facility at CBS Studio Center in Studio City.
Government[edit | edit source]
As a neighborhood within the Los Angeles city limits, Hollywood does not have its own municipal government. There was an official, appointed by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, who served as an honorary "Mayor of Hollywood" for ceremonial purposes only. Johnny Grant held this position from 1980 until his death on January 9, 2008.
Emergency service[edit | edit source]
Post office[edit | edit source]
Neighborhood councils[edit | edit source]
Hollywood is included within the Hollywood United Neighborhood Council (HUNC) Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council and the Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council. Neighborhood Councils cast advisory votes on such issues as zoning, planning, and other community issues. The council members are voted in by stakeholders, generally defined as anyone living, working, owning property, or belonging to an organization within the boundaries of the council.
Education[edit | edit source]
Hollywood residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 28% of the population in 2000, about the same as in the county at large.
Schools[edit | edit source]
Public schools are operated by the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD).
Schools in Hollywood include:
Public libraries[edit | edit source]
The Will and Ariel Durant Branch and the Frances Howard Goldwyn – Hollywood Regional Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library are in Hollywood.
Notable places[edit | edit source]
- CBS Columbia Square
- Charlie Chaplin Studios
- Cinerama Dome
- Crossroads of the World
- Dolby Theatre
- Earl Carroll Theatre (currently Nickelodeon on Sunset)
- El Capitan Theatre
- Frederick's of Hollywood
- Gower Gulch
- Grauman's Chinese Theatre
- Grauman's Egyptian Theatre
- Hollywood & Western Building
- Hollywood and Highland Center
- Hollywood and Vine
- Hollywood Forever Cemetery
- Hollywood Heritage Museum
- Hollywood Palladium
- Hollywood Masonic Temple
- Hollywood Museum
- Hollywood Walk of Fame
- Hollywood Wax Museum
- Knickerbocker Hotel
- Madame Tussauds Hollywood
- Musso & Frank Grill
- Pantages Theatre
- Roosevelt Hotel
- Sunset Gower Studios
Special events[edit | edit source]
- The Academy Awards are held in late February/early March (since 2004) of each year, honoring the preceding year in film. Prior to 2004, they were held in late March/early April. Since 2002, the Oscars have been held at their new home at the Dolby (formerly Kodak) Theater at Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue.
- The annual Hollywood Christmas Parade: The 2006 parade on Nov 26 was the 75th edition of the Christmas Parade. The parade goes down Hollywood Boulevard and is broadcast in the LA area on KTLA, and around the United States on Tribune-owned stations and the WGN superstation.
- The Hollywood Half Marathon takes place in April (since 2012) of each year, to raise funds and awareness for local youth homeless shelters. The event includes a Half Marathon, 10K, 5K, and Kids Fun Run along Hollywood Blvd.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ "Tinseltown" at Dictionary.com.
- ^ a b "Tinseltown". Collins English Dictionary. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/tinseltown. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "Hollywood". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic/f?p=gnispq:3:::NO::P3_FID:1660757. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
- ^ "Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXXI, Number 45". By the California Digital Newspaper Collection (November 15, 1903). http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=LAH19031115.2.91. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- ^ "Hollywood Was Once an Alcohol-Free Community". By Rachel Nuwer of smithsonianmag.com. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/hollywood-was-once-alcohol-free-community-1-180949851/. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- ^ Annual Report of the Controller of the City of Los Angeles, California. ByOffice of Controller Los Angeles, CA (1914). https://books.google.com/books?id=1VbOAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=Hollywood+merged+with+City+of+Los+Angeles+in+1910&source=bl&ots=UXy8g_Cebu&sig=gPzBGw8oNI3piV9WM_TWi591vg0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LyAJU_ngBMLyoAT93oHwAQ&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Hollywood%20merged%20with%20City%20of%20Los%20Angeles%20in%201910&f=false. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- ^ Report of the Auditor of the City of Los Angeles California of the Financial Affairs of the Corporation in Its Capacity as a City for the Fiscal Year. By Auditor's Office of Los Angeles, CA (1913). https://books.google.com/books?id=cPo2AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=Hollywood+merged+with+City+of+Los+Angeles+in+1910&source=bl&ots=0dV9MtZD24&sig=IedPvUG3UsxR4KbUSSviQ_aWS-A&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZCEJU_n_MM72oASl5oHQBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=Hollywood%20merged%20with%20City%20of%20Los%20Angeles%20in%201910&f=false. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- ^ "Margaret Virginia Whitley Diary (1886)". http://thefatherofhollywood.com/images/HJ%201886%20name%20Hollywood0002.JPG.
