Hobart Central Business District and Wrest Point Casino in the foreground viewed from Mount Nelson
|Population:||219,287 (June 2008)  (11th)|
|• Density:||895/km² (2,318.0/sq mi) (2006)|
|Area:||1357.3 km² (524.1 sq mi)|
• Summer (DST)
|State District:||Denison, Franklin|
|Federal Division:||Denison, Franklin|
Hobart (pronounced /ˈhoʊbɑrt/ (deprecated template)) is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. Founded in 1803 as a penal colony, Hobart is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney. In 2008, the city had a greater area population of approximately 219,287. A Resident of Hobart is known as a "Hobartian". The city is the financial and administrative heart of Tasmania, and also serves as the home port for both Australian and French Antarctic operations.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Distinctive features
- 6 Culture
- 7 Government
- 8 Education
- 9 Infrastructure
- 10 Notable residents
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
History[edit | edit source]
The first settlement began in 1803 as a penal colony at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid British concerns over the presence of French explorers. In 1804 it was moved to a better location at the present site of Hobart at Sullivans Cove. The city, initially known as Hobart Town or Hobarton, was named after Lord Hobart, the Colonial Secretary. The area's original inhabitants were members of the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe. A series of bloody encounters with the Europeans and the effects of diseases brought by the settlers forced away the aboriginal population, which was rapidly replaced by free settlers and the convict population. Charles Darwin visited Hobart Town in February, 1836 as part of the Beagle expedition. He writes of Hobart and the Derwent estuary in his Voyage of the Beagle:
...The lower parts of the hills which skirt the bay are cleared; and the bright yellow fields of corn, and dark green ones of potatoes, appear very luxuriant... I was chiefly struck with the comparative fewness of the large houses, either built or building. Hobart Town, from the census of 1835, contained 13,826 inhabitants, and the whole of Tasmania 36,505.
But since the Derwent River was one of Australia's finest deepwater ports and was the centre of the Southern Ocean whaling and the sealing trade, it rapidly grew into a major port, with allied industries such as shipbuilding. Hobart Town became a city on 21 August 1842, and was renamed Hobart in 1875.
Geography[edit | edit source]
Topography[edit | edit source]
This section discusses the topography of the Greater Hobart area and as such pinpoints the regions of urban sprawl of the suburbs and the towns included in the Greater Hobart area as well as land formations. Hobart is located on the estuary of the Derwent River in the state's south-east at . Geologically Hobart is built predominantly on Jurassic Dolerite around the foothills interspersed with smaller areas of Triassic siltstone and Permian Mudstone. Much of the waterfront of the Hobart CBD is built on Reclaimed land such as the Sullivans Cove and Salamanca areas, done during the convict era of Tasmania.
Hobart extends along both sides of the Derwent River, on the Western Shore from the Derwent Valley in the North through the flatter areas of Glenorchy which rests on older Triassic sediment and into the hilly areas of New Town, Lenah Valley both resting on the younger Jurassic dolerite deposits, before stretching into the lower areas such as the beaches of Sandy Bay in the South, in the Derwent Estuary. The Eastern Shore also extends from the Derwent Valley area in a Southerly direction hugging the Meehan Ranges in the East before sprawling into flatter land in suburbs such as Bellerive. These flatter areas of the Eastern Shore rest on far younger deposits from the Quaternary. From there the city extends in an easterly direction through the Meehan Ranges into the hilly areas of Rokeby and Oakdowns, before reaching into the tidal flatland area of Lauderdale.
Hobart has access to a number of beach areas including those in the Derwent Estuary itself; Sandy Bay, Nutgrove, Kingston, Bellerive and Howrah Beaches as well as many more in Frederick Henry Bay such as; Seven Mile, Roaches, Cremorne, Clifton and Goats Beaches.
