Biography

Himiltrude was born circa 742 in (Westphalia) and died circa 780 of unspecified causes. She married Charlemagne (747-814) .

Charlemagne's first relationship was with Himiltrude. The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage, a legal marriage, or a Friedelehe. (Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata of the Lombards.) The union with Himiltrude produced a son:

  1. Pippin the Hunchback (c769-811) - his fame was eclipsed by Charlemagne's sons from his later marriage to Hildegard of Vingauw . Following an attempted rebellion against his father, Pepin was confined to a monastery.

Research notes

Little is known about Himiltrude's origins. Paulus Diaconus calls her a "noble girl".[1] The appearance of her name in the fraternity books of Alemannian monasteries may suggest an affiliation with the Germanic Alemannian or Alsatian nobility,[2] while other sources make her the daughter of a Burgundian count and a granddaughter of Grimbert I, Count of Paris. It is not possible, however, to extrapolate any political ramifications from Charlemagne's relationship with Himiltrude.[1]

Himiltrude probably entered into a relationship with Charlemagne during the lifetime of his father, Pepin the Younger.[1] When Charlemagne acceded to the throne in 768, Himiltrude remained unnamed in official sources – contrary to the example set by Charlemagne's mother, Bertrada of Laon.[1] Himiltrude bore Charles a son called Pépin. Shortly after Pepin's birth, an alliance was formulated between Charlemagne and the King of the Lombards, Desiderius. To seal the alliance, it was agreed that Charlemagne should marry Desiderius' daughter (called Desiderata by modern scholars).

Himiltrude was dismissed at that time and disappears from historical records. A grave excavated in the monastery of Nivelles was found to contain the corpse of a forty-year-old woman, possibly identifiable with Himiltrude. If so, Himiltrude would appear to have died long after 770, although if and when she retired to Nivelles cannot be deduced.[1]

Her son Pépin, who suffered from a spinal deformity and was called "the Hunchback", was eclipsed by Charlemagne's sons from his later marriage to Hildegard. Following an attempted rebellion against his father, Pepin was confined to a monastery.[1]

Marital status

The nature of Himiltrude's relationship to Charlemagne is a matter of dispute. Charlemagne's biographer Einhard calls her a "concubine"[3] and Paulus Diaconus speaks of Pippin's birth "before legal marriage",[1] whereas a letter by Pope Stephen III refers to Charlemagne and his brother Carloman as being already married (to Himiltrude and Gerberga), and advises them not to dismiss their wives.[1]

Historians have interpreted the information in different ways. Some, such as Pierre Riché, follow Einhard in describing Himiltrude as a concubine.[4] Others, Dieter Hägemann for example, consider Himiltrude a wife in the full sense.[2] Still others subscribe to the idea that the relationship between the two was "something more than concubinage, less than marriage" and describe it as a Friedelehe, a supposed form of marriage unrecognized by the Church and easily dissolvable. This form of relationship is often seen in a conflict between Christian marriage and more flexible Germanic concepts.[1]

Daughter Amaudru

Amaudru (c770); three recorded children; and later generations Not mentioned by several researchers, including Medieval Lands. Some say she may be confused with a niece or another daughter. Medieval Lands lists a daughter (by an unnamed mistress "2") "CHROTHAIS [Rotaïde] ([784]-after 800, maybe after 814)" then refers to her as "Ruodhaidem"; but despite the name and birth date similarity that site shows her as distinct from Madelgard's daughter. Reference to her mother on Die Genealogie der Franken und Frankreichs, noted by Wikipedia, says she later married a Count of Paris.




Children



Offspring of Himiltrude and Charlemagne (747-814)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Pippin the Hunchback (c769-811) 769 811 Prüm
Amaudru (c770-)










See Also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Silvia Konecny, Die Frauen des karolingischen Königshauses. Die politische Bedeutung der Ehe und die Stellung der Frau in der fränkischen Herrscherfamilie vom 7. bis zum 10. Jahrhundert., p. 65 Script error: No such module "webarchive"..
  2. ^ a b Dieter Hägermann, Karl der Große. Herrscher des Abendlands, Ullstein 2003, p. 82f.
  3. ^ Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, ch. 20
  4. ^ Pierre Riché, The Carolingians, p.86.


Footnotes (including sources)

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