- ^ Margaret Leslie Davis,  (1993), p. 92.
- ^ The Father of Hollywood by Gaelyn Whitley Keith The Father of Hollywood (2010) pg. 127
- ^ The Quarterly, pg 93–94
- ^ Father of Hollywood Dies Hollywood Daily Citizen (1931)
- ^ Los Angeles from the mountains to the sea: with selected biography ..., Volume 3 By John Steven McGroarty 1921 pg. 815
- ^ Cahuenga Valley Sentinel (May 7, 1904).
- ^ Hollywood Citizen (Spring Addition March 4, 1914).
- ^  "Hollywood Becomes a Prohibition Town," Los Angeles Times, December 29, 1903, page A-3
- ^ Hollywood California | Hollywood History and Information Script error: No such module "webarchive".. Abouthollywood.com (November 16, 2010). Retrieved on December 11, 2011.
- ^ Jacobs, Lewis. The Rise of the American Film Harcourt Brace, New York, 1930; p. 85
- ^ "History of Hollywood, California". http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h3871.html. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ^ a b Mintz, S., and S. McNeil. "Hollywood as History." Digital History. N.p., 2013. Web. May 20, 2014.
- ^ Philip French (February 28, 2010). "How 100 years of Hollywood have charted the history of America". The Guardian. UK. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2010/feb/28/philip-french-best-hollywood-films. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
- ^ RASMUSSEN, CECILIA (August 1, 1999). "L.A. Then and Now: Film Pioneer Griffith Rode History to Fame". Los Angeles Times: p. 3.
- ^ Dyson, Jonathan (March 4, 2000). "How the West was won Time lapse". The Independent (London (UK)): p. 54.
- ^ Friedrich, Otto (1986). City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-520-20949-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=0x8AFchW4JsC&lpg=PP1.
- ^ "Without This Man, Hollywood May Not Exist". YouTube. January 22, 2011. //www.youtube.com/watch?v=BLdDLeFbVow&feature=share&list=ULBLdDLeFbVow. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ The Father of Hollywood by Gaelyn Whitley Keith (August 31, 2010)www.thefatherofhollywood.com
- ^ First Hollywood movie filmed on Whitley Estate on October26, 1911 (July 7, 2010) http://cinematreasures.org/blog/2010/7/7/first-hollywood-movie-filmed-on-whitley-estate-on-october-26-1911>
- ^ Robertson (2001), p. 21. It later became the Hollywood Film Laboratory, now called the Hollywood Digital Laboratory.
- ^ Slide, Anthony (February 25, 2014) (in en). The New Historical Dictionary of the American Film Industry. Routledge. pp. 94. ISBN 9781135925543. https://books.google.com/books?id=KnzsAgAAQBAJ&lpg=PA94&dq=1949,%20the%20Hollywood%20Chamber%20of%20Commerce%20contract&pg=PA94.