Climate[edit | edit source]
Hobart has a mild temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). The highest temperature recorded was 40.8°C on 4 January 1976 and the lowest was −2.8°C on 25 June 1972. Compared to other major Australia cities, Hobart has the second fewest daily average hours of sunshine, with 5.9 hours per day. (Melbourne has the fewest) However during the Summer it has the most hours of sunlight of any city with up to 15.2 hrs on the Summer solstice. Although Hobart rarely receives snow during the winter, the adjacent Mount Wellington is often seen with a snowcap. Unseasonal mountain snow covering has been known to occur during the other seasons. During the 20th century the city itself has rarely received snowfalls at sea level occurring on average only once every 15 years, however outer suburbs lying higher on Mount Wellington receive snow due to cold air masses arriving from Antarctica coupled with them resting at higher altitude. These snow-bearing winds often carry on through Tasmania and Victoria to the Snowy Mountains in southern New South Wales and northern Victoria.
- See also: A graph of the climate of Hobart as measured and recorded on Ellerslie Road (Wikimedia Commons)
|Weather averages for Hobart (1881-2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||40.8 (105)||40.1 (104)||37.3 (99)||30.6 (87)||25.7 (78)||20.6 (69)||22.1 (72)||24.5 (76)||31.0 (88)||34.6 (94)||36.8 (98)||40.6 (105)||40.8 (105)|
|Average high °C (°F)||21.6 (71)||21.6 (71)||20.1 (68)||17.3 (63)||14.4 (58)||12.0 (54)||11.6 (53)||13.0 (55)||15.1 (59)||16.9 (62)||18.7 (66)||20.3 (69)||16.9 (62)|
|Average low °C (°F)||11.9 (53)||12.0 (54)||10.8 (51)||8.9 (48)||6.9 (44)||5.2 (41)||4.5 (40)||5.2 (41)||6.4 (44)||7.7 (46)||9.2 (49)||10.8 (51)||8.3 (47)|
|Record low °C (°F)||3.3 (38)||3.4 (38)||1.8 (35)||0.7 (33)||−1.6 (29)||−2.8 (27)||−2.8 (27)||−1.8 (29)||−0.8 (31)||0.0 (32)||0.3 (33)||2.8 (37)||−2.8 (27)|
|Precipitation mm (inch)||48.0 (1.9)||39.9 (1.6)||45.2 (1.8)||51.4 (2)||46.8 (1.8)||54.0 (2.1)||52.5 (2.1)||52.9 (2.1)||52.7 (2.1)||62.1 (2.4)||53.7 (2.1)||57.0 (2.2)||616.2 (24.3)
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology 2009-12-28|
Demographics[edit | edit source]
As of the 2006 census there were 217,525 people in the greater Hobart area and the City of Hobart local government area had a population of 47,700. According to the 2006 census, approximately 12.0% of greater Hobart's residents were born overseas, commonly the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Germany and Netherlands. Hobart has also started to form thriving Korean and Somali communities. The recent growth of Hobart's Multiculturalism and rise in population has prompted the development of new suburbs such as Glebe Hill and Oak Downs as well as others in the planning stage, such as the newest proposed suburb designed for the families of Korean students immigrating to the city along with residents seeking a more alternative and carbon friendly lifestyle, dubbed Paranville, Paran being Korean for blue/green, in reference to its goals for being a 'clean and green' eco friendly suburb.
Most common occupations are Professionals 21.6%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 16.1%, Technicians and Trades Workers 13.8%, Managers 11.5% and Community and Personal Service Workers 10.6%. Median weekly household income was $869, compared with $1,027 nationally.
In the 2006 census, 63.8% of residents specified a Christian religion. Major religious affiliations are Anglican 29.8%, Catholic 21.1%, Uniting Church 4.2% and Presbyterian and Reformed 2.0%. In addition, 21.6% specified "No Religion" and 12.0% did not answer.
Economy[edit | edit source]
Hobart is a busy seaport, notably serving as the home port for the Antarctic activities of Australia and France. The port loads around 2,000 tonnes of Antarctic cargo a year for the Australian research vessel Aurora Australis. The city is also a hub for Cruise ships during the summer months with up to 40 Cruise ships docking during the course of the season.
The city also supports many other industries, shipbuilding, including high-speed catamaran factories such as the world renowned Incat and ore refinement zinc smelters operated by Nyrstar, large breweries such as Cascade manufactures many different beers exported nationally with its premium and boutique beers being found in Europe, as well as smaller breweries around the city. One notable business in the city is the Cadbury chocolate factory which manufactures most of the Cadbury's chocolate for the Southern Hemisphere. The city also supports a host of light industry manufacturers.
Hobart also supports a huge tourist industry. Visitors come to the city to explore its historic inner suburbs and nationally acclaimed restaurants and cafes, as well as its vibrant music and nightlife culture. Tourists also come to visit the massive weekly market in Salamanca Place, as well as to use the city as a base from which to explore the rest of Tasmania.
The last 15–20 years has also seen Hobart's wine industry thrive as many vineyards have developed in countryside areas outside of the city in the Coal River Wine Region and D'Entrecasteaux Channel, including Moorilla Estate at Berriedale one of the most awarded vineyards in Australia.
Distinctive features[edit | edit source]
The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens is a popular recreation area a short distance from the City centre. It is the second-oldest Botanic Gardens in Australia and holds extensive significant plant collections as well as built heritage.
Mount Wellington, accessible by passing through Fern Tree, is the dominant feature of Hobart's skyline, indeed many descriptions of Hobart have used the phrase "nestled amidst the foothills", so undulating is the geographical landscape. At 1,271 metres, the mountain has its own ecosystems, is rich in biodiversity and plays a large part in determining the local weather.
The Tasman Bridge is also a uniquely important feature of the city, connecting the two shores of Hobart and visible from many locations.
Culture[edit | edit source]
Arts and entertainment[edit | edit source]
Hobart is home to the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, which is resident at the Federation Concert Hall on the city's waterfront. It offers a year-round program of concerts and is thought to be one of the finest small orchestras in the world.
Hobart also plays host to the University of Tasmania's acclaimed Australian International Symphony Orchestra Institute (AISOI) which brings pre-professional advanced young musicians to town from all over Australia and internationally. The AISOI plays host to a public concert season during the first two weeks of December every year focusing on large symphonic music. Like the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra, the AISOI uses the Federation Concert Hall as its performing base.
Hobart has also long been home to a thriving classical, jazz, folk, punk, hip-hop, electro, metal and rock music scene. Internationally recognised musicians such as singer/songwriters Michael Noga (of The Drones), Able Bodied Seamen, The Paradise Motel, The Scientists of Modern Music Sacha Lucashenko of The Morning After Girls, two thirds of indie rock band Love Of Diagrams, post punk band Sea Scouts, singer-songwriter Monique Brumby, blues guitarist Phil Manning (of blues-rock band Chain), power-pop group The Innocents, maverick DIY overlord Sean Bailey (Lakes, Paeces, Wasted Truth) and metal bands Striborg and Psycroptic are all successful expatriates. In addition, founding member of Violent Femmes, Brian Ritchie, now calls Hobart home, and has formed a local band, The Green Mist.
Several festivals such as the Hobart Fringe Festival, Hobart Summer Festival, Southern Roots Festival, Ten Days On The Island and the Falls Festival in Marion Bay and The Soundscape Festival all capitalise on Hobart's artistic communities.
Hobart also hosts the bulk of the 10 Days on the Island festival, a biannual international arts festival.
The Hobart nightlife primarily revolves around Salamanca Place, the waterfront area, Elizabeth St in North Hobart and Sandy Bay but popular pubs, bars and nightclubs exist around the city as well. Major national and international music events are usually held at the Derwent Entertainment Centre, or the Casino.
Popular restaurant strips include Elizabeth Street in North Hobart, and Salamanca Place near the waterfront. These include a large number of ethnic restaurants including Chinese, Thai, Greek, Pakistani, Italian, Indian and Mexican.
Hobart is home to Australia's oldest theatre, the Theatre Royal, as well as the Playhouse theatre, the Backspace theatre and many smaller stage theatres. It also has three Village Cinema complexes, one each in the city, Glenorchy and Rosny, with the possibility of a fourth being developed in Kingston. The State Cinema in North Hobart specialises in arthouse and foreign films.