- ^ History of WOF Script error: No such module "webarchive". hollywoodchamber.net; Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- ^ "Kramer First Name Put in Walk of Fame"(abstract). Los Angeles Times, March 29, 1960, p. 15. Full article: LA Times Archives Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- ^ Martin, Hugo (February 8, 2010). "Golden milestone for the Hollywood Walk of Fame". http://articles.latimes.com/2010/feb/06/business/la-fi-walk-of-fame6-2010feb06. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- ^ Leavitt, B. Russell (June 6, 1982). "In California: A Fading Hollywood". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950674-1,00.html. Retrieved January 14, 2014. (subscription may be required for this article)
- ^ Vincent, Roger (November 19, 2014). "Viacom signs 12-year lease at Columbia Square in Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/business/realestate/la-fi-columbia-square-viacom-20141120-story.html.
- ^ Kotkin, Joel (Summer 2012). "Let L.A. be L.A.". 22. New York City: City Journal. http://www.city-journal.org/2012/22_3_snd-los-angeles.html.
- ^ Lin II,, Rong-Gong; Zahniser, David; Xia, Rosanna (April 30, 2015). "Judge halts Millennium Hollywood skyscraper project". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-millennium-hollywood-20150430-story.html.
- ^ Vincent, Roger (January 30, 2014). "Vine Street resurgence continues with $285-million mixed-use project". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-property-report-20140130-story.html.
- ^ Grand, Noah (November 5, 2002). "Valley, Hollywood secession measures fail". Daily Bruin. http://dailybruin.com/2002/11/05/valley-hollywood-secession-mea/. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- ^ a b ""Central L.A.," Mapping L.A., ''Los Angeles Times''". Projects.latimes.com. http://projects.latimes.com/mapping-la/neighborhoods/region/central-la/. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j ""Hollywood," Mapping L.A., ''Los Angeles Times''". Projects.latimes.com. http://projects.latimes.com/mapping-la/neighborhoods/neighborhood/hollywood. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ a b The Thomas Guide, Los Angeles County 2006, page 593
- ^ "About". Whitley Heights. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130818103325/http://www.whitleyheights.org/about5.html. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "Whitley Heights | Office of Historic Resources, City of Los Angeles". Preservation.lacity.org. http://www.preservation.lacity.org/hpoz/la/whitley-heights. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "About". Whitley Heights. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130818104333/http://www.whitleyheights.org/about9.html. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. https://web.archive.org/web/20151222220055/http://ycchollywood.org/ycc-membership/. Retrieved 2015-12-21. Yucca Corridor Coalition website
- ^ Monte Morin, "A Look Ahead: Activists Are Stepping Up Efforts on Their New Cause and Meeting Strong Business Opposition," Los Angeles Times, August 23, 1999, page 1
- ^ "Monthly Averages for Los Angeles (90028)". https://weather.com/weather/monthly/l/90028:4:US. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- ^ Bob Pool, "Hollywood, Radio Finally Part Waves," Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2005
- ^ "Johnny Grant, honorary Hollywood mayor, dies". CNN. January 10, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/SHOWBIZ/TV/01/10/grant.obit. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
- ^ "Hollywood-Wilshire Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location – HOLLYWOOD Script error: No such module "webarchive".." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location – HOLLYWOOD PAVILION Script error: No such module "webarchive".." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location – SUNSET Script error: No such module "webarchive".." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- ^ "Hollywood United Neighborhood Council". Hollywoodunitednc.org. http://www.hollywoodunitednc.org/. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "WELCOME | Hollywood Hills West". Hhwnc.org. December 10, 2013. http://www.hhwnc.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council Bylaws - Area Boundaries". Hhwnc.org. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140121073645/http://www.hhwnc.org/bylaws#article3. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council (January 1, 2014). "Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council". Hsdnc.org. http://www.hsdnc.org/. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "Los Angeles Department of Neighborhood Enpowerment". Done.lacity.org. January 20, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131114154651/http://done.lacity.org/ncdatabase/nc_database_public/NCDetail.aspx?ncid=33. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "HSDNC.org: FAQs". Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. https://web.archive.org/web/20081208001742/http://hsdnc.org/modules/smartfaq/.
- ^ "Hollywood High School". http://hollywoodhighschool.net.
- ^  Script error: No such module "webarchive".
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