Events[edit | edit source]
Hobart is internationally famous among the yachting community as the finish of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race which starts in Sydney on Boxing Day (the day after Christmas Day). The arrival of the yachts is celebrated as part of the Hobart Summer Festival, a food and wine festival beginning just after Christmas and ending in mid-January. The Taste of Tasmania is a major part of the festival, where locals and visitors can taste fine local and international food and wine.
Hobart is the finish point of the Targa Tasmania rally car event held annually in April since 1991.
The Australian Wooden Boat Festival is a bi-annual event held in Hobart celebrating wooden boats. It is held concurrently with the Royal Hobart Regatta, which began in 1830 and is therefore Tasmania's oldest sporting event.
Sports in Hobart[edit | edit source]
Most of Hobart's sporting teams in national competitions are statewide teams rather than exclusively city teams. These include the Tasmanian Tigers cricket team, which plays its home games at the Bellerive Oval on the Eastern Shore.
Despite Australian rules football's huge popularity in the state of Tasmania, the state does not have a team in the Australian Football League. However, a bid for an Tasmanian AFL team is a popular topic among football fans as well as by the State government (one of the potential sponsors of such a team).
However, local domestic club football is still played, Tasmanian State League football features five clubs from Hobart, other leagues such as Southern Football League and the Old Scholars Football Association are also played each Winter.
Tasmania is not represented by teams in national, rugby union, rugby league, netball, soccer, or basketball leagues. However, the "Oasis Hobart Chargers" team does represent Hobart in the South East Australian Basketball League (SEABL). Besides the AFL bid for Aussie Rules football, there is also a Hobart bid applying for entry into the A-League.
Media[edit | edit source]
Nine free-to-air television channels service Hobart. Commercial television channels are provided by Southern Cross Tasmania, Tasmanian Digital Television (TDT), also providing One HD in high definition only, and WIN Television, also providing the nationwide Go! channel. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation provides ABC1 and ABC2. Multicultural broadcaster SBS provides SBS One and SBS Two. Until 1986, television broadcasts in the city were restricted to two channels: TVT-6 and the ABC. In 1986, SBS began transmission to the city. In 1994 market aggregation allowed Launceston based station TNT-9 (now Southern Cross Tasmania) to broadcast to Hobart as well. TVT-6 (since known as TasTV, now WIN Television) took on a Nine Network affiliation, with Southern Cross carrying both Seven and Ten programming. All stations commenced digital broadcasting during 2003, and in December 2003, a fifth station, TDT, began broadcasting. TDT is a joint venture between Southern Cross and WIN. In March 2005, ABC2 came on-line. In 2009,ABC 3, One HD, GO! and newly arrived 7TWO were made available in Hobart. One HD in Tasmania is known as One HD Tasmania. In 2010 the ABC launched ABC News 24 (available only on HD, replacing ABC HD)
Commercial radio stations licensed to cover the Hobart market include 100.9 SEA FM Hobart's Hit Music Station and The All New HEART 107.3, 7HO FM. Local community radio stations include Christian radio station Ultra106five, Edge Radio and 92FM which targets the wider community with specialist programmes. The five ABC radio networks available on analogue radio broadcast to Hobart via 936 ABC Hobart, Radio National, Triple J, Newsradio and ABC Classic FM.
Hobart's major newspaper is The Mercury, which was founded by John Davies in 1854 and has been continually published ever since. The paper is currently owned and operated by Rupert Murdoch's News Limited.
Government[edit | edit source]
The Greater Hobart Metropolitan consists of five local government areas of which three, City of Hobart, City of Glenorchy and City of Clarence are designated as cities. Hobart also includes the urbanised local governments of the Municipality of Kingborough and Municipality of Brighton. Each local government services all the suburbs that are within its geographical boundaries and are responsible for their own urban, up to a certain scale, and residential planning as well as waste management and mains water storage.
Most city wide events such as the Taste of Tasmania and Hobart Summer Festival, are funded by the Tasmanian State Government as a joint venture with the local council. Urban planning of the Hobart CBD in particular the Heritage listed areas such as Sullivans Cove are also intensely scrutinised by State Government, which is operated out of Parliament House on the waterfront.
- See also List of Hobart suburbs
Education[edit | edit source]
Hobart is home to the main campus of the University of Tasmania, situated in Sandy Bay. On-site accommodation colleges include Christ College, Jane Franklin Hall and St John Fisher College. Other campuses are in Launceston and Burnie.
The G.H.A (Greater Hobart Area) contains 122 Primary, Secondary and Pretertiary (College) schools distributed throughout the different City (Clarence, Glenorchy and Hobart) and Municipality (Kingborough and Brighton) council regions. These schools are made up of a mix of Public, Catholic, Private and Independently run with the heaviest distribution lying in the more densely populated West around the Hobart city core. The city also maintains a large Polytechnics College campus (formerly TAFE Tasmania) for post secondary studies in Trades and other non university qualifications.
Infrastructure[edit | edit source]
Transportation[edit | edit source]
The only public transportation within the city of Hobart is via a network of Metro Tasmania buses funded by the Tasmanian Government; and also a few private bus services. Like many large cities, Hobart once operated passenger tram services, a trolleybus network consisting of six routes which operated until 1968. However, the tramway closed in the early 1960s. The tracks are still visible in the older streets of Hobart. Suburban passenger trains, run by the Tasmanian Government Railways, were closed in 1974 and the intrastate passenger service, the Tasman Limited, ceased running in 1979. Recently though there has been a large push from the city and increasingly large portion of government to re-establish a fast, efficient eco friendly Light rail network along existing tracks in a North South corridor to help relieve the ever constant jamming of traffic from commuters relying solely on cars.
The main arterial routes within the urban area are the Brooker Highway to Glenorchy and the northern suburbs, the Tasman Bridge and Bowen Bridge across the river to Rosny and the Eastern Shore. The East Derwent Highway to Lindisfarne, Geilston Bay, and Northwards to Brighton, the South Arm Highway leading to Howrah, Rokeby, Lauderdale and Opossum Bay and the Southern Outlet south to Kingston and the D'Entrecasteaux Channel. Leaving the city, motorists can travel the Lyell Highway to the west coast, Midland Highway to Launceston and the north, Tasman Highway to the east coast, or the Huon Highway to the far south.
Ferry services from Hobart's Eastern Shore into the city were once a common form of public transportation, but with lack of government funding, as well as a lack of interest from the private sector, there has been the demise of a regular commuter ferry service – leaving Hobart's commuters relying solely on travel by automobiles and buses. There is however a water taxi service operating from the Eastern Shore into Hobart which provides an alternative to the Tasman Bridge.
Hobart is served by Hobart International Airport with flights to/from Melbourne (Qantas, Virgin Blue, Jetstar, and Tiger Airways); Sydney (Qantas, Jetstar, and Virgin Blue); Brisbane (Virgin Blue); Adelaide (Virgin Blue and Tiger Airways); and Canberra (Virgin Blue). The smaller Cambridge Aerodrome mainly serves small charter airlines offering local tourist flights. In the past decade, Hobart International Airport received a huge upgrade, with the airport now being a first class airport facility. In 2009, it was announced that Hobart Airport would receive more upgrades, upgrades including a first floor, aerobridges (currently, passengers must walk on the tarmac), Shopping facilities, possible new flights to Asia and New Zealand and possible new national flights to Darwin, Cairns and Perth, A second runway is possible to be underway in the next 15 years to assist with growing passenger numbers to Hobart. Hobart Control Tower may be renovated and fitted with new radar equipment and the airport's carpark may be extended further. Also, new facilities will be built just outside the airport, with a new service station, hotel and day care centre already been built and the road leading to the airport has been maintained and re-sealed.
Notable residents[edit | edit source]
- Errol Flynn - actor
- Mary Donaldson - Crown Princess of Denmark
- Alec Campbell - longest surviving war veteran from the Battle of Gallipoli
- Arthur Higgins - A pioneering cinematographer during the silent era.
- Royce Hart - Australian Rules Footballer, member of the AFL Hall of Fame with legend status and member of the Team of the Century
- Ian Stewart - Australian Rules Footballer who played 127 games for St. Kilda including the clubs first (and thus far only) Premiership in 1966, he is also a member of the AFL Hall of Fame with legend status
- Roy Cazaly - Australian Rules Footballer who died in 1963 in Hobart, member of the AFL Hall of Fame
- Peter Hudson - Australian Rules Footballer, considered one of the greatest full-forwards in the game's history, when playing for Glenorchy he kicked an amazing 616 goals in just 81 games with some records stating he instead kicked 769 goals, he is also a member of the AFL Hall of Fame
- Peter 'Percy' Jones - played 249 games for the Carlton Blues in the VFL
- Max Walker - Australian Rules Footballer and Australian cricketer and is currently a media commentator and motivational speaker
- Alastair Lynch - Australian Rules Foootballer who played 306 game for Fitzroy, Brisbane Bears and the Brisbane Lions, including the 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 Grand Finals
- Rodney Eade - Australian Rules Footballer and current head coach of the Western Bulldogs
- Ricky Ponting - Australian cricketer,current Test and ODI Captain
- Brendon Gale - former Australian Rules Footballer and is the current CEO of the Richmond Football Club
- Nick Riewoldt - Australian Rules Footballer, current captain of the St. Kilda Football Club
- Tim Paine - Australian cricketer and current member of the Tasmanian Tigers
- Charles Wooley - journalist, most famous for his role on Channel Nine's 60 Minutes
- Peter Conrad - academic and author of Christ Church, Oxford
- Alexander Pearce - convict and cannibal
Sister cities[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ^ a b "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2007-08". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 23 April 2009. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/3218.02007-08?OpenDocument. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (17 March 2008). "Explore Your City Through the 2006 Census Social Atlas Series". http://abs.gov.au/websitedbs/d3310114.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/45b3371f4a681356ca25740e007c92bf!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
- ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. p. 465. ISBN 0 876429 37 2.
- ^ Frank Bolt, The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804, ISBN 0 975 71660 3
- ^ Parliament of Tasmania – House of Assembly Standing Orders "We acknowledge the traditional people of the land upon which we meet today, the Mouheneener people."
- ^ Australian Bureau of Meteorology
- ^ "Climate Data". BoM. http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_094029_All.shtml. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
- ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Greater Hobart (Statistical Division)". 2006 Census QuickStats. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/LocationSearch?collection=Census&period=2006&areacode=605&producttype=QuickStats&breadcrumb=PL&action=401. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
- ^ Damien Brown (2009-08-25). "New suburb planned Tasmania News - The Mercury - The Voice of Tasmania". The Mercury. http://www.themercury.com.au/article/2009/08/25/93041_tasmania-news.html. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- ^ Religious Affiliation (broad groups) by Sex – Greater Hobart
- ^ "Welcome to The Baha'i Centre of Learning for Tasmania". Tasbcl. http://www.tasbcl.com.au/. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- ^ http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/58097/Country-information-Australia.html}
- ^ Collyer, Sam (2008-08-05). "Potential Antarctic boost for Hobart port". Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News (Informa Australia Pty Ltd). http://www.lloydslistdcn.com.au/informaoz/LLDCN/news/daily-news/1217861971938/Potential-Antarctic-boost-for-Hobart-port.html. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
- ^ Bell, John. "Spoilt for choice with wine", The Courier-Mail, 19 May 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- ^ State Cinema
- ^ a b  Hobart City Council - Sister Cities (Retrieved August 16, 2009)
- ^ "Hobart offers condolences to Italian sister city L’Aquila severely damaged by earthquake". Hobart City Council. 07-04-2009. http://www.hobartcity.com.au/hccwr/_assets/main/lib60034/l%27aquila%20earthquake-hcc%20media%20release%20_2_.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Frank Bolt (2004), The Founding of Hobart 1803–1804 Peregrine Pty Ltd, Kettering Tasmania. ISBN 0-9757166-0-3
- Peter Timms (2009), In Search of Hobart, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney (NSW). ISBN 978-1-921410-54-3 (hbk.)
[edit | edit source]
- Hobart City Council
- Images of the city from Rose Bay High School Live from the School
- Satellite image from Google Maps
- Street map from Whereis.com